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A series of halogen-directed donepezil drugs has been designed to inhibit acetyl cholinesterase (AChE). Density Functional theory (DFT) has been employed to optimize the chair as well as boat conformers of the parent drug and modified ligands at B3LYP/MidiX and B3LYP/6-311G + (d,p) level of theories. Charge distribution, dipole moment, enthalpy, free energy and molecular orbitals of these ligands are also investigated to understand how the halogen-directed modifications impact the ligand structure and govern the non-bonding interactions with the receptors. Molecular docking calculation has been performed to understand the similarities and differences between the binding modes of unmodified and halogenated chair-formed ligands. Molecular docking indicated donepezil and modified ligands had non-covalent interactions with hydrophobic gorges and anionic subsites of AChE. The -CF3-directed ligand possessed the most negative binding affinity. Non-covalent interactions within the ligand-receptor systems were found to be mostly hydrophobic and π- stacking type. F, Cl and -CF3 containing ligands emerge as effective and selective AChE inhibitors, which can strongly interact with the two active sites of AChE. In addition, we have also investigated selected pharmacokinetic parameters of the parent and modified ligands.
The study was completed by 66.9% of the donepezil- and 67.4% of the placebo-treated patients. The benefit of donepezil over placebo was demonstrated by the Gottfries-Bråne-Steen (a global assessment for rating dementia symptoms) total score at weeks 24, 36, and 52 (p < 0.05) and at the study end point (week 52, last observation carried forward; p = 0.054). Advantages of donepezil over placebo were also observed in cognition and activities of daily living (ADL) assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination at weeks 24, 36, and 52, and the end point (p < 0.02) and by the Progressive Deterioration Scale at week 52 and the end point (p < 0.05). Adverse events (AE) were recorded for 81.7% of donepezil- and 75.7% of placebo-treated patients, with 7% of donepezil- and 6.3% of placebo-treated patients discontinuing because of AE. Treatment response to donepezil was not predicted by APOE genotype or sex in this population.
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Male Wistar rats were pre-treated with donepezil (0.1 to 10 mg/kg) for about 1 h before microPET scans using (11)C-SA4503. The total distribution volume (V T) of the tracer was determined by Logan graphical analysis using time activity curves from arterial plasma and regions of interest drawn around the entire brain and individual brain regions. RO by donepezil was calculated from a modified Lassen plot, and ED50 was estimated from the sigmoidal dose-response curves obtained when the RO was plotted against log donepezil dose.
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Donepezil, a well-tolerated cholinesterase inhibitor used in the treatment of Alzheimer dementia, reduces hypersensitivity in this rat model of neuropathic pain by actions on muscarinic receptors in the spinal cord. Lack of tolerance to this effect, in contrast to rapid tolerance to direct receptor agonists, suggests that cholinesterase inhibition may be useful in the treatment of neuropathic pain.
A total of 769 patients with MCI, 107 cognitively normal elderly controls, 122 patients with very mild AD (Clinical Dementia Rating [CDR] 0.5), and 183 patients with mild AD (CDR 1.0) were evaluated. Patients in the MIS met operational criteria for amnestic MCI. Controls were recruited in parallel with the MCI group, underwent the same assessments, and had a CDR of 0.
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There is insufficient evidence to recommend the use of drug therapy in the treatment of OSA. Small studies have reported positive effects of certain agents on short-term outcomes. Certain agents have been shown to reduce the AHI in largely unselected populations with OSA by between 24% and 45%. For donepezil and fluticasone, studies of longer duration with a larger population and better matching of groups are required to establish whether the change in AHI and impact on daytime symptoms are reproducible. Individual patients had more complete responses to particular drugs. It is possible that better matching of drugs to patients according to the dominant mechanism of their OSA will lead to better results and this also needs further study.
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Cell-based assays were conducted using osteoclasts generated in cultures of murine bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) with receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL). The effect of donepezil was also determined in vivo using a mouse model of RANKL-induced bone loss.
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Sixty individuals (30 men and 30 women; mean +/- SD age, 75.0+/-9.5 years) with probable Alzheimer disease and scores of 20 or less on the information-memory-concentration subscale of the Blessed Dementia Scale.
