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Acute bacterial parotitis is a rare infectious disease in infants under 3 months of age.
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A total of 8954 records were screened, 224 full-text articles were retrieved, and 74 articles (describing 68 studies) met the inclusion criteria and were mapped. No evidence focused on treatment of children with SAM who were human immunodeficiency virus sero-positive, and no good-quality or adequately reported studies assessed treatments for SAM among infants < 6 months old. One randomised controlled trial investigated fluid resuscitation solutions for shock, with none adequately treating shock. Children with acute diarrhoea benefited from the use of hypo-osmolar oral rehydration solution (H-ORS) compared with the standard World Health Organization-oral rehydration solution (WHO-ORS). WHO-ORS was not significantly different from rehydration solution for malnutrition (ReSoMal), but the safety of ReSoMal was uncertain. A rice-based ORS was more beneficial than glucose-based ORSs, and provision of zinc plus a WHO-ORS had a favourable impact on diarrhoea and need for ORS. Comparisons of different diets in children with persistent diarrhoea produced conflicting findings. For treating infection, comparison of amoxicillin with ceftriaxone during inpatient therapy, and routine provision of antibiotics for 7 days versus no antibiotics during outpatient therapy of uncomplicated SAM, found that neither had a significant effect on recovery at the end of follow-up. No evidence mapped to the next three questions on factors that affect sustainability of programmes, long-term survival and readmission rates, the clinical effectiveness of management strategies for treating children with comorbidities such as tuberculosis and Helicobacter pylori infection and the factors that limit the full implementation of treatment programmes. Comparison of treatment for SAM in different settings showed that children receiving inpatient care appear to do as well as those in ambulatory or home settings on anthropometric measures and response time to treatment. Longer-term follow-up showed limited differences between the different settings. The majority of evidence on methods for correcting micronutrient deficiencies considered zinc supplements; however, trials were heterogeneous and a firm conclusion about zinc was not reached. There was limited evidence on either supplementary potassium or nicotinic acid (each produced some benefits), and nucleotides (not associated with benefits). Evidence was identified for four of the five remaining questions, but not assessed because of resource limitation.
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Osteoarticular listeriosis primarily involves prosthetic joints and occurs in immunocompromised patients. It requires intensive treatment with antibiotherapy and usually requires implant removal or replacement for cure.
To compare the effectiveness and security of levofloxacin treatment in front betalactamic therapy in patient with community-acquired pneumonia that require hospitalization (CAPH).
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Levofloxacin-based and sequential therapy are superior to standard triple scheme as first-line regimens in a setting with high clarithromycin resistance. However, all of these therapies still have a 20% failure rate.
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Breast surgery is classified among the procedures performed in clean surgery and is associated with a low incidence of wound infection (3-15%). The objective of this study was to evaluate the advantages antibiotic prophylaxis in patients undergoing breast surgery. A multicenter randomized controlled study was performed between January 2008 and November 2008. One thousand four hundred patients were enrolled in prospective randomized study; surgical wound infection was found in 41 patients (2.93%). In our RCT we have shown that in breast surgery antibiotic prophylaxis does not present significant advantages in patients with potential risk of infection (17 patients, 2.42%, subjected to antibiotic prophylaxis vs 24 patients, 3.43%, without antibiotic prophylaxis) (P = 0.27). In patients with drainage there is a significant minor incidence of wound infections in patients receiving antibiotic prophylaxis (5 patients, 0.92%, subjected to antibiotic prophylaxis vs 14 patients, 3.09%, without antibiotic prophylaxis) (P = 0.02).
The ETC included 103 patients (BLBLI, 72; carbapenem, 31), and the DTC included 174 (BLBLI, 54; carbapenem, 120). Mortality rates at day 30 for those treated with BLBLI versus carbapenems were 9.7% versus 19.4% for the ETC and 9.3% versus 16.7% for the DTC, respectively (P > .2, log-rank test). After adjustment for confounders, no association was found between either empirical therapy with BLBLI (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], .29-4.40; P = .84) or definitive therapy (adjusted HR, 0.76; 95% CI, .28-2.07; P = .5) and increased mortality. Furthermore, BLBLI therapy, with respect to carbapenem, was not found to influence length of hospital stay.
