Artane alters unusual nerve impulses and relaxes stiff muscles.
Other names for this medication:
Also known as: Trihexyphenidyl.
Artane is used to treat the stiffness, tremors, spasms, and poor muscle control of Parkinson's disease. It is also used to treat and prevent the same muscular conditions when they are caused by drugs such as chlorpromazine (Thorazine), fluphenazine (Prolixin), perphenazine (Trilafon), haloperidol (Haldol), thiothixene (Navane), and others.
name of Artane is Trihexyphenidyl.
Artane is also known as Trihexyphenidyl, Triphen.
Brand name of Artane is Artane.
Take Artane by mouth before or after meals.
If Artane tends to dry your mouth excessively, it may be better to take it before meals, unless it causes nausea. If taken after meals, thirst can be improved by sucking hard sugarless candy, chewing gum, or drinking water.
If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Artane suddenly.
If you overdose Artane and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.
Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of reach of children.
The most common side effects associated with Artane are:
Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.
Do not take Artane if you are allergic to Artane components.
Be very careful with Artane if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant or breast-feeding.
Artane may cause dizziness, lightheadedness, or fainting. Alcohol, hot weather, exercise, or fever may increase these effects. To prevent them, sit up or stand slowly, especially in the morning. Sit or lie down at the first sign of any of these effects.
Do not become overheated in hot weather or while you are being active. Heatstroke may occur.
Lab tests, including eye exams, may be performed while you use Artane. These tests may be used to monitor your condition or check for side effects. Be sure to keep all doctor and lab appointments.
Avoid driving machine.
It can be dangerous to stop Artane taking suddenly.
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The treatment process with two prototypic neuroleptics--haloperidol and chlorpromazine--and the nontherapeutic effects of trihexyphenidyl on this process were studied in carefully matched groups of ten schizophrenics each, using a "double-blind", repeated-measure, longitudinal research design. Measurements of various aspects of psychopathology, social participation and clinical indices of arousal were made periodically and objective test of cognition and attention were given. The two treatment groups were highly comparable in epidemiological and clinical terms and differed significantly during the baseline period in only one of the 39 parameters. Longitudinal nonparametric analyses showed that significant therepeutic changes tended to occur more quickly and involved a wider spectrum of schizophrenic phenomena with haloperidol than with chlorpromazine. Parametric analyses also indicated that at the completion of the study, haloperidol-treated patients had significant improvement in many more dimensions than the chlorpromazine-treated patients and that the changes with haloperidol were generally of greater magnitude. At the same time, chlorpromazine treatment seemed to be more susceptible to the antagonistic effects of trihexyphenidyl. No differential patterns of responses were noted for the two neuroleptics to provide any clinical validity to the distinction often made between "sedative" and "activating" neuroleptics. These data were in agreement with those from a previous comparative study which had a very different research design and a somewhat different type of schizophrenic population. The clinical and potency differences between the two neuroleptics were again explained on the basis of the fact that chlorpromazine has much stronger built-in anticholinergic properties, which may be acting in opposition to the antipsychotic activity. It was suggested that the degree of inherent anticholinergic activity may be an important determinant of potency differences among presently known neuroleptics. The possible role of cholinergic mechanisms in schizophrenia was discussed.
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We investigated the binding properties of the (R)- and (S)-enantiomers of the muscarinic antagonists trihexyphenidyl, procyclidine, hexahydro-difenidol, p-fluoro-hexahydro-difenidol, hexbutinol, p-fluoro-hexbutinol, and their corresponding methiodides at muscarinic M1, M2, M3 and M4 receptor subtypes. In addition, binding properties of the (R)- and (S)-enantiomers of oxyphencyclimine were studied. The (R)- enantiomers (eutomers) of all the compounds had a greater affinity than the (S)-isomers for the four muscarinic receptor subtypes. The binding patterns of the (R)- and (S)-enantiomers were generally different. We did not observe any general correlation between the potency of the high-affinity enantiomer and the affinity ratio (eudismic ratio) of the two enantiomers. The results are discussed in terms of a 'four subsites' binding model.
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A 67-year-old woman developed dropped head. Her neck was severely flexed, with prominent cervical paraspinal muscles, although no parkinsonism was observed. Brain MRI showed no significant findings. We considered dystonia as the cause of the dropped head and administered trihexyphenidyl, an anticholinergic. After 10 years of follow-up, remarkable psychotic symptoms, including hallucinations regarding insects, appeared. Following the discontinuation of trihexyphenidyl, the psychotic symptoms decreased but still remained. (123)I-N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine single-photon emission computed tomography ((123)I-IMP SPECT) revealed hypoperfusion in the bilateral occipital lobes. We diagnosed the patient with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). This case suggests that dropped head syndrome may precede the onset of DLB.
