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Astelin (Azelastine)

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Astelin is a nasal spray which is used for treating allergy symptoms and symptoms of nasal passage inflammation. Astelin contains azelastine, an antihistamine. It blocks the effects of the chemical histamine in your body. Astelin prevents sneezing, itching, runny nose, and other nasal symptoms of allergies.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Astepro, Patanase


Also known as:  Azelastine.


Astelin belongs to a group of medicines called antihistamines.

Astelin provides relief from bothersome nasal symptoms such as congestion, itchy/runny nose, sneezing and postnasal drip due to seasonal allergens or environmental irritants.

Astelin is steroid-free, does not contain pseudoephedrine, and relieves your symptoms by blocking the effects of histamine - the primary cause of allergy symptoms.

What makes Astelin unique is that it is a steroid-free antihistamine nasal spray that provides symptom relief whether the trigger is an allergen (grass, trees, pollen, mold, etc.), an irritant (cigarette smoke, perfume, cleaning agents, car exhaust, cold air, etc.), or both.

Astelin is also know as Azelastine, Arzep, Rhinolast, Alerdual, Allergodil, Rinalin.

Generic name of Astelin is Azelastine.


Follow the directions for using this medicine provided by your doctor. Use Astelin exactly as directed.

Astelin can be used by patients as young as 5 years of age, depending on what type of rhinitis they have been diagnosed with.

For those with seasonal allergic rhinitis, patients from 5 to 11 years of age should administer 1 spray in each nostril twice daily.

Patients 12 years of age and older with seasonal allergic rhinitis should administer 2 sprays of Astelin in each nostril twice daily.

For those with nonallergic vasomotor rhinitis, patients 12 years of age and older should administer 2 sprays of Astelin in each nostril twice daily.

Before using Astelin for the first time, remove the child-resistant screw cap and replace with the pump unit. Prime the delivery system (pump unit) with four sprays or until a fine mist appears. If 3 days or more have elapsed since your last use of the nasal spray, reprime the pump with two sprays or until a fine mist appears.


If you overdose Astelin and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.


Store at a room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and sunlight. Keep in a tightly closed container. Throw away the after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Astelin are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Astelin if you are allergic to Astelin components.

It is not known whether Astelin will harm an unborn baby. Do not use this medicine without your doctor's advice if you are pregnant or breast-feeding.

The medicine has a antihistamine in it. Before you start any new medicine, check the label to see if it has an antihistamine (e.g., diphenhydramine) in it too. If it does or if you are not sure, check with your doctor or pharmacist.

Astelin may cause harm if it is swallowed. If you may have taken it by mouth, contact your poison control center or emergency room right away.

Astelin should be used with extreme caution in children younger than 5 years old; safety and effectiveness in these children have not been confirmed.

Do not drink alcohol or use medicines that may cause drowsiness (e.g., sleep aids, muscle relaxers) while you are using Astelin; it may add to their effects. Ask your pharmacist if you have questions about which medicines may cause drowsiness.

Astelin may cause drowsiness. These effects may be worse if you take it with alcohol or certain medicines. Use Astelin with caution. Do not drive or perform other possibly unsafe tasks until you know how you react to it.

Do not stop taking Astelin suddenly.

astelin generic nasal

The symptom and medication scores of BCG-PSN group were significantly lower than that of control group (P < 0.01) after BCG-PSN treatment. There was no significant difference in symptom score between the two groups at 6 months after BCG-PSN treatment (P > 0.05), while the medication score of BCG-PSN group was still much lower than that of control group (P < 0.01). No serious adverse events were reported in BCG-PSN group except for local pain on the injection place in one patient.

astelin dosage information

The effects of variety of drugs on metabolic burst and phospholipase A2 in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) were investigated. The stimulation of PMNs by n-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) causes arachidonic acid (AA) to be released in the cells concomitantly with the generation of superoxide anion. These variables were effectively diminished with some clinically employed drugs including chlorpromazine, trifluoperazine, azelastine, clemastine and mepacrine at the lower concentration of 20 microM. In contrast, indomethacin and procaine were ineffective even at the higher concentration of 100 microM. Subcellular fractionation of PMNs revealed that phospholipase A2 activity was located both in the plasma membrane-rich fraction as well as the granule-microsome-rich fraction, and the potency of inhibition of membrane-bound phospholipase A2 by the above mentioned drugs was: indomethacin (IC50 = 3 microM) less than chlorpromazine less than azelastine and clemastine (IC50 greater than 100 microM). The low potency of antipsychotropic drugs and antihistaminic drugs in inhibiting the fractionated phospholipase A2 contrast with the high efficiency with which they inhibit the superoxide generation and the AA release from stimulated PMNs. The AA releases from the PMNs stimulated by FMLP or calcium ionophore (A23187) were almost equally diminished by various drugs at the lower concentration. From these observations, it appeared likely that these drugs might inhibit the metabolic stimulations of PMNs at the sites of the Ca2+-dependent activation processes of the enzymes responsible for the AA release and the superoxide generation.