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Complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSIs) are an important healthcare concern worldwide, as they can be life-threatening and challenging to treat. cSSSIs are normally managed using a combination of surgical intervention and prompt antibiotic use. New therapeutic options, including novel antibiotics, are required to improve outcomes in terms of duration of illness and to reduce the consumption of healthcare resources.
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To determine the effectiveness of sequential therapy compared with standard triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication in children.
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In terms of MIC, MBC and bactericidal curve of 135 bacterial strains, Anqi was superior to the other same-kind antibiotics without beta-lactamase inhibitor, this effect was especially obvious on Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli which can produce extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs). The cost-effectiveness of the consecutive therapy group was the best.
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The patient had no previous medical history. He contracted systemic leptospirosis when swimming in a lake contaminated with the urine of infected animals. As his leptospirosis symptoms resolved with doxycycline, he experienced increasing thoracolumbar spine pain, because of salmonella vertebral osteomyelitis, which responded to amoxicillin.
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Leptospirosis is the most common zoonosis worldwide, although most cases occur in tropical countries. Leptospira interrogans, a spirochete, is the causative agent. Rats are the main reservoir. Most patients present a mild clinical form of the disease, which consists of a self-limited febrile process, without jaundice. Nevertheless, about 10% of patients suffer severe infections, with intense jaundice. Typically the disease manifests in two phases: acute or leptospiremic and immune or leptospiuric, although in many patients the two phases are indistinguishable, and in mild cases the second one is frequently absent. Diagnosis is carried out by serology or culture of the microorganism. Treatment consists of antibiotics such as penicillin G, ceftriaxone, doxycycline or amoxicillin.
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The prescribing and dispensing practices in the health facilities are fairly good and are not that far from the standard WHO requirements. However, there is a need to do more on some issues, including prescribing practice of antibiotics, average number of medicines per prescription, and patients' dosage form knowledge.
Although antibiotic treatment for Lyme disease is effective in the majority of cases, especially during the early phase of the disease, a minority of patients suffer from post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS). It is unclear what mechanisms drive this problem, and although slow or ineffective killing of Borrelia burgdorferi has been suggested as an explanation, there is a lack of evidence that viable organisms are present in PTLDS. Although not a clinical surrogate, insight may be gained by examining stationary-phase in vitro Borrelia burgdorferi persisters that survive treatment with the antibiotics doxycycline and amoxicillin. To identify drug candidates that can eliminate B. burgdorferi persisters more effectively, we screened an Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drug library consisting of 1524 compounds against stationary-phase B. burgdorferi by using a newly developed high throughput SYBR Green I/propidium iodide (PI) assay. We identified 165 agents approved for use in other disease conditions that had more activity than doxycycline and amoxicillin against B. burgdorferi persisters. The top 27 drug candidates from the 165 hits were confirmed to have higher anti-persister activity than the current frontline antibiotics. Among the top 27 confirmed drug candidates from the 165 hits, daptomycin, clofazimine, carbomycin, sulfa drugs (e.g., sulfamethoxazole), and certain cephalosporins (e.g. cefoperazone) had the highest anti-persister activity. In addition, some drug candidates, such as daptomycin and clofazimine (which had the highest activity against non-growing persisters), had relatively poor activity or a high minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) against growing B. burgdorferi. Our findings may have implications for the development of a more effective treatment for Lyme disease and for the relief of long-term symptoms that afflict some Lyme disease patients.
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We concluded that the administration of nasal beclomethasone spray as an adjuvant for the treatment of OME not only improved the results treatment but also increased the resolution of symptoms and the patients' quality of hearing.
