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This study has confirmed the link between ECL cell hyperplasia and elevated serum gastrin concentrations, but has found no evidence that this progresses to high grades of hyperplasia during 5 years of treatment with rabeprazole or omeprazole.
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Rabeprazole is a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) presenting a very advantageous pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profile over older PPIs. In particular, this drug has a very fast onset of action, due to a short activation time and a very high pKa, and may therefore be defined as a 'second generation' PPI. The aim of this article is to provide an update on the pharmacology and clinical profile of rabeprazole and its use in acid-related disorders, with a particular focus on its role in gastroesophageal reflux disease; in the treatment and prevention of duodenal and gastric ulcers and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome; in the therapy of the extraesophageal manifestations of gastroesophageal reflux disease (in particular the respiratory and ear, nose and throat ones); and in the eradication of Helicobacter pylori.
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In the present paper the increasing difficulty of diagnosis of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) due to issues raised in two recent papers is discussed. These issues involve the difficulty and need to withdraw patients suspected of ZES from treatment with Proton Pump Inhibitors (omeprazole, esomeprazole, lansoprazole, rabeprazole, pantoprazole) and the unreliability of many gastrin radioimmunoassays. The clinical context of each of these important issues is reviewed and the conclusions in these articles commented from the perspective of clinical management.
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Treatment with rabeprazole is expected to ameliorate asthma in non-steroid-dependent patients who have symptomatic GER defined by the QUEST score.
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Data are limited about the value of skin tests in the diagnosis of proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-induced hypersensitivity reactions and the cross-reactivity between PPIs. We aimed to assess the role of skin testing in the diagnosis of PPI-related immediate hypersensitivity reactions and the cross-reactivity patterns among PPIs.
Palatability of the formulation was reported to be good or excellent. Rabeprazole was well tolerated, with no notable differences in safety among the dose groups.
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Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) are recommended for patients who require antiplatelet therapy and have a history of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Proton-pump inhibitors should also be considered for patients receiving antiplatelet therapy who have other risk factors for gastrointestinal bleeding, including use of aspirin. Thus, evidence of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions between PPIs and consequent impaired effectiveness of the antiplatelet agent clopidogrel has caused concern. Here, we discuss comparative studies suggesting that the extent to which a PPI reduces exposure to the active metabolite of clopidogrel and attenuates its antithrombotic effect differs among PPIs. Although a clinically meaningful effect of the interaction between PPIs and clopidogrel on cardiovascular outcomes has not been established, these studies provided the basis for recent changes in US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) labeling for several PPIs and clopidogrel. New labeling suggests that PPI use among patients taking clopidogrel be limited to pantoprazole, rabeprazole, lansoprazole, or dexlansoprazole. Because comparative studies indicate that omeprazole and esomeprazole have a greater effect on the CYP2C19-mediated conversion of clopidogrel to its active metabolite and, consequently, clopidogrel's effect on platelet reactivity, FDA labeling recommends avoiding omeprazole and esomeprazole in patients taking clopidogrel. Even a 12-hour separation of dosing does not appear to prevent drug interactions between omeprazole and clopidogrel.
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Sleep dysfunction defined as a PSQI score >5.5 was found in 70 (52.2%) of the GERD patients. NERD was significantly associated with sleep dysfunction compared to erosive reflux disease (OR 2.18, 95% CI 1.05-4.53). However, other factors, including nighttime heartburn, were not associated with sleep dysfunction. Rabeprazole treatment significantly decreased both the FSSG and the PSQI score.
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Ideally, treatment of ECP should be aimed at correcting the underlying mechanism(s) and relieving symptoms. Proton pump inhibitors, antidepressants, theophylline, and cognitive behavioral therapy appear to be useful for the treatment of ECP. However, there is urgent and unmet need for effective treatments and for rigorous, randomized controlled trials.
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Mean area under the intragastric pH-time curve (AUC) was significantly higher after dosing with rabeprazole 20 mg than with pantoprazole 40 mg in all time intervals analysed, including night (P = 0.02). Mean percentage time with pH > 3 and >4 was significantly greater after rabeprazole than pantoprazole in all time intervals (P = 0.004).
Proton pump inhibitors have become one of the cornerstones in the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection. Rabeprazole (Pariet) is a substituted benzimidazole proton pump inhibitor with potent gastric acid suppression properties. Its high acid-base dissociation constant allows activation over a broader pH range, resulting in quick, irreversible binding to the H+/K+-ATPase pump, and a more rapid onset of action compared with omeprazole, lansoprazole and pantoprazole. Unlike other proton pump inhibitors, the metabolism of rabeprazole is primarily via a nonenzymatic reduction to the thioether derivative, and the cytochrome P450 isoenzyme 2C19 is only partly involved in its metabolism. The effect of genetic polymorphism in cytochrome P450 isoenzyme 2C19 on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of rabeprazole is therefore limited. In humans, once-daily dosing of 5-40 mg of rabeprazole inhibits gastric acid secretion in a dose-dependent manner. In vitro studies have shown that rabeprazole possesses more potent antibacterial properties against the growth of H. pylori than other proton pump inhibitors. Furthermore, its thioether derivative has more potent inhibitory in vitro activity against the growth and motility of clarithromycin-resistant H. pylori than other proton pump inhibitors or commonly used antimicrobials. Despite these inherent favorable characteristics of rabeprazole, randomized controlled trials have largely shown equivalence amongst proton pump inhibitors when used with two antibiotics in the eradication of H. pylori, with cure rates of 75-89% on an intent-to-treat basis. However, rabeprazole appears to consistently achieve such comparable eradication rates even when used at reduced doses (10 mg twice daily) as part of clarithromycin-based triple therapy.