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Qufeng Zhidong Recipe can obviously relieve the symptoms and signs of TD children without toxic side-effects.
Musician's dystonia is characterized by loss of voluntary motor control in extensively trained movements on an instrument. The condition is difficult to treat. This retrospective study reports on the interventions received by a homogeneous cohort of pianists with musician's dystonia and the subjective and objective changes reported in task performance.
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In a patient with the syndrome of crural paresis and homolateral ataxia, administration of trihexyphenidyl resulted in improvement of disabling unilateral ataxia and gross intention tremor. Symptoms returned when drug therapy was interrupted. CT showed a radiolucent lesion deep in the parietal white matter close to the internal capsule.
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KW-5338 (domperidone), a new dopamine antagonist, is considered to be an agent to cross the blood-brain barrier with difficulty. The antagonistic activities of KW-5338 against L-DOPA were investigated, KW-5338 showed a strong anti-emetic action against L-DOPA induced emesis in beagle dogs (ED50=0.056 mg/kg (p.o.)) and restored the L-DOPA induced depression of intestinal motility to some extent, while it did not antagonize anti-tremorine activities of L-DOPA and trihexyphenidyl in mice. These results suggest that KW-5338 prevents side effects of L-DOPA such as nausea, vomiting and constipation, without reduction in therapeutic effects of L-DOPA in Parkinson's disease.
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In the experiments in vivo it is found that the receptor selectivity of muscarine antagonist glypine is time-dependent unlike atropine, amedine, benzhexol, benactyzine, and thropacin. Using modulation of the metabolic system activity it is shown that upon biotransformation glypine forms active metabolites that differs in receptor selectivity of the action.
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Parallel treatment with haloperidol and ultralow-dose haloperidol significantly increased the psychotropic neuroleptic effect of traditional doses of the drug under conditions of preliminary of simultaneous administration, which attests to a bipathic effect of this preparation. Combination of ultralow and therapeutic doses of haloperidol significantly reduced its cataleptogenic side effect.
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Six cases of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (1 stage I, 3 stage II, 2 stage III) were diagnosed at our institution in the last 10 years. Five patients were treated with isoprinosine and the antiepileptic drug valproic acid. Three patients presented with myoclonic seizures refractory to valproic acid and the usual antiepileptic therapy. They received trihexyphenidyl with good results. We suggest the use of trihexyphenidyl in combination with isoprinosine in patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis with myoclonic seizures refractory to valproic acid.
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Clozapine (CLZ), an atypical antipsychotic drug (APD), produces minimal extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) and has significant advantages for treating both positive and negative symptoms in schizophrenic patients. CLZ has been established as a discriminative cue in the drug discrimination paradigm and in generalization tests the CLZ cue is more selective for atypical, rather than typical, APDs. However, greater selectivity for atypical antipsychotics has been demonstrated with a lower (1.25 mg/kg) CLZ training dose in rats [Psychopharmacology, 149 (2000) 189], rather than the traditional, higher training dose (5.0 mg/kg). It is therefore of interest to evaluate the properties mediating the 1.25 mg/kg CLZ discriminative cue. In the present study, rats were trained to discriminate either 1.25 mg/kg (N=7) or 5.0 mg/kg (N=7) CLZ from vehicle in a two-lever drug discrimination task. The typical antipsychotic haloperidol (0.1-0.4 mg/kg) did not substitute for either CLZ cue, whereas the atypical antipsychotic melperone (0.37-3.0 mg/kg) provided full substitution in both groups (>80% CLZ-appropriate responding). The 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist (+)-8-OH-DPAT (0.04-0.16 mg/kg), and the selective 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist M100907 (0.03-1.0 mg/kg) did not produce substitution in either group. (+)-8-OH-DPAT combined with haloperidol (0.05 mg/kg) engendered only partial substitution (>60% CLZ-appropriate responding) for both CLZ cues, and M100907 combined with haloperidol (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg doses) failed to provide substitution in either group. Trihexyphenidyl (0.18-6.0 mg/kg), a muscarinic M(1)-preferring receptor antagonist, engendered full substitution for the 1.25 mg/kg CLZ cue, but only partial substitution for the 5.0 mg/kg CLZ cue. These results provide evidence that antagonism at the muscarinic M(1) receptor is sufficient to provide 1.25 mg/kg CLZ-like discriminative stimulus effects.