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We conducted a 10 year retrospective study based on positive synovial fluid cultures and discharge diagnosis of septic arthritis in adult patients. Microbiology results and medical records were reviewed.
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Outbreaks of serious pneumococcal disease can occur with high attack rates in certain settings. We systematically reviewed studies of interventions implemented in pneumococcal clusters and those reporting the effect of antibiotics on carriage reduction to assess the effectiveness of interventions. Evidence was graded according to the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network system. Of 28 identified cluster reports, one showed that administration of antibiotics to close contacts reduced risk of pneumococcal disease. In three of four clusters where rifampicin chemoprophylaxis was used and in four of five clusters where penicillin was used no further cases were seen after intervention. In clusters where pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine was used, subsequent cases occurred, all within around 2 weeks of vaccination, which suggests delayed benefit with this approach (evidence grade D). Use of infection control measures alone was reported in eight clusters, with no further cases being reported in seven (grade D). From 21 selected carriage studies, large carriage reductions were observed consistently with use of penicillin and azithromycin, with median values being 90% and 73%, respectively (grade C). The findings were presented to a working group for pneumococcal cluster guidelines and used to develop key recommendations on the management of clusters that supported prompt use of amoxicillin or azithromycin chemoprophylaxis, pneumococcal vaccination for close contacts, and implementation of infection control measures.
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Patients who failed in the H pylori eradication therapy for at least one course were randomly allocated into three groups. Group A received rebaprazole 10 mg + amoxicillin 1 g + furazolidone 100 mg, and bismuth subcitrate 220 mg, twice daily for 1 wk; group B received the same regimen of group A but for 2 wk; and group C received the same regimen of group B, but furazolidone was replaced by furazolidone 100 mg three times daily. To record the side effect profiles at the end of the treatment, H pylori eradication was assessed with (13)C-urea breath test 4 wk after therapy.
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Thermophilic Campylobacters are major causes of gastroenteritis in human. The main risk factor of infection is consumption of contaminated or by cross-contaminated poultry meat. In Côte d'Ivoire, gastroenteritis is usually observed but no case of human campylobacteriosis has been formally reported to date. The aims of this study were to determine prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from chickens ceaca in commercial slaughter in Abidjan. Between May and November 2009, one hundred and nineteen (119) chicken caeca samples were collected and analyzed by passive filtration method followed by molecular identification (PCR). From these 119 samples, 76 (63.8%) were positive to Campylobacter tests. Among the positive colonies, 51.3% were C. jejuni and 48.7% were C. coli. Of the 39 C. jejuni isolates, 79.5%, 38.5%, 17.9%, 10.3%, and 7.7% were, respectively, resistant, to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin, erythromycin, and gentamicin. Among the 37 isolates of C. coli, 78.4%, 43.2%, 13.5%, 8.1%, and 0% were resistant, respectively, to the same antibiotics. In conclusion, we reported in this study the presence of high Campylobacter contamination of the studied chickens. Molecular identification of the bacteria was performed and determination of high resistance to antimicrobials of the fluoroquinolone family was revealed.