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Twenty-three patients with mild-to-moderate probable AD according to the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke and Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association criteria were included. Each participant had exhibited an insufficient response to treatment with donepezil alone before the start of the trial. Eleven patients received treatment with donepezil alone, and the remaining patients received a combined treatment of donepezil and NYT for 2 years. Patients were assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive component-Japanese version for cognitive function, and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory was used to evaluate the patients' mood status at baseline and every 6 months for 2 years.
Memory disorder is one of the most frequent cognitive impairment and has a great negative impact on the quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). A few pharmacologic agents appear to be effective to memory disorder in patients with MS in some existing randomised controlled trials.
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Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) provide safety and efficacy data for regulatory approval of antidementia drugs, but offer limited data regarding real-world effectiveness. Long-term observational controlled studies (LTOCs) extend our understanding by providing longitudinal data across multiple stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD).
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Improvements favoring donepezil on the Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale were found at weeks 12 and 24 and at the end point (last observation carried forward); treatment differences were 1.9 (P = .03), 2.3 (P = .008), and 2.3 (P = .001) points, respectively. Improvements favoring donepezil on the Mini-Mental State Examination were found at weeks 6, 12, and 24 and at the end point (last observation carried forward); treatment differences were 1.4 (P = .02), 1.2 (P = .04), 1.4 (P = .03), and 1.8 (P = .002) points, respectively. Donepezil-treated patients showed greater mean improvement compared with placebo-treated patients on the following Computerized Memory Battery Test subscales: facial recognition (P = .007 in the intent-to-treat population and P = .04 in the fully evaluable population), first and last name total acquisition (P = .02), and name-face association delayed recall (P = .04). Donepezil was safe and well tolerated in this population; serious adverse events occurred in similar numbers of donepezil- and placebo-treated patients.
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Enhancement of histaminergic neurotransmission or histaminergic plus cholinergic neurotransmission may represent novel strategies for improving cognition in Alzheimer's disease.
To determine whether BChE-K genotype predicts response to donepezil in MCI.
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Memory disorders units at Massachusetts General and Brigham and Women's hospitals, Boston.
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The Severe Impairment Battery (SIB), a reliable cognitive measure for evaluating treatment response in advanced Alzheimer's disease (AD), takes approximately 20 min to administer. A recently derived 8-item version of the SIB - the SIB-8 - which takes about 3 min to administer, may represent a more convenient tool for use in clinical practice. The current analyses further explored the SIB-8 scale with respect to its validity and sensitivity.
We evaluated rCBF changes in the PCC, precuneus and anterior cingulate cortex using perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), statistical analysis and region of interest analysis, prospectively. We allocated 36 patients with mild AD to either the responder or non-responder groups based on changes in Mini-Mental State Examination scores. The patients were followed up for 18 months.
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There is supportive evidence that memantine may help prevent cognitive deficits for adults with brain metastases receiving cranial irradiation. There is supportive evidence that donepezil may have a role in treating cognitive deficits in adults with primary or metastatic brain tumours who have been treated with cranial irradiation. Patient withdrawal affected the statistical power of both studies. Further research that tries to minimise the withdrawal of consent, and subsequently reduce the requirement for imputation procedures, may offer a higher quality of evidence.There is no strong evidence to support any non-pharmacological interventions (medical or cognitive/behavioural) in the prevention or amelioration of cognitive deficits. Non-randomised studies appear promising but are as yet to be conclusive via translation into high quality evidence. Further research is required.
This review updates the original review, 'Pharmacological treatments for fatigue associated with palliative care' and also incorporates the review 'Drug therapy for the management of cancer-related fatigue'.In healthy individuals, fatigue is a protective response to physical or mental stress, often relieved by rest. By contrast, in palliative care patients' fatigue can be severely debilitating and is often not counteracted with rest, thereby impacting daily activity and quality of life. Fatigue frequently occurs in patients with advanced disease (e.g. cancer-related fatigue) and modalities used to treat cancer can often contribute. Further complicating issues are the multidimensionality, subjective nature and lack of a consensus definition of fatigue. The pathophysiology is not fully understood and evidence-based treatment approaches are needed.