Twenty-three children and 52 adults with torsion dystonia of various etiologies and distribution patterns of the involuntary movements were treated in an open-label study with anticholinergic medication. The dosage was increased gradually until there was either benefit or intolerable adverse effects. Trihexyphenidyl was used initially, but later ethopropazine was given to adult subjects. Significant benefit occurred in 61% of children and in 38% of adults. The average daily dosages were 41 mg trihexyphenidyl for children, 24 mg trihexyphenidyl for adults, and 350 mg ethopropazine for adults. Adverse effects were the major limiting factor to high dosage in adults, but not in children.
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1. Activation of muscarinic receptors in rat olfactory bulb stimulates adenylyl cyclase activity. This response was competitively antagonized by the (R)- and (S)-enantiomers of trihexyphenidyl with pA2 values of 8.84 and 6.09, respectively. 2. Similarly, in rat striatal homogenates, muscarinic inhibition of adenylyl cyclase activity was antagonized by the (R)- and (S)-enantiomers with pA2 values of 8.75 and 6.12, respectively. 3. In contrast, in rat myocardium the muscarinic inhibition of the adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP) formation was more weakly antagonized by trihexyphenidyl, with a particularly marked loss (15 fold) in activity of the (R)-enantiomer. The (R)- and (S)-enantiomers had pA2 values of 7.64 and 5.72, respectively. 4. Each muscarinic response was completely antagonized by increasing concentrations of (R)-trihexyphenidyl with a Hill coefficient not significantly different from unity. 5. The present study shows that the muscarinic receptors coupled to stimulation of adenylyl cyclase in the olfactory bulb display high stereoselectivity for the enantiomers of trihexyphenidyl. The affinities of these receptors for the antagonists are similar to those shown by the striatal receptors. This finding supports the hypothesis that both the muscarinic stimulation of adenylyl cyclase in the olfactory bulb and the muscarinic inhibition of the enzyme in striatum are mediated by activation of a receptor subtype pharmacologically equivalent to the m4 gene product. On the other hand, the weaker affinities and the lower stereoselectivity for the trihexyphenidyl enantiomers exhibited by the muscarinic inhibition of adenylyl cyclase in the heart are consistent with the involvement of M2 receptors in this response.
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Introduccion. La sialorrea es la incapacidad para retener la saliva dentro de la boca y su progresion al tracto digestivo, y es un problema frecuente en pacientes pediatricos con patologia neurologica, por lo que se estan utilizando diferentes medidas para su tratamiento. Objetivo. Evaluar la eficacia y seguridad del trihexifenidilo, la escopolamina y la infiltracion de toxina botulinica en el tratamiento del babeo en niños con patologia neurologica. Pacientes y metodos. Es un estudio de tipo abierto y prospectivo. Incluye pacientes atendidos en el servicio de neurologia que presentaban babeo excesivo, con repercusion en su calidad de vida, entre 2009 y 2013. Resultados. En 46 pacientes se indico tratamiento con trihexifenidilo oral, y se obtuvo buena respuesta en 15 (32,6%), tres con efecto transitorio y el resto mantenido. Presentaron efectos secundarios tres pacientes (6,5%). De los 11 pacientes a los que se indicaron parches de escopolamina, se hallo efecto beneficioso en cuatro (36,36%), uno fue retirado por falta de eficacia y seis por efectos secundarios. Veinticinco pacientes fueron infiltrados con toxina botulinica, con disminucion significativa del babeo en 16 (64%) tras la primera infiltracion. No observamos cambios significativos en nueve casos. Solo uno presento efectos secundarios (disfagia leve). Conclusiones. Por no haber una opcion terapeutica totalmente eficaz para los pacientes con sialorrea, recomendamos iniciar el tratamiento con trihexifenidilo; como segunda opcion, los parches de escopolamina, y como tercera opcion, la toxina botulinica. La infiltracion de toxina botulinica en glandulas salivales se muestra como una alternativa eficaz y segura segun nuestra serie.
The lowest detection limits of trihexyphenidyl, chlorpromazine and clozapine were 0.3, 0.3 and 0.7 ng/mL (S/N > or = 3) respectively. The calibration curve in 20-10 000 ng/mL showed a good linear distribution. The recovery rate was 79.9% to 85.5%. The RSDs of intraday and interday were less than 5.1%.
To determine the effects of interventions for eye movement disorders on functional ability following stroke.
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The authors found higher serotonin concentrations in the blood of unmedicated chronic schizophrenic patients than in the blood of medicated schizophrenic patients or normal control subjects. This finding is consistent with the previous observation that the level of monoamine oxidase activity is low in the platelets of chronic schizophrenics.