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The purpose of this study was to investigate microbiological and histopathological features of canine acral lick dermatitis (ALD). Microbial characteristics of ALD are poorly described in current literature. If infection is recognized, antimicrobial selection is usually empirical, based on appearance, cytology or surface culture, rather than deep tissue culture. It was hypothesized that cultures obtained from deep tissue would yield different results than predicted by surface culture and cytology, and that isolates from ALD have unpredictable susceptibility patterns showing resistance to antibiotics routinely administered for canine pyoderma. Biopsies were obtained from 31 lesions and submitted for aerobic, anaerobic and fungal culture, and histopathological evaluation. Surface aerobic culture and susceptibility and cytology were obtained for comparison in 22 dogs. Skin scrapings and dermatophyte culture were performed. Bacteria were isolated in 30 of 31 cases. Staphylococcus intermedius was isolated in 58% of deep cultures. Twenty per cent of deep isolates were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus species. Forty-eight per cent of cases yielded organisms defined as multidrug resistant on deep culture. Only 57% and 55% of bacteria isolated from tissue culture were sensitive to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and cefazolin, respectively. Cytology and superficial cultures did not correlate well with deep cultures. Surface culture predicted deep tissue isolates in eight of 22 cases. Microsporum gypseum was isolated from one dog. Histopathological features included acanthosis, follicular elongation, lymphoplasmacytic dermal inflammation, folliculitis, furunculosis, perihidradenitis, hidradenitis and vertical streaking fibrosis. Lesions associated with ALD warrant tissue bacterial cultures as the majority of cases yielded positive growth of bacteria differing from superficial culture and often resistant to empirical drugs.
To evaluate an intervention to increase the proportion of medicines prescribed as sugar-free formulations by general practitioners.
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The strategy of administering a first dose of antibiotics and referring based solely on the clinical evaluation of a TBA is feasible and could be effective in reducing neonatal mortality in remote rural settings.
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The main outcome measures were clinical, bacteriological, and radiological responses at the end of therapy (day 12-14) and follow-up (day 24-30) visits.
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One-hundred patients were included: 50 received the ranitidine bismuth citrate regimen, and 50 the levofloxacin one. Groups were comparable in terms of demographic variables. Two percent of the patients (one in each group) did not return for follow up. Compliance was similar in both groups (90% took all the medications correctly). Side-effects (only mild/moderate) in the two groups were also comparable (38% with ranitidine bismuth citrate and 36% with levofloxacin). Per-protocol cure rates were 69% (95% CI = 54-80%) in the ranitidine bismuth citrate group, and 71% (57-82%) in the levofloxacin one. Intention-to-treat cure rates were, respectively, 68% (59-79%) and 68% (59-79%) (nonstatistically significant differences).
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Twenty-one Turkish studies including 1059 H. pylori strains were included in this review. The overall primary antibiotic resistance rates of H. pylori strains isolated in Turkey were as follows: amoxicillin 3 (0.971%), clarithromycin 425 (24.864%), metronidazole 75 (33.747%), tetracycline 2 (3.511%), and levofloxacin 31 (23.769%).
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Fresh first year roots from Dipsacus sylvestris HUDS. were extracted with 70% ethanol, ethyl acetate as well as dichloromethane. Extracts were solubilized in water (lipophilic extracts with addition of polysorbate 80) and tested for their activity against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto in vitro during an eight-day period using amoxicillin as standard. The hydroethanolic extract showed no growth inhibition whereas significant growth inhibiting activity could be shown in the two less polar fractions for the first time. Strongest inhibition was found in the ethyl acetate extract. The effect of polysorbate 80 on bacterial growth was examined and found to be negligible. As the nature of bioactive constituents has not been clarified yet, a micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography fingerprint analysis for a methanolic extract was applied including loganin, chlorogenic acid, cantleyoside and caffeic acid as marker substances.
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The addition of CS-L to PLX causes an increase in PLX gelation temperature from 30 °C to the physiological temperature. The dilution with simulated vaginal fluid causes an increase in gelation time of PLX/CS-L mixture, while no variation of such parameter is observed for CS-L/GP mixture which is nevertheless characterized by poorer elastic properties. The stronger mucoadhesion properties of CS-L/GP mixture counterbalance the poorer elasticity of the gel and are responsible for a longer drug contact with the biological substrate. CS-L/GP mixture is moreover characterized by better bioactive properties than PLX-based mixture.
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The standard set did not satisfy the test in 82% of the assessed drug combinations. The Edelvaiss Multiline-8 was able to prevent the occurrence of drug incompatibilities in 49% of the drug combinations tested. This device is therefore advantageous, especially when simultaneously infusing two or four incompatible drugs.