Pre-treatment with AA effectively prevented the cerebral I/R induced oxidative damage by virtue of its antioxidant potential. These results indicate that supplementation of AA may be beneficial in stroke prone population.
The plant extracts (aqueous, 50%, and 100% methanol) obtained were subjected to an in vitro amylase inhibitory assay using starch as a substrate and pancreatic amylase as the enzyme. Statistical differences and linear regression analysis were performed using GraphPad prism 5 software.
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The results of the present study suggest that the methanolic extract of the bark powder of Terminalia arjuna in rat induces myocardial HSP72 and augments myocardial endogenous antioxidants, without causing any cellular injury and offers better cardioprotection against oxidative stress associated with myocardial IR injury.
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To evaluate analgesic activity of T. arjuna bark in rodents.
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The effects of 50% ethanolic extract of the bark Terminalia arjuna and tannins isolated from the bark were studied for wound healing activity in incision and excision wound models, after oral or topical application in form of a hydrogel. The findings revealed a statistically significant increase in the tensile strength of the incision wounds and increase in the percent reduction in wound size of excision wounds as compared to control. However, the topical treatment with tannins was found to be superior in both incision and excision wound studies. The estimated increase in hydroxyproline content of the granulation tissue of the excision wounds indicated rapid collagen turnover thus, leading to rapid healing of the wounds.
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META at the dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg orally significantly (P < 0.001) and dose-dependently reduced and normalized blood glucose levels as compared with that of STZ control group. Serum biochemical parameters were significantly (P < 0.001) restored toward normal levels in META-treated rats as compared with STZ control. META treatment also significantly (P < 0.001) decreased lipid peroxidation and recovered GSH level and CAT activity toward normal as compared with STZ control.
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Forty isolates of C. albicans were used in this study. All these isolates were quantified for germ tube formation without exposure to the drug and were used as the control group for data analysis. Isolates were also exposed to three subtherapeutic concentrations of chlorhexidine gluconate (0.00125, 0.0025 and 0.005%) for 30 min (limited exposure); the antiseptic was then removed and germ tube formation of these isolates was quantified microscopically following incubation in a germ tube-inducing medium.
Wistar albino rats were pre-treated with hydroalcoholic extract of T. arjuna (HETA) and α-tocopherol (100 mg/kg b. w) daily for 30 days. Isoproterenol (ISP, 85 mg/kg b.w) was administered on 28th and 29th days at an interval of 24 hr.
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The trapping of lipid-laden macrophages in the arterial intima is a critical but reversible step in atherogenesis. However, information about possible treatments for this condition is lacking. Here, we hypothesized that combining the polyphenol-rich fractions (PHC) of commonly consumed spices (Allium sativum L (Liliaceae), Zingiber officinale R (Zingiberaceae), Curcuma longa L (Zingiberaceae)) and herbs (Terminalia arjuna (R) W & A (Combretaceae) and Cyperus rotundus L (Cyperaceae)) prevents foam cell formation and atherogenesis. Using an in vitro foam cell formation assay, we found that PHC significantly inhibited lipid-laden macrophage foam cell formation compared to the depleted polyphenol fraction of PHC (F-PHC). We further observed that PHC attenuated the LDL and LPS induced CD36, p-FAK and PPAR-γ protein expression in macrophages and increased their migration. NK-κB-DNA interaction, TNF-α, ROS generation, and MMP9 and MMP2 protein expression were suppressed in PHC-treated macrophages. The anti-atherosclerotic activity of PHC was investigated in a high fat- and cholesterol-fed rabbit model. The inhibition of foam cell deposition within the aortic intima and atheroma formation confirmed the atheroprotective activity of PHC. Therefore, we conclude that the armoury of polyphenols in PHC attenuates the CD36 signalling cascade-mediated foam cell formation, enhances the migration of these cells and prevents atherogenesis.
Little apparent digoxin concentration was observed when aliquots of drug-free serum pools were supplemented with Danshen or bark of Arjuna tree extract. When aliquots of serum digoxin pool were further supplemented with these extract, we observed statistically significant negative interference but such differences may not be clinically significant.
Thirty male New Zealand rabbits (n = 6) were employed as Gp1 (stock diet); Gp2 (high-fat diet [HFD]); Gp3 (stock diet + aqTAE); Gp4 (HFD + aqTAE); and Gp5 (HFD + atorvastatin) and followed for 6 months. Protein lysates of aortic tissues were separated by 2DE and proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF/MS.
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Forty C. albicans oral isolates (10 isolates each from smokers, diabetics, asthmatics using steroid inhalers, and healthy individuals) were exposed to 3 subtherapeutic concentrations of chlorhexidine gluconate (0.00125, 0.0025, and 0.005%) for 30 min. Thereafter, the antiseptic was removed and the cell surface hydrophobicity was measured by a biphasic aqueous-hydrocarbon assay.
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Arjunolic acid ameliorated the nephrotoxic biochemical changes induced by cisplatin supporting its renoprotective effects which may be mediated by attenuation of oxidative stress markers, downregulation of renal expressions of fibrotic (TGF-β), inflammatory (NF-κB) and kidney injury (Kim-1) markers along with upregulation of renal antiapoptotic marker (Bcl-2) gene expressions.