astelin review

In an attempt to elucidate the effect of lipoxygenase inhibitors on hepatic injury, we investigated D-galactosamine (GalN)-treated C57BL/6 mice receiving an intravenous (i.v.) injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated autologous spleen cells. As compared with control spleen cells, the number of monocytes in the spleen cells isolated from LPS-treated mice and their oxidative free radical production increased markedly. Oxygen radical production by the dish-adherent cells (macrophage-rich population) was enhanced a further 4-fold. Although hepatotoxicity was not demonstrated in mice treated with 20 mg GalN alone, marked hepatic injury was found in the GalN-treated mice with a supplementation of LPS-activated spleen cells. The dish-adherent cells aggravated this hepatic injury, in contrast to minor hepatotoxicity by the nonadherent cells. Oxygen radical production by LPS-activated spleen cells was markedly reduced by the lipoxygenase inhibitors (azelastine, ketotifen and AA861). Hepatotoxicity was scarcely detected in the GalN-treated mice with a supplementation of the LPS-activated spleen cells which had been previously treated with lipoxygenase inhibitors. From these results, LPS-activated spleen macrophages contributed to hepatic injury induced by GalN, and lipoxygenase inhibitors which reduced oxygen radical production by the activated cells, protected against macrophage-induced hepatic injury in mice.

astelin drug interactions

The greatest inhibition of mediator release was seen with 24 microM azelastine; this level of inhibition was matched with the use of 133 microM olopatadine. At this concentration, these drugs inhibited IL-6 release by 83% and 74%, tryptase release by 55% and 79%, and histamine release by 41% and 45%, respectively. Activated CHMCs were characterized by numerous filopodia that were inhibited by both drugs as shown by electron microscopy.

astelin alcohol

A once-daily dose of 256 microg of intranasal budesonide aqueous suspension is significantly more effective at relieving the symptoms of perennial allergic rhinitis compared with a twice daily dose of 280 microg of azelastine nasal spray.

astelin patient reviews

Effect of azelastine hydrochloride (azelastine) on release and production of platelet-activating factor (PAF) in neutrophils obtained from asthmatic and non-asthmatic patients was investigated. Neutrophils were preincubated with or without azelastine and stimulated with f-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP, 10 microM) for 15 min. PAF-like activity was detected by aggregation of washed guinea pig platelets. PAF-like activity released from asthmatic neutrophils without preincubation of azelastine was 5.67[0.89] (mean[SD], ng/10(7) cells) in supernatants and 21.8[0.76] in cell pellets. After preincubation with 10(-8), 10(-6), and 10(-4) M of azelastine, PAF-like activity reduced to 5.96[0.97] (mean[SD], ng/10(7) cells), 3.49[0.63], and 1.89[0.09] (n = 15) in the supernatants, and 20.7[0.97], 13.9[0.29], and 8.91 [0.99] (n = 15) in the cell pellets, respectively. PAF-like activity in non-asthmatic neutrophils without preincubation of azelastine was 4.67[0.19] (mean[SD], ng/10(7) cells) in supernatants and 18.5[0.34] in cell pellets. After preincubation with 10(-8), 10(-6), and 10(-4) M of azelastine, PAF-like activity reduced to 4.39[0.51] (mean[SD], ng/10(7) cells), 2.77[0.22], and 1.75[0.07] (n = 15) in the supernatants, and 17.9[0.54], 10.8[0.25], and 5.97 [0.59] (n = 15) in the cell pellets, respectively. Our results showed that preincubation with azelastine caused a dose-dependent inhibition of intra and extracellular PAF-like activity from asthmatic and non-asthmatic neutrophils in the same manner.

astelin usual dosage

Azelastine hydrochloride nasal spray is available worldwide for the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) and perennial allergic rhinitis. One spray per nostril twice daily is the most commonly recommended dose.

astelin dosage form

Evaluation of the number of microflora revealed increased bacterial reproduction after treatment, but this difference was not statistically significant. The use of azelastine nasal spray decreased the reproduction of three potentially pathogenic bacteria; however, it did not affect the reproduction of other potentially pathogenic bacteria.