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The influence of CYP2C19 on the kinetics and dynamics of omeprazole, lansoprazole and rabeprazole has been studied in Japanese subjects. * It has been suggested that subjects with *1/*1 genotype might need stronger acid suppression than *1/*2 and *2/*2 subjects. This suggestion comes from data in Japanese subjects and has not been confirmed in Caucasians. * Furthermore, a novel CYP2C19 mutation, *17, which mainly occurs in Caucasians has been discovered. This mutation has been associated with clinical failure, but its relevance for therapy with PPIs has not been studied yet.
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To test the efficacy of a standard triple therapy plus bovine lactoferrin in the eradication of H. pylori infection.
This study used claims data to identify continuously enrolled subjects diagnosed with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and newly treated with a PPI between Oct. 1, 1999 and March 31, 2000. Data were analyzed for 6 months following PPI initiation. Results were stratified by first PPI filled during the study period. Compliance (as measured by a medication-possession ratio), dosage escalation (> 25 percent of initial dose), and daily average consumption (DACON) were measured. Regression analysis was performed on GERD-related costs using treatment patterns, type of PPI drug, and compliance as independent variables of interest.
Proton pump inhibitors owe their clinical efficacy to their ability to suppress gastric acid production. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare intragastric pH following standard doses of esomeprazole, lansoprazole, omeprazole, pantoprazole and rabeprazole.
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Six homozygous extensive metabolizers (homEMs), six heterozygous extensive metabolizers (hetEMs) and six poor metabolizers (PMs) were recruited for the study from a total of 90 healthy Chinese volunteers whose CYP2C19 genotype status was determined by means of PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). The study was had an open label, randomized, three-way crossover design. After a single oral dose of 40 mg omeprazole, 30 mg lansoprazole or 40 mg rabeprazole, plasma concentrations of the three PPIs were determined by HPLC.
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Standard dosing (i.e. once daily) of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) cannot inhibit acid secretion for a full 24 h. Better therapeutic regimens using PPIs are required to sustain potent acid inhibition for the full 24 h in all patients with acid-related diseases.
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To compare the effectiveness of esomeprazole with the recommended dose of proton pump inhibitors in the healing of reflux oesophagitis, using omeprazole as a common comparator.
PEAR is present in almost one third of FD patients; the prevalence is ∼50% in those with epigastric burning. The "PPI test" has a limited value in distinguishing the FD patients with and those without PEAR.
The study was designed in a prospective, national, multicentre nature. Sixty-five patients with a suggestive history of a PPI-induced immediate hypersensitivity reaction and 30 control subjects were included. Standardized skin prick and intradermal tests were carried out with a panel of PPIs. Single-blind, placebo-controlled oral provocation tests (OPTs) with the PPIs other than the culprit PPI that displayed negative results in skin tests (n = 61) and diagnostic OPTs with the suspected PPI (n = 12) were performed.
Of 58,605 unique patients seen in this VA health care system in the 12-month period from July 1, 2008, through June 30, 2009, 13,713 (23.4%) received a PPI, and of these, 10,483 (76.4%) received at least 120 PPI units and were defined as long-term users. Of the long-term users, 9,462 (90.3%) were on the formulary PPI generic omeprazole, and 1,021 were nonformulary PPI users. Use of nonformulary PPIs (esomeprazole, pantoprazole, lansoprazole, rabeprazole) accounted for 10.5% of the PPI units and 9.7% of the users but 57.3% of total PPI cost. This pattern resulted in $570,263 in excess spending (i.e., $570,263 would have been saved in the study period if the nonformulary PPI users had used the formulary drug). The most common reason for nonformulary long-term PPI use was persistent symptoms (n=901, 88.2%). Adverse reaction was cited by 111 (10.9%) of nonformulary PPI users, 33.3% (n=37) of whom reported diarrhea. Of those who switched to a nonformulary PPI due to persistent symptoms, 363 (40.3%) were on once-daily dosing prior to the switch; 379 (42.1%) were on twice-daily dosing; and 159 (17.6%) were transfers from other places in which prior dosing information was not available in the hospital pharmacy records.
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The subjects were 20 male volunteers without Helicobacter pylori infection. Their CYP2C19 genotype status was determined by a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Twenty-four-hour monitoring of intragastric acidity was performed three times: once without medication, once on the last day of a 7-day course of rabeprazole, and once on the last day of a 7-day course of lansoprazole.
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Gastric acid plays an important role in the pathogenesis of gastric mucosal lesions. We investigated whether aspirin-induced gastric mucosal injury might have any association with the intragastric pH.
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One hundred and eighty-three patients were randomized to receive one of the following regimens: amoxicillin 500 mg t.i.d., clarithromycin 200 mg t.i.d., and PPI (omeprazole 20 mg, lansoprazole 30 mg, or rabeprazole 10 mg) b.i.d. CYP2C19 polymorphism was analyzed by PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism.