IFS causes important changes in the micturition physiology in rats, and the inhibition of the isoenzyme COX-2 could be an important event that could prevent the detrimental effects elicited by IFS-induced hemorrhagic cystitis.
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Osteoblasts were cultured from femoral heads obtained from five young otherwise healthy patients undergoing total hip replacement. The cells were cultured using techniques that have been previously described. A full factorial design was used to set up the experiment on samples obtained from the five donors. Normal therapeutic concentrations of the various DMARDs were added alone and in combination to the media. The cell proliferation was estimated after two weeks using spectrophotometric technique using Roche Cell proliferation Kit. Multilevel regression analysis was used to estimate which drugs or combination of drugs significantly affected cell proliferation.
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To evaluate the risk of first myocardial infarction (MI) associated with the use of various non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in the general population.
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The effect of hepatic insufficiency on the pharmacokinetics of etoricoxib, a selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2, was investigated following administration of single and multiple oral doses to mild hepatic insufficiency patients (Child-Pugh score of 5 to 6), multiple oral doses to moderate hepatic insufficiency patients (Child-Pugh score of 7 to 9), and single intravenous doses to both mild and moderate hepatic insufficiency patients. A trend of decreasing systemic clearance with increasing hepatic impairment was observed. Absorption of etoricoxib was unaffected by hepatic impairment. Binding of etoricoxib to plasma proteins was also found to be unaffected by hepatic disease. Etoricoxib was generally well tolerated by patients with mild and moderate hepatic insufficiency. Together, these results support a 60-mg once-daily dosing regimen for mild hepatic insufficiency patients and a 60-mg every-other-day dosing regimen for moderate hepatic insufficiency patients. There are no clinical or pharmacokinetic data in patients with severe hepatic insufficiency (Child-Pugh score > 9).
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The least squares (LS) mean (95% CI) differences from placebo for Pain Intensity Difference at Rest over Days 1-3 were -0.54 (-0.95, -0.14); -0.49 (-0.89, -0.08); and -0.45 (-0.85, -0.04) for etoricoxib 90 mg, etoricoxib 120 mg, and ibuprofen, respectively (p < 0.05 for etoricoxib vs. placebo). Differences in LS Geometric Mean Ratio morphine use over Days 1-3 from placebo were 0.66 (0.54, 0.82); 0.69 (0.56, 0.85); and 0.66 (0.53, 0.81) for etoricoxib 90 mg, etoricoxib 120 mg, and ibuprofen, respectively (p < 0.001 for etoricoxib vs. placebo). Differences in LS Mean Pain Intensity upon Knee Flexion were -0.37 (-0.85, 0.11); -0.46 (-0.94, 0.01); and -0.42 (-0.90, 0.06) for etoricoxib 90 mg, etoricoxib 120 mg, and ibuprofen, respectively. Opioid-related AEs occurred in 41.8%, 34.7%, 36.5%, and 36.3% of patients on placebo, etoricoxib 90 mg, etoricoxib 120 mg, and ibuprofen, respectively.
The enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX) was shown to exist as two distinct isoforms about a decade ago. COX-1 is constitutively expressed as a 'housekeeping' enzyme in nearly all tissues, and mediates physiological responses (e.g. cytoprotection of the stomach, and platelet aggregation). On the other hand, COX-2, expressed by cells involved in inflammation (e.g. macrophages, monocytes, synoviocytes), has emerged as the isoform that is primarily responsible for the synthesis of prostanoids involved in acute and chronic inflammatory states. Consequently, the hypothesis that selective inhibition of COX-2 might have therapeutic actions similar to those of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, but without causing gastrointestinal side effects, was the rationale for the development of selective inhibitors of the COX-2 isoenzyme. Selective COX-2 inhibitors currently used in the clinic are the sulphonamides celecoxib and valdecoxib (parecoxib is a prodrug of valdecoxib), as well as the methylsulphones rofecoxib and etoricoxib. Furthermore, the phenylacetic acid derivative lumiracoxib has gained permission recently to be marketed in Europe. This review discusses the clinically relevant similarities and differences of these substances, with particular emphasis on their diverse pharmacokinetic characteristics.
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The primary outcome measure was the cumulative dose of intravenous and subcutaneous morphine required during the first postoperative 48 h to maintain a 10-point numerical pain rating scale value of 3 or less. Secondary outcomes measures were duration of analgesia from initiation of spinal anaesthesia until the first analgesic requirement and the side-effects of the treatment.
Electronic databases were searched up to November 2003. Industry submissions to the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) in 2003 were also reviewed.
In addition to the determination of clinical symptoms, investigations included radiography of the thorax, spine, hands and feet, arthrosonography, determination of laboratory parameters (including C-reactive protein levels and presence of antibodies against cyclic citrullinated peptide), cytogenetics and electrocardiography.
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Experimental animals were divided into four groups as liver I/R control (LIRC), 50 mg/kg etoricoxib + liver I/R (ETO-50), 100 mg/kg etoricoxib + liver I/R (ETO-100), and healthy group (HG). ETO-50 and ETO-100 groups were administered etoricoxib, while LIRC and HG groups were orally given distilled water by gavage. Hepatic artery was clamped for one hour to provide ischemia, and then reperfusion was provided for 6 hours. Oxidant, antioxidant, and COX-2 gene expressions were studied in the liver tissues. ALT and AST were measured.
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Religious fasting is associated with headache. This has been documented as "Yom Kippur headache" and "first of Ramadan headache." Etoricoxib, a Cox-2 inhibitor with a 22-hour half-life, has been shown effective in preventing fasting headache when taken just prior to the 25-hour Yom Kippur fast. We hypothesized that etoricoxib would also be effective in preventing headache during Ramadan, despite the different characteristics of the fast.
Etoricoxib is a new COX-2 selective inhibitor under development for treatment of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and acute pain. In this study, etoricoxib 120 mg provided rapid and long-lasting pain relief to patients with moderate-to-severe postdental surgery pain. Etoricoxib was generally well tolerated.
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Etoricoxib is a potent selective COX-2 inhibitor in man. Ex vivo whole-blood assays assessed COX-2 inhibition after oral administration of etoricoxib in single (5-500 mg) and multiple (25-150 mg) once-daily doses to healthy human subjects. A separate study examined ex vivo gastric mucosal PGE2 synthesis after etoricoxib (120 mg qd), naproxen (500 mg bid), or placebo for 5 days. The effect of etoricoxib 120 mg qd on the COX-1-mediated antiplatelet effects of low-dose aspirin (ASA) was also assessed. The mean (time)-weighted average inhibition (WAI) of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated PGE2 (COX-2 assay) vcrsus placebo was dose related after single (range: 3.1%-99.1%) and multiple doses (range: 52.5%-96.7%). PGE2 remained significantly inhibited 24 hours postdose at steady state. Inhibition of LPS-stimulated PGE2 showed a strong relationship with etoricoxib plasma concentrations; ex vivo, IC50 was almost identical to in vitro. Multiple dosing of etoricoxib (up to 150 mg qd) showed no important effects on serum TXB2, bleeding time, or platelet aggregation (COX-1-mediated effects). The nonselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) naproxen significantly inhibited (approximately 78%) ex vivo prostaglandin synthesis in gastric mucosa; etoricoxib had no effect. Etoricoxib did not interfere with the antiplatelet effects of low-dose ASA, as assessed by serum TXB2 and platelet aggregation. Etoricoxib was generally well tolerated, even at doses above the clinical dose range. Based on these results, etoricoxib is a potent selective inhibitor of COX-2 after single and multiple dosing regimens and does not inhibit prostaglandin synthesis in the gastric mucosa, even at doses above the clinical dose range of 60 to 120 mg.
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The out-patient pharmacies in Ramallah and Bethlehem, central Palestine, were evaluated for NSAIDs utilization and pattern of prescribing and dispensing of these commonly used medications across the whole country. In our study for this area that accounts for almost 25% of the inhabitants of all Palestine (459, 761 inhabitants according to 2011 census), we analyzed the use of NSAIDs whether were prescribed for the patient or were obtained without a prescription in the period of Sept 1(st) to Nov. 30, 2011. The number of defined daily doses, DDD/1000 inh/day, and the percentage utilization from total were determined and analyzed using the simple ATC/DDD model which was developed by WHO for assessment of quality prescribing of medications. From these data we calculated DU 90% for the drugs described in this study. Using a scale for GI toxicity and risk determination from a meta- analysis of controlled epidemiological studies, we determined the GI risk of the drugs in the study. Ketoprofen and piroxicam were found to be associated with the highest risk, on the other hand ibuprofen and diclofenac were associated with low risk of GI toxicity. The average Price/DDD was also determined for the purpose of comparison with the prices in other European countries. Our findings were both exciting and interesting with the total consumption of NSAIDs over the period of study was 31.26 DDD/1000 inh/day comparing to 51.02 DDD/1000 inh/day in the European countries included in the study. Only 5 drugs fell within DU 90% which are respectively along with their percentage NSAIDs consumption: (ibuprofen; 26.48%, diclofenac; 23.38%, etoricoxib; 21.24%, meloxiocam; 12.19%, and celecoxib; 7.16%). The drugs were obtained mostly by prescription except for the first 2 agents (ibuprofen and diclofenac) which were almost exclusively bought without a prescription as OTC with the pharmacist greatly influence their use and dispensing. The price of purchasing for the top DU 90% agents was almost twice the price in Europe for the same drugs taking into consideration the limitations of our study in determining the equipotency or the equivalency of the DDD doses in Palestine and Europe.
First trimester abortions especially cervical dilation and suction aspiration are associated with pain, despite various methods of pain control.
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[(14)C]Etoricoxib (100 microCi/dose) was administered to six healthy male subjects (i.v., 25 mg; p.o., 100 mg). Following the i.v. dose, the plasma clearance was 57 ml/min, and the harmonic mean half-life was 24.8 h. Etoricoxib accounted for the majority of the radioactivity (approximately 75%) present in plasma following both i.v. and p.o. doses. The oral dose, administered as a solution in polyethylene glycol-400, was well absorbed (absolute bioavailability of approximately 83%). Total recovery of radioactivity in the excreta was 90% (i.v.) and 80% (p.o.), with 70% (i.v.) and 60% (p.o.) excreted in urine and 20% in feces after either route of administration. Radiochromatographic analysis of the excreta revealed that etoricoxib was metabolized extensively, and only a minor fraction of the dose (<1%) was excreted unchanged. Radiochromatograms of urine and feces showed that the 6'-carboxylic acid derivative of etoricoxib was the major metabolite observed (> or =65% of the total radioactivity). 6'-Hydroxymethyl-etoricoxib and etoricoxib-1'-N-oxide, as well as the O-beta-D-glucuronide conjugate and the 1'-N-oxide derivative of 6'-hydroxymethyl-etoricoxib, were present in the excreta also (individually, < or =10% of the total radioactivity). In healthy male subjects, therefore, etoricoxib is well absorbed, is metabolized extensively via oxidation (6'-methyl oxidation >1'-N-oxidation), and the metabolites are excreted largely in the urine.
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The least-squares mean time-weighted change from baseline LBP-IS score over 4 weeks was -32.94 mm (95% CI -36.25, -29.63) for etoricoxib, indicating substantial efficacy in relief of pain. The treatment difference for the primary outcome was 2.51 mm (95% CI -1.50, 6.51), fulfilling the prespecified equivalence criterion of 95% confidence interval wholly within +/- 10 mm. Etoricoxib improved all secondary and other efficacy outcomes. There were no statistically significant between-group differences in the proportion of patients with one or more clinical adverse events (AEs) (etoricoxib 35%, diclofenac 39%), or the proportion of patients who discontinued due to AEs (etoricoxib 7%, diclofenac 5%).
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Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial.
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Andrographis paniculata Nees (Acanthacae) is commonly used medicinal plant in the traditional. Unani and Ayurvedic medicinal systems. It has broad range of pharmacological effects such as hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antivenom, antifertility, inhibition of replication of the HIV virus, antimalarial, antifungal, antibacterial, antidiabetic, suppression of various cancer cells and anti-inflammatory properties. Andrographolide (AN) is one of the active constituent of the A. paniculata Nees extract (APE). They have been found in many traditional herbal formulations in India and proven to be effective as anti-inflammatory drug
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Study group included 76 patients suffering from IBD (ulcerative colitis (UC) (38), and Crohn's disease (CD) (38)). The control group included 70 patients known to have UC (35) and Crohn's disease (CD) (35). Patients of both groups were referred to the rheumatology clinic for rheumatic manifestations that require antiinflammatory therapy and were intolerable to the t-NSAIDs. The level of the IBD activity at the baseline visit, when drug/placebo therapy was initiated, was scored for all subjects included in the study. In the study group the dose of etoricoxib ranged from 60 to 120 mg tablet once a day according to their rheumatic condition. The control group received a placebo tablet once a day. Adverse events related to the use of the study medication in 1 and 3 months time were documented. Etoricoxib/placebo therapy was stopped once the patient experience flare up of their IBD.
There were 588 patients randomized to placebo (n=46),etoricoxib (90 mg (n=191)), etoricoxib (120 mg (n=97)), ibuprofen(2400 mg (n=192)), and A/C (n=62). The overall analgesic effect (TOPAR6) of etoricoxib (90, 120 mg) was significantly greater than that of placebo (P ≤ 0.001), and not inferior to that of ibuprofen; no discernible difference was observed between etoricoxib 90 and 120 mg. Both etoricoxib doses were superior to A/C (P ≤ 0.001). Etoricoxib (90 and 120 mg) and ibuprofen(2400 mg) were generally well tolerated and had a similar incidence of adverse events (AEs). A/C was associated with significantly more AEs that led to discontinuation (ie, nausea and vomiting).
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All large scale randomised controlled trials comparing any non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug with other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or placebo. Two investigators independently assessed eligibility.
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This double-blind study randomized OA patients to etoricoxib 90 mg, then to 60 mg once daily vs diclofenac 75 mg twice daily; RA patients were randomized to etoricoxib 90 mg once daily or diclofenac 75 mg twice daily. The primary endpoint was non-inferiority of etoricoxib vs diclofenac for thrombotic CV events (95% CI upper bound of hazard ratio <1.30). Other safety and efficacy parameters were evaluated in cohorts of patients based on etoricoxib dose and disease.
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This study portrays the potential CV risk of selective COX-2-Is; confirms and re-evaluate the results of earlier studies in this regard.
This first study of COX-2 inhibition in provoked asthma found no negative effects of etoricoxib on allergen-induced airflow obstruction and sputum eosinophils, basal lung function, or methacholine responsiveness. The study suggests that short-term use of COX-2 inhibitors is safe in subjects with asthma.
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In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study we assessed the analgesic effect of etoricoxib (a new cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor) in patients having had knee or hip replacement surgery. A total of 228 patients with moderate or severe pain were randomly allocated within 72 h after surgery to receive etoricoxib 120 mg, controlled-release naproxen sodium 1100 mg, or placebo (1:1:1) on day 1 followed by etoricoxib and placebo (1:2) on days 2 to 7. Patients reported pain scores, rescue (opioid-combination) medication use, and the response to study drug. On day 1, etoricoxib provided an analgesic effect superior to placebo and similar to controlled-release naproxen sodium as demonstrated by the total pain relief score over 8 h, the primary end-point; least-squares mean scores were 11.0, 11.5, and 5.6, respectively (P < 0.001 versus placebo). Similarly, a larger percentage of patients receiving etoricoxib and naproxen sodium than those receiving placebo reported good to excellent responses to study drug: 53%, 60%, and 26% respectively. On days 2-7, etoricoxib demonstrated a significant reduction of rescue medication use, 35% (P < 0.001 versus placebo). The clinical relevance of the decrease was confirmed by Patient's Global Evaluation (P < 0.05 versus placebo). Patients receiving etoricoxib also experienced significantly less "worst" and "average" pain than did those on placebo. Etoricoxib was generally well tolerated in this study; the incidence of adverse experiences was infrequent and similar across treatment groups. In summary, etoricoxib provided analgesia that was similar to controlled-release naproxen sodium on day 1 and superior to placebo with reduced supplemental opioid use over 7 days.
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Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as non-selective NSAIDs (nsNSAIDs) or selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors, are commonly prescribed for arthritic pain relief in patients with osteoarthritis (OA), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), or ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Treatment guidelines for chronic NSAID therapy include the consideration for gastroprotection for those at risk of gastric ulcers (GUs) associated with the chronic NSAID therapy. The United States Food and Drug Administration has approved naproxen/esomeprazole magnesium tablets for the relief of signs and symptoms of OA, RA, and AS, and to decrease the risk of developing GUs in patients at risk of developing NSAID-associated GUs. The European Medical Association has approved this therapy for the symptomatic treatment of OA, RA, and AS in patients who are at risk of developing NSAID-associated GUs and/or duodenal ulcers, for whom treatment with lower doses of naproxen or other NSAIDs is not considered sufficient. Naproxen/esomeprazole magnesium tablets have been compared with naproxen and celecoxib for these indications in head-to-head trials. This systematic literature review and network meta-analyses of data from randomized controlled trials was performed to compare naproxen/esomeprazole magnesium tablets with a number of additional relevant comparators. For this study, an original review examined MEDLINE(®), Embase(®), and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register from database start to April 14, 2009. Using the same methodology, a review update was conducted to December 21, 2009. The systematic review and network analyses showed naproxen/esomeprazole magnesium tablets have an improved upper gastrointestinal tolerability profile (dyspepsia and gastric or gastroduodenal ulcers) over several active comparators (naproxen, ibuprofen, diclofenac, ketoprofen, etoricoxib, and fixed-dose diclofenac sodium plus misoprostol), and are equally effective as all active comparators in treating arthritic symptoms in patients with OA, RA, and AS. Naproxen/esomeprazole magnesium tablets are therefore a valuable option for treating arthritic symptoms in eligible patients with OA, RA, and AS.
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Although adverse effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) occur in only a small proportion of users, the widespread use of these drugs has resulted in a substantial overall number of affected persons who experience serious gastrointestinal complications. Dyspeptic symptoms are estimated to occur in 10-60% of NSAID users and lead to discontinuation of treatment in 5-15% of rheumatoid arthritis patients taking NSAIDs. It is now well established that the point prevalence of peptic ulcer disease in patients receiving conventional NSAID therapy ranges between 10 and 30%, representing a 10-30-fold increase over that found in the general population. One of 175 users of conventional NSAIDs in the USA will be hospitalized each year for NSAID-induced gastrointestinal damage. The mortality of hospitalized patients remains about 5-10%, with an expected annual death rate of 0.08%. The selective COX-II inhibitors (rofecoxib, celecoxib, parecoxib, etoricoxib, valdecoxib, lumiracoxib) show consistently comparable efficacy to that of conventional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis, but have a significantly reduced propensity to cause gastrointestinal toxicity. In many cases, the gastric effects of therapeutically active doses of COX-II inhibitors are indistinguishable from placebo. The safety benefits of COX-2 inhibitors given alone appear similar to combined therapy with conventional NSAIDs and gastroprotective agents. These findings warrant the consideration of COX-II inhibitors as first-line therapy in patients requiring long-term pain control.