astelin generic otc

Since azelastine ocular drops are now available, the aim of the present study was the evaluation of the anti-allergic activity in the model of allergen specific conjunctival challenge (ASCC).

astelin brand

The influence of orally administered azelastine and selected H1-receptor antagonists on aeroallergen-induced acute lung anaphylactic responses in actively sensitized guinea pigs (experimental asthma model) was studied. Azelastine (1 mg/kg, PO, two hours) exerted significant inhibition of the aeroallergen-induced decline in dynamic lung compliance and an elevation in pulmonary airway resistance. Terfenadine, pyrilamine, and diphenhydramine given as oral doses of 1 mg/kg two hours before aeroallergen challenge exerted weak or no inhibition of acute lung anaphylactic responses. In conclusion, the data obtained in this study showed that azelastine administered orally is capable of exerting antiasthmatic effects in both the central and peripheral airways of guinea pigs. This effect may be attributed to its ability to inhibit the formation or secretion of pharmacologic mediators (ie, histamine, LTC4/D4, .O2-) from inflammatory cells.

astelin drug

MC9 mast cells, sensitized with monoclonal IgE antibody specific for 2,4-dinitrophenyl (DNP) group, were exposed to DNP-BSA and the pH and cytosolic calcium signals were recorded by using the fluorescent probes BCECF and Fura-2 respectively. DNP-BSA induced cell alkalinization was fully inhibited by azelastine with IC50 (1.6 +/- 0.5 mumol/l, mean +/- SEM, n = 5) similar to that required to inhibit histamine release (1.4 mumol/l). Conversely, high azelastine concentrations (> 100 mumol/l) were required to inhibit DNP-BSA-dependent cell calcium mobilization (IC50 approximately 200 mumol/l, n = 3). Amiloride, but not the H1 histamine antagonist pyrilamine, was able to inhibit the DNP-BSA induced pH signal. In acidified mast cells, azelastine potently inhibited Na+:H+ exchange activity (IC50 = 7.7 +/- 3.6 x 10(-6) M, mean +/- SEM, n = 3). Conversely, in mouse spleen lymphocytes azelastine was unable to inhibit the amiloride-sensitive pH signal induced by concanavalin A. In conclusion, the inhibition of histamine release by azelastine is not due to an interference with the cytosolic calcium signal. Conversely, azelastine potently antagonized the allergen-dependent Na+:H+ exchange activation, suggesting an action on the protein kinase C signaling pathway.

astelin tablet

Sixty-three patients (29 male, 29 female; 34 in the age range of 6 to 65 years) with allergic conjunctivitis were enrolled in this study. The patients were randomly assigned to receive topical azelastine 0.02% (n = 31) or topical MMC (0.2 mg/10 mL) (n = 31) four times daily for 3 months. Follow-up examinations were done at 2 weeks to examine side effects of the medications and again at 4 weeks to assess the outcome of treatment. The eyes were examined for relief of symptoms, cure of signs, and the appearance of side effects with use of these drugs.

astelin reviews

Allergic rhinitis (AR) can be challenging to treat. For many patients, current therapies (including multiple therapies) provide insufficient symptom relief. There is, therefore, a clear unmet medical need for a new and more effective AR treatment option. MP29-02 ( Dymista ) is a novel intranasal formulation of azelastine hydrochloride and fluticasone propionate in an advanced delivery system.

astelin generic equivalent Identifier: NCT00660517.

astelin brand name

The efficacy of these medications at improving subjective sleep quality has been established through multiple randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials.

astelin tablets

Symptoms of simple allergic conjunctivitis (itching, tearing and photophobia) were significantly reduced at the end of 1(st) week. Signs such as conjunctival chemosis, congestion, tarsal papillae, and eyelid edema were effectively treated in all cases at the end of 1(st) week. At the end of 4(th) week, all cases were fully cured and none of the patient had any recurrences up to 7(th) week. Mean score at 1(st) day (9.6 ± 3.27) was significantly (P < 0.0001) reduced by 7(th) day (1.35 ± 1.19) of treatment.

astelin drug class

Small biopsies of the anterior portion of the lower nasal turbinate were collected with the help of a Hartmann forceps under direct visual inspection. The samples were processed for light microscopy and morphometric analysis. Inflammatory infiltration (neutrophils and lymphocytes) of the nasal mucosa was evaluated by a semiquantitative method. Unpaired t test and Bernoulli distribution were applied to evaluate statistical differences between data from the different groups of samples.

astelin generic

The most recent addition to intranasal sprays for the maintenance therapy of AR is MP-AzeFlu, a single formulation nasal spray of azelastine hydrochloride and fluticasone propionate in an advanced delivery system. Analysis of clinical data showed this to be the first new intranasal medication that provides greater clinical benefit than an INCS in treating AR.