Hartnup disease is an inborn abnormality of renal and intestinal transport involving the neutral amino acids. Intermittent pellagra-like rash, attacks of cerebellar ataxia and psychiatric disturbance are characteristic symptoms of this disease. We described here a patient with adult-onset Hartnup disease who presented unique neuropsychiatric symptoms but no dermatologic symptoms, and reported features of amino acids transport in this patient and his family. The patient, a man aged 37 years, was referred to us because of lasting daytime bruxism. He is the second child of healthy parents who are first cousin; his elder brother who has been mentally retarded became bed-ridden and died at 32 years of age. His younger brother is completely healthy. Although the patient's development in infancy has been slightly retarded, he completed compulsory 9-year education. At 29 years of age, he experienced episodes of diplopia, ataxic gait and insomnia, and at 33 years of age, of transient stupor. There had been no history of photosensitivity or dermatitis. On neurological examination, there were trunkal ataxia, increased muscular tone and decreased mental activity besides bruxism. These symptoms remained unchanged despite of several medications including trihexyphenidyl, diazepam, halloperidol, tiapride and sulpiride. Two months later, the patient became stuporous; bruxism and hypertonicity became exaggerated. Myerson's sign, sucking reflex and grasp reflex in both hand appeared. There was no dermal lesion. A cranial computed tomography revealed a small calcification in the right frontal subcortical region and a single photon emission tomography indicated possible bifrontal hypoperfusion. Electroencephalograms demonstrated non-specific slowing. Somatosensory evoked potentials and nerve conduction velocities were normal. There were constant indicanuria and amino-aciduria.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
We evaluated prospectively 100 patients, the largest reported series, with blepharospasm and orofacial-cervical dystonia, or Meige syndrome. The mean age at onset was 51.7 years, and 81% presented between the ages of 40 and 70. Women outnumbered men three to two. Blepharospasm was the initial symptom in 58 patients, but only 23 had involuntary movements localized to the orbicularis oculi. Sixty-one patients had the complete syndrome, blepharospasm and oromandibular dystonia, and 60 had neck or generalized dystonia in addition to the orofacial movements. Twenty-one patients with spasmodic dysphonia were included; in 12 of these patients, spasmodic dysphonia was part of the complete (Meige) syndrome, and 16 of these patients had neck or generalized dystonia or essential tremor. An organic cause of Meige syndrome is supported by a high correlation with essential tremor and other movement disorders and by positive family history in some patients. Response to medication was inconsistent, but 69% of patient trials resulted in some improvement; in 22% the benefit was marked and persistent. Tetrabenazine, lithium, and trihexyphenidyl were most useful for the treatment of oromandibular dystonia, and clonazepam was useful in some patients with blepharospasm.
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In three studies of comparable design, 47 schizophrenics received anticholinergic anti-Parkinsonism (AP) medications for two to four weeks along the course of neuroleptic treatment. Clinical ratings during the AP phase were contrasted against the preceding and following two-week periods on neuroleptic alone, and these changes were analysed for a total of 27 psychopathology dimensions and for clusters of seven positive and seven negative symptoms. Schizophrenics overall exhibited significant exacerbation of total psychopathology, and positive but not negative symptoms. Only those with a predominantly positive syndrome when drug-free were susceptible to AP therapeutic reversal. However, other subgroup analyses revealed worsening of total psychopathology and positive symptoms among catatonic, schizophreniform, chronic, and good outcome cases, but negative symptoms alone were significantly increased among paranoids. The results were not supportive of a positive-negative dichotomy of schizophrenia, but instead suggested a tripartite model: a distinct paranoid group and a division of the non-paranoids into a positive and a negative type.
To clarify the interactions between dopamine receptors and muscarinic cholinergic receptors by which neurotransmitters may affect genetic responses, we studied the effects of the muscarinic cholinergic agonist, carbachol, and the muscarinic cholinergic antagonist, trihexyphenidyl, on levodopa-induced c-fos messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in rat striatum. Animals were administered levodopa (levodopa with one-tenth dosage of carbidopa), carbachol or thrihexyphenidyl alone or administered in combination as levodopa (100 mg/kg) + carbachol, or levodopa+trihexyphenidyl given as a single bolus. Levodopa given alone increase the expression of c-fos mRNA. Although carbachol or trihexyphenidyl alone was ineffective in inducing c-fos mRNA, the combination of levodopa and carbachol (> or = to 0.1 mg/kg) significantly suppressed the induction of c-fos mRNA as compared with levodopa given alone. The combined administration of levodopa and trihexyphenidyl showed a trend toward an additive effect on the induction of c-fos mRNA vs levodopa alone. These findings suggest that the muscarinic cholinergic system may modulate the levodopa-induced c-fos mRNA expression which then regulates the expression of other mRNAs.
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