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Diabetes mellitus is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with a prevalence of 347 million in 2013. Complementary and Alternative Medicines (CAM) are a group of remedies that is fast gaining acceptance among individuals. Cinnamon, Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) and Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) are 3 widely used CAMs used worldwide for the treatment of diabetes. Data on safety and efficacy is limited, but the consumption is wide. Crepe ginger (Costus speciosus) and Ivy gourd (Coccinia grandis) are 2 plants used widely in the Asian region for their presumed hypoglycaemic properties.
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Cirrhosis is the irreversible sequel of various disorders that damage liver cells permanently over time. Presently, the use of herbal medicines for prevention and control of chronic liver diseases is in the focus of attention for both the physicians and the patients; the reasons for such shift toward the use of herbals include the expensive cost of conventional drugs, adverse drug reactions, and their inefficacy. In the present study, the efficacy of herbal medicine Liv-52 (consisting of Mandur basma, Tamarix gallica and herbal extracts of Capparis spinosa, Cichorium intybus, Solanum nigrum, Terminalia arjuna and Achillea millefolium) on liver cirrhosis outcomes was compared with the placebo for 6 months in 36 cirrhotic patients referred to Tehran Hepatic Center. The outcome measures included child-pugh score, ascites, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total billirubin, albumin, prothrombin time, platelet and white blood cells counts. The indices were recorded in all patients before and after 6 months of drug or placebo treatment. The results demonstrated that the patients treated with Liv-52 for 6 months had significantly better child-pugh score, decreased ascites, decreased serum ALT and AST. In placebo administered patients all the clinical parameters recorded at beginning of the study were not significantly different than after 6 months. We conclude that Liv-52 possess hepatoprotective effect in cirrhotic patients. This protective effect of Liv-52 can be attributed to the diuretic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and immunomodulating properties of the component herbs.
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Arjuna extract did not improve LVEF in CHF patients over 12 weeks, although there was improvement in functional capacity, antioxidant reserves and symptom-related QoL domains in some patients.
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T. arjuna induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells in vitro. Apoptosis of HepG2 cells may be due to the DNA damage and expression of apoptotic proteins. Depletion of GSH may be involved in the induction of apoptosis of HepG2 cells.
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In this study, there were 29 patients in each group, receiving either Livwin (containing Ashwagandha, Arjuna, Bhumyamalaki, Daruharidra, Guduchi, Kutki and Punarnava) or placebo capsules containing lactose powder (500 mg). Both drugs were given orally two capsules two times a day for eight weeks followed by treatment free period of four weeks. Recovery of patients was assessed by noting symptomatic recovery and by measuring levels of serum bilirubin, serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase at baseline, 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks.
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The silkworm is the larva or caterpillar of the domesticated silkmoth, Bombyx mori and being a primary producer of silk is an economically important insect. These days the silk is emerging as a resource for solving a broad range of biological problems. The silk (Abresham) is popularly known as Abresham muqriz (muqriz means cut) in Unani medicine. Its cocoons are extensively used as an ingredient of various Unani formulations like Khameer-E- Abresham Sada, Khameere Abresham Hakeem Arshad Wala, Khameere Abresham Ood Mastagi Wala etc. and are used to treat many cardiac and nervous disorders. The hypolipidemic activity of this drug, along with Nepata Hindostana (Badranjboya) and Terminalia Arjuna (Arjan) has been documented. But action of extract of Bombyx mori cocoons as a single drug is not documented. That's why; it was decided to study its effect on hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. The Male New Zealand White rabbits all of 1.5kgs were selected for the study. After stabilization period (2 weeks) the rabbits were divided into 3 groups (Group I - Control, Group II Lesion Control and Group III treated with extract of Bombyx mori silk cocoon). Hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis were induced with 1% cholesterol diet. After induction of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis for twelve weeks, Group III rabbits were treated with Bombyx mori for 6 weeks (45 days). A significant decrease in hyperlipidemia was seen within 4 weeks of treatment. Histopathologically, the atherosclerotic plaques showed reduction in size. The third group showed a significant increase in the body weight and also an increase in the HDL cholesterol levels. The study concludes that extract of Bombyx mori cocoons has a significant effect on hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis probably because of its antioxidant and hypolipidemic effect.
To evaluate the anti-Candida activity on Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis species of 2 herbal and 7 other brands of toothpastes commonly used in Kuwait.
Brief exposure to sublethal concentrations of drugs with antifungal properties appears to reduce the pathogenic potential of C. dubliniensis isolates by suppressing hemolysin production.
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Response rate in various groups varied from 86% to 91%. No significant changes in total, HDL, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides levels were seen in Groups I and II (paired t-test p > 0.05). In Group III there was a significant decrease in total cholesterol (-9.7 +/- 12.7%), and LDL cholesterol (-15.8 +/- 25.6%) (paired t-test p < 0.01). Lipid peroxide levels decreased significantly in both the treatment groups (p < 0.01). This decrease was more in vitamin E group (-36.4 +/- 17.7%) as compared to the T. arjuna group (-29.3 +/- 18.9%).