astelin user reviews

Twenty-eight male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into four groups: a control group; a group in which allergic rhinitis was induced and no treatment given; a group in which allergic rhinitis was induced followed by treatment with azelastine hydrochloride on days 21-28; and a group in which allergic rhinitis was induced followed by treatment with curcumin on days 21-28. Allergy symptoms and histopathological features of the nasal mucosa were examined.

astelin buy online

Patients aged at least 12 (United States) or 16 years (Europe) with allergic rhinitis or nonallergic vasomotor rhinitis.

astelin 1 mg

Allergic rhinitis and other rhinitis subtypes are increasingly becoming some of the most prevalent and expensive medical conditions that affect the U.S.

astelin dosage

We identified 30 trials with a total of 4344 participants randomised, with 17 different drugs or treatment comparisons. The following antihistamines and mast cell stabilisers were evaluated in at least one RCT: nedocromil sodium or sodium cromoglycate, olopatadine, ketotifen, azelastine, emedastine, levocabastine (or levocabastine), mequitazine, bepotastine besilate, combination of antazoline and tetryzoline, combination of levocabastine and pemirolast potassium. The most common comparison was azelastine versus placebo (nine studies).We observed a large variability in reporting outcomes. The quality of the studies and reporting was variable, but overall the risk of bias was low. Trials evaluated only short-term effects, with a range of treatment of one to eight weeks. Meta-analysis was only possible in one comparison (olopatadine versus ketotifen). There was some evidence to support that topical antihistamines and mast cell stabilisers reduce symptoms and signs of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis when compared with placebo. There were no reported serious adverse events related to the use of topical antihistamine and mast cell stabilisers treatment.

astelin maximum dosage

The objective of the present study was to compare the efficacy and tolerability of azelastine nasal spray administered at the recommended dosage of 2 sprays per nostril twice daily with those of cetirizine in the treatment of moderate to severe SAR.

astelin generic brand

Recently, we showed that leukotrienes (LTs) regulate ovarian cell function in vitro. The aim of this study was to examine the role of LTs in corpus luteum (CL) function during both the estrous cycle and early pregnancy in vivo. mRNA expression of LT receptors (BLT for LTB(4) and CYSLT for LTC(4)), and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) in CL tissue and their localization in the ovary were studied during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy. Moreover, concentrations of LTs (LTB(4) and C(4)) in the CL tissue and blood were measured. 5-LO and BLT mRNA expression increased on days 16-18 of the cycle, whereas CYSLT mRNA expression increased on days 16-18 of the pregnancy. The level of LTB(4) was evaluated during pregnancy compared with the level of LTC(4), which increased during CL regression. LT antagonists influenced the duration of the estrous cycle: the LTC(4) antagonist (azelastine) prolonged the luteal phase, whereas the LTB(4) antagonist (dapsone) caused earlier luteolysis in vivo. Dapsone decreased progesterone (P(4)) secretion and azelastine increased P(4) secretion during the estrous cycle. In summary, LT action in the bovine reproductive tract is dependent on LT type: LTB(4) is luteotropic during the estrous cycle and supports early pregnancy, whereas LTC(4) is luteolytic, regarded as undesirable in early pregnancy. LTs are produced/secreted in the CL tissue, influence prostaglandin function, and serve as important factors during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy in cattle.

astelin generic name

Azelastine nasal spray may be useful in decreasing adenoid pad size and the severity of symptoms related to adenoidal hypertrophy. Hippokratia 2014; 18 (4): 340-345.

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astelin alcohol 2015-11-10

To determine the ability of azelastine nasal spray to improve rhinitis symptoms in patients with seasonal buy astelin online allergic rhinitis who remained symptomatic after treatment with fexofenadine.

astelin cost 2017-06-18

The concept of relative activity factor (RAF) to extrapolate data obtained with recombinant cytochrome P450(CYP)s to human liver microsomes has been proposed. To evaluate the approach to predict the contribution of multiple CYPs using RAF, we investigated the effects of the differences in the expression levels of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (OR) and cytochrome b(5) (b(5)) in recombinant CYPs from baculovirus-infected insect cells and the differences in the marker activities. Because we previously clarified that azelastine, an antiallergy and antiasthmatic drug, is N-demethylated by CYP1A2, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 in humans, the reaction was used as a model. For calculation of RAF, three lots of recombinant CYP1A2, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 from baculovirus-infected insect cells with different expression levels of OR and b(5) were used. buy astelin online The OR/CYP ratios for recombinant CYP1A2, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 were 3.9-4.8, 5.1-8.7, and 8.0-11.3, respectively. The b(5)/CYP ratio for recombinant CYP3A4 was 2.1-18.7. As marker activities, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation and phenacetin O-deethylation for CYP1A2, bufuralol 1'-hydroxylation and debrisoquin 4-hydroxylation for CYP2D6, testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation and midazolam 1'-hydroxylation for CYP3A4 were compared. Our results indicated that the differences in the expression levels of OR and b(5) coexpressed in baculovirus-infected insect cells would not be a critical factor for the quantitative prediction using RAF. In addition, we confirmed that differences in the marker activities did not significantly affect the calculation of RAF values, when the marker activities are specific for a certain CYP isoform. It was suggested that the RAF approach using recombinant CYPs from baculovirus-infected insect cells coexpressing OR (and b(5) if required) could be valuable for the prediction of the contribution of each CYP in drug metabolism.

astelin 1 mg 2016-09-01

To determine, whether the immediately originated allergic reaction of conjunctivas may be treated buy astelin online with local H1 antihistaminic drugs in a monotherapy (Allergodil gtt, Emadine gtt).

astelin buy 2016-06-21

We studied the antihistaminic property of a new compound, azelastine, on histamine-induced bronchoconstriction and compared it with ketotifen and placebo. In 12 patients with bronchial asthma we performed histamine bronchial challenges before and four hours after ingestion of placebo, 2.0 mg ketotifen, and 4.4 mg azelastine given in a double-blind, randomized, cross-over fashion. Ketotifen and azelastine provided significant protection compared with placebo. No statistically significant difference between ketotifen and azelastine could be detected. As the antihistaminic effect of azelastine buy astelin online does not predict the therapeutic usefulness in the maintenance therapy of bronchial asthma, further studies are indicated.

astelin generic otc 2017-09-30

Ginsenoside Re inhibited histamine-induced scratching behavior in mice. The anti-scratching behavioral effect of ginsenoside Re was more potent 6 h after its oral administration than buy astelin online 1 h after. However, its inhibitory effect was significantly attenuated in mice treated with COE, but it nearly was not affected in mice treated with streptomycin and/or tetracycline. Treatment with COE also significantly lowered fecal ginsenoside Re-metabolizing β-glucosidase and α-rhamnosidase activities in mice, as well as fecal metabolic activity of ginsenoside Re to ginsenoside Rh1. The anti-scratching behavioral effect of ginsenoside Rh1, a metabolite of ginsenoside Re by intestinal microflora, was superior to that of ginsenoside Re. Ginsenoside Rh1 potently inhibited the expression of IL-4 and TNF-α, as well as the activation of NF-κB and c-jun activation in histamine-stimulated scratching behavioral mice.

astelin online pharmacy 2017-01-29

Topical aqueous nasal sprays are widely used in treating patients with a variety of nasal diseases. Previous studies have suggested that drug delivery to the ciliated mucosa is generally suboptimal. Little is known about the effects of nasal spray delivery technique on intranasal distribution and efficacy of topical nasal drugs. We assessed the intranasal distribution of a nasal spray with two commonly used techniques using azelastine hydrochloride labelled with fluorescein. After spraying, the nasal cavity was photographed endoscopically in two standardized positions, one showing the anterior portion in the region of the nasal valve and one the area of the middle meatus. The photographs were computer analysed to identify the proportion of coverage of fluorescein in each image field. The majority buy astelin online of drug was distributed anteriorly with poor coverage posterior to the nasal valve area. This was the case with both of the positions tested.

astelin medication 2015-04-17

Currently available oral second-generation antihistamines do not provide adequate buy astelin online symptom relief for many allergy patients.

astelin maximum dosage 2017-04-27

Azelastine is a potent H(1)-antihistamine, which is available as a topical nasal spray and indicated for both seasonal allergic and non-allergic vasomotor rhinitis. In addition to its antihistaminic effects, it has also been shown to have a number of other potentially important attributes, including effects on cytokines, adhesion molecules and inflammatory cells. Azelastine nasal spray has been shown to benefit patients who have not responded adequately to buy astelin online loratadine and fexofenadine, and is significantly more efficacious than cetirizine and levocabastine in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis. Given its unique pharmacologic properties and clinical profile, azelastine maintains an important role in the treatment of chronic rhinitis.

astelin dosage form 2015-05-19

The combination of intranasal antihistamines and intranasal corticosteroids results in superior relief of seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) symptoms compared with monotherapy. This study was designed to evaluate the safety buy astelin online and efficacy of olopatadine hydrochloride nasal spray, 0.6% (OLO), administered in combination with fluticasone nasal spray, 50 micrograms (FNS), relative to azelastine nasal spray, 0.1% (AZE), administered in combination with FNS in the treatment of SAR. This was a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, parallel-group comparison of OLO + FNS versus AZE + FNS administered for 14 days to patients > or =12 years of age with histories of SAR. Efficacy assessments recorded by patients in a daily diary included nasal symptom scores. Safety was evaluated based on adverse events (AEs). Pretreatment values for reflective total nasal symptoms scores (rTNSS) were similar for both treatment groups. The mean (SD) 2-week average rTNSS was 4.28 (2.63) for OLO + FNS and 4.15 (2.63) for AZE + FNS; these scores were not statistically different between treatment groups. No significant differences (p > 0.05) between OLO + FNS and AZE + FNS were observed for the average 2-week percent changes from baseline in rTNSS or in the individual nasal symptoms (nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, itchy nose, and sneezing). Compared with baseline, both groups had statistically significant improvement in rTNSS (p < 0.05). No serious AEs were reported in either group during the study period. Overall, 19 AEs were reported in the OLO + FNS group and 29 AEs were reported in the AZE + FNS group. OLO, when administered adjunctively with FNS, is effective, safe, and well-tolerated in patients with SAR.

astelin patient reviews 2015-04-27

Randomized, double-blind, buy astelin online placebo-controlled, paired-eye study.

astelin pediatric dose 2017-12-20

Inhibition of peplomycin (PLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis by azelastine hydrochloride (Azeptin) was examined using ICR mice, and the effects of both drugs on signal transduction were investigated. Microscopically, Azeptin (a total of 56 mg/kg for 28 days) suppressed pulmonary fibrosis in mice which received an i.p. injection of a total of 60 or 75 mg/kg PLM. In parallel with the microscopic findings, smaller amounts of collagen were synthesized in the lungs of Azeptin-injected mice. PLM enhanced the expression of interleukin-1 beta- and transforming growth factor-beta-mRNA in lungs. In contrast, Azeptin suppressed buy astelin online the expression. Compatible with these in vivo results, Azeptin and PLM contradictively regulated protein tyrosine phosphorylation and c-myc mRNA expression in human gingival and mouse pulmonary fibroblasts. In addition, NF-kappa B was activated by fibroblast treatment with 5 micrograms/ml PLM for 1 h, but intranuclear NF-kappa B was decreased by cell treatment with 10(-5) M Azeptin. From these results, it is concluded that Azeptin inhibits PLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis by antagonizing the up-regulation of signal transduction.

astelin dosage adults 2015-08-13

Here we analyzed the effects of a standardized Veronica extract buy astelin online on genes expression and signalling protein production associated with the development of inflammatory lung diseases.

astelin dosage instructions 2016-10-21

Allergic rhinitis affects over 20% of the UK population. It can have a significant impact on quality of life and interferes with both attendance and performance at school and at work.1 Intranasal corticosteroids are widely recognised as the most effective symptomatic treatment available, but oral or intranasal new generation antihistamines are usually offered as first-line treatment for intermittent symptoms.1,2 Patients with moderate to severe allergic rhinitis may require a combination of drugs, and many patients only achieve limited control of their symptoms.3 Dymista is described as a novel intranasal formulation combining the antihistamine azelastine hydrochloride with the corticosteroid fluticasone propionate.3 It is licensed for the relief of symptoms of moderate to severe seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis in adults and adolescents if monotherapy with either intranasal antihistamine or glucocorticoid is not considered sufficient.4 The manufacturer claims that compared with fluticasone buy astelin online or azelastine alone, Dymista is twice as effective (when placebo effect is excluded) in providing relief from both nasal and ocular symptoms, and leads to greater overall relief from nasal symptoms. It also claims that Dymista controls nasal symptoms up to 6 days faster than fluticasone.5 Here we consider the evidence for Dymista and whether it represents a significant advantage in the management of patients with allergic rhinitis.

astelin brand 2015-04-29

Azelastine hydrochloride [4-[(4-chlorophenyl)methyl]-2-(hexahydro-1-methyl-1H-azepin-4yl )-1-(2 H)-phthalazinone monohydrochloride], is a long-acting antiallergic and antiasthmatic drug. The human cytochrome P-450 (CYP) isoform responsible for azelastine N-demethylation, the major metabolic pathway buy astelin online for azelastine, has been examined. Eadie-Hofstee plots of azelastine N-demethylation in human liver microsomes were biphasic. In microsomes from baculovirus-infected insect cells, recombinant CYP3A4, 2D6, 1A2, and 2C19 exhibited high azelastine N-demethylase activity. The K(m) values of the recombinant CYP2D6 (3.75 microM) and CYP3A4 (43.7 microM) were relatively close to that of high-affinity (14.1 microM) and low-affinity (54.7 microM) components in human liver microsomes, respectively. Azelastine N-demethylase activity was inhibited only by the anti-CYP3A antibody, in contrast to antibodies for CYP1A, 2D6, and 2C. In addition, desmethylazelastine formation was significantly inhibited by ketoconazole and troleandomycin but only weakly by omeprazole, sulfaphenazole, and furafylline. These observations suggested that the N-demethylation of azelastine is most extensively catalyzed by the CYP2D6 and 3A4 isoforms in humans.

astelin drug class 2016-06-01

The use of mucoadhesive biopolymers is one of the best approaches to prolong the drug residence inside the cul-de-sac, consequently increasing the bioavailability. Thus, the focus of this work was to develop mucoadhesive microspheres to overcome the limitations of ocular drug delivery. The chitosan-sodium alginate microspheres of azelastine hydrochloride were fabricated using modified ionotropic gelation technique Uroxatral Pills . The particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency and drug release kinetics were evaluated and characterized by SEM, FT-IR, DSC, in vitro mucoadhesion and in vivo study. The microspheres had average particle size in the range of 3.55 to 6.70 µm and zeta potential +24.55 to +49.56 mV. The fabricated microspheres possess maximum drug entrapment of 73.05% with 65% mucin binding efficiency and revealed a controlled release over the 8-h period following a non-Fickian diffusion. SEM showed that microspheres were distinct solid with irregular shape. FT-IR and DSC results concluded the drug entrapment into microspheres. In vivo studies on ocular rat model revealed that azelastine microspheres had better efficacy. Chitosan sodium alginate microspheres prepared were in particle size range suitable for ocular purpose. In vitro release and in vivo efficacy studies revealed that the microspheres were effective in prolonging the drug's presence in cul de sac with improved therapeutic efficacy.

astelin generic brand 2016-08-20

No objective evaluation of the conjunctival provocation test (CPT) was Coumadin Overdose Management possible until now.

astelin overdose 2017-10-15

Azelastine is a phthalazinone derivative with a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities. Actively sensitized guinea pigs were used to examine the broncholytic effect of azelastine in vivo. Furthermore, the influence of azelastine on the production of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites was investigated in vitro and compared to the effects of nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), indomethacin and ketotifen. In vivo, azelastine protected actively sensitized guinea-pigs against ovalbumin-induced bronchospasm with an ID50 of 0.08 mg/kg orally. Ketotifen was similarly active (ID50 = 0.05 mg/kg). Antigen-induced contraction of isolated tracheal rings of sensitized guinea-pigs was concentration-dependently inhibited by azelastine and NDGA with IC50-values of 94.1 and 34.2 mumol/l, respectively. Ketotifen exerted only weak inhibitory activity (18% at 100 mumol/l). The arachidonic acid-induced contraction of isolated guinea-pig 2 Clomid Pills tracheal rings was also inhibited both by azelastine (IC50 = 92.6 mumol/l) and NDGA (IC50 = 20.4 mumol/l). Ketotifen was inactive on this model. Antigen challenge of chopped lung tissue from sensitized guinea-pigs resulted in the release of cysteinyl-leukotrienes (LT) which were identified by reversed phase high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) as LTD4 and LTE4. The release of cysteinyl-LT from sensitized guinea-pig lung tissue induced by antigen challenge was concentration-dependently inhibited by azelastine (IC50 = 35.2 mumol/l) and NDGA (IC50 = 8.4 mumol/l) but not by ketotifen and indomethacin. By contrast, indomethacin caused a pronounced augmentation of cysteinyl-LT release. The concentration of indomethacin, which augmented cysteinyl-LT release by 50% was 0.19 mumol/l.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

astelin buy online 2016-07-09

When heat-killed Propionibacterium acnes was intravenously injected into mice and seven days later, a small amount of gram-negative lipopolysaccharide was also intravenously injected, most of them died of massive hepatic cell necrosis. However, when azelastine hydrochloride, a leukotriene antagonist chemically known as 1(2H)-phthalazinone, 4-[(4-chlorophenyl)methyl]-2-(hexahydro-1-methyl-1H-azepine-4-yl)-, monohydrochloride, or AA861, 2-(12-hydroxydodeca-5, 10-diynyl)-3,5,6-trimethyl-1, 4-benzoquinone, a specific inhibitor of 5-lipoxygenase, was administered during this experimental induction of massive hepatic cell necrosis, the Bactrim 50 Mg survival rate of the mice increased and the histological changes of the liver improved remarkably. These results suggested that leukotriene may be important for the induction of massive hepatic cell necrosis in our experimental model.

astelin dosing 2015-01-14

The review presents some information on known options for treatment of nonallergic Seroquel Overdose Emedicine rhinitis (NAR) with introduction to new therapies. The merits and limitations of recent advancements in pharmacotherapy of this common problem are briefly discussed as well.

astelin tablet 2017-09-11

Whether intranasal phototheraphy will be a standard treatment of SAR or Prevacid 60 Mg not should be appraised in future studies and clinical trials.

astelin spray dosage 2017-06-14

It is generally known that the substrates and/or inhibitors of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) overlap with each other. In intestinal epithelial cells, it is surmised that the metabolites coexist with their parent drug. However, most studies on P-gp did not take the effects of those metabolites into consideration. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of five substrates of CYP3A4 (nifedipine, testosterone, midazolam, amiodarone, and azelastine) and their metabolites on the P-gp-mediated transcellular transport. The transcellular transports of [(3)H]daunorubicin or [(3)H]digoxin by monolayers of LLC-GA5-COL150 cells in which P-gp was overexpressed were measured in the presence or absence of the CYP3A4 substrates and their metabolites. Nifedipine, testosterone, midazolam, and their metabolites exhibited no effects on the P-gp-mediated transport of [(3)H]daunorubicin and [(3)H]digoxin. On the other hand, the transport of [(3)H]daunorubicin was strongly inhibited by amiodarone, desethylamiodarone, azelastine, and desmethylazelastine, with IC(50) values of 22.5, 15.4, 16.0 and 11.8 microM, respectively. The transport of [(3)H]digoxin Viagra 30 Pills was also strongly inhibited by these compounds, with IC(50) values of 45.6, 25.2, 30.0 and 41.8 microM, respectively. Another metabolite of azelastine, 6-hydroxyazelastine, exhibited no effects on these transports. It was suggested that the CYP3A4 metabolites of which their parent drug exhibited inhibition on the P-gp-mediated transport are possibly also inhibitors. It would be possible more complicated drug-drug interactions would be caused by the metabolites as well as their parent drugs in the liver and the intestine via the inhibition of CYP3A4 and P-gp.

astelin generic equivalent 2017-02-13

This randomized, 2-week, multicenter, double-blind trial was conducted during Prevacid Dosage Pediatric the Texas mountain cedar season. After a 5-day placebo lead-in period, 151 patients with moderate to severe nasal symptoms were randomized to treatment with the following: (1) azelastine nasal spray, 2 sprays per nostril twice daily; (2) fluticasone nasal spray, 2 sprays per nostril once daily; or (3) azelastine nasal spray, 2 sprays per nostril twice daily, plus fluticasone nasal spray, 2 sprays per nostril once daily. The primary efficacy variable was the change from baseline in the total nasal symptom score (TNSS), consisting of sneezing, itchy nose, runny nose, and nasal congestion.

astelin usual dosage 2016-11-05

We investigated the antioxidant effects of curcumin in an experimental rat model of allergic rhinitis (AR). Female Wistar albino rats (n = 34) were divided randomly into four groups: healthy rats (control group, n = 8), AR with no treatment (AR + NoTr group, n = 10), AR with azelastine HCl treatment (AR + Aze group, n = 8), and AR with curcumin treatment (AR + Curc group, n = 8). On day 28, total blood IgE levels were measured. For measurement of antioxidant activity, the glutathione (GSH) level and catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were measured in both inferior turbinate tissue and serum. Azulfidine Mg Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured only in inferior turbinate tissue, and paraoxonase (PON) and arylesterase (ARE) activities were measured only in serum. Statistically significant differences were found for all antioxidant measurements (GSH levels and CAT, SOD, GSH-Px activities in the serum and tissue, MDA levels in the tissue, and PON and ARE activities in the serum) between the four groups. In the curcumin group, serum SOD, ARE, and PON and tissue GSH values were higher than the control group. Moreover, tissue GSH levels and serum GSH-Px activities in the curcumin group were higher than in the AR + NoTr group. In the azelastine group, except MDA, antioxidant measurement values were lower than in the other groups. Curcumin may help to increase antioxidant enzymes and decrease oxidative stress in allergic rhinitis. We recommend curcumin to decrease oxidative stress in allergic rhinitis.