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Wells' syndrome (WS), or eosinophilic cellulitis, is an uncommon inflammatory dermatosis of unknown etiology that typically presents with pruritic cellulitis-like plaques on the extremities. Therefore, WS is often misdiagnosed as bacterial cellulitis due to its similarity in presentation. Here, we report two cases of WS that masqueraded as bacterial facial cellulitis. Under treatment with oral prednisone and/or a combination therapy with levocetirizine and hydroxyzine, both patients showed a dramatic improvement of the skin lesions. These cases highlight the need for clinicians to consider WS in the differential diagnosis when evaluating a patient with facial cellulitis that does not respond to an initial antimicrobial regimen. In addition, our cases suggest that combination therapy with levocetirizine and hydroxyzine may be successfully used as corticosteroid-sparing treatment or to prevent relapse after the discontinuation of corticosteroid treatment.
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We chose five sedatives for premedication and investigated the effect of these drugs on the induction doses of propofol. One hundred patients were allocated into one of five groups of 20. These groups consisted of control group (C) given only atropine 0.5 mg i.m.; CL group (plus clonidine 0.15 mg orally); H group (plus hydroxyzine 25 mg i.m.); M group (plus midazolam 3 mg i.m.) and D group (plus diazepam 10 mg orally). The induction dose was measured using loss of count technique. Arterial pressure and heart rate were measured, before and after propofol induction as well as after intubation. We also calculated rate pressure products (RPP) at each point. The induction doses were significantly lower in M-group than those in C-group. On the other hand, in hemodynamic responses, RPP was unchanged in any groups after propofol induction and after the intubation. Both propofol and midazolam have been known to have a depressive effect on the central nervous system via GABA-A receptor-mediated inhibition, although the exact receptor for propofol is unknown. We thought, therefore, that when the interaction occurred, both midazolam and propofol had the same effect on the GABA-A receptor and increased chloride ion flux through the channels. Hydroxyzine and clonidine, however, do not share a common receptor or exert effect on the GABA-A receptor. We consider that this was one of the reasons why induction doses of both H and CL group could not decrease significantly. We concluded that midazolam 3 mg decreased propofol induction dose significantly. Both midazolam 3 mg and clonidine 0.15 mg decreased RPP before induction and hemodynamic responses to induction and intubation were stable.
We studied the oral actions of antihistamines from six chemical classes, namely: the ethanolamines (ENA, diphenhydramine and clemastine); ethylenediamines (EDA, pyrilamine and tripelennamine); piperidines (PPD, terfenadine and astemizole); piperazines (PPZ, hydroxyzine and cetirizine); phenothiazines (PTZ, promethazine), and the alkylamines (ALA, chlorpheniramine and bromopheniramine) on cough reflexes, pentobarbital-induced sedation and minute ventilation in the conscious guinea pig. Antihistamines of the ENA class had minimal effects on capsaicin-induced cough although both diphenhydramine (30 and 100 mg/kg p.o.) and clemastine (30 and 100 mg/kg p.o.) increased sedation time (ST). The PPZ class demonstrated both antitussive and sedating activity. The minimum effective oral antitussive dose (MED) of cetirizine and hydroxyzine was 30 and 10 mg/kg, respectively. The EDA did not exhibit antitussive activity. Tripelennamine (10, 30 and 100 mg/kg p.o.) but not pyrilamine enhanced ST. The MED for the PTZ, promethazine, was 10 mg/kg, and at 100 mg/kg promethazine increased ST. The ALA group displayed antitussive activity but only chlorpheniramine (10 mg/kg p. o.) had any effects on ST. The MED for chlorpheniramine and bromopheniramine was 3 and 10 mg/kg p.o., respectively. The PPD antihistamines, namely terfenadine and astemizole, inhibited cough (MED 30 and 10 mg/kg p.o.) without sedative effects. Of the antihistamines tested only promethazine (100 mg/kg p.o.) depressed ventilation responses; however, this dose of promethazine was associated with adverse behavioral effects. The present findings indicate that the antitussive actions of antihistamines are not directly related to histamine H1-receptor blockade because several antihistamines did not antagonize capsaicin-induced cough. In addition, the antitussive actions of antihistamines are independent of their sedative or ventilation effects.
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Levocetirizine, an active enantiomer of cetirizine is third generation antihistaminic agent used for treating various allergies like atopic dermatitis, chronic idiopathic urticaria and allergic rhinitis.
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Human nasal epithelial cells (5 × 10(5) cells) were stimulated with 250 ng/mL OPN in the presence of either desloratadine (DL), fexofenadine (FEX), or levocetirizine (LCT). The levels of OPN, GM-CSF, Eotaxin, and RANTES in 24 h culture supernatants were examined by ELISA. The influence of LCT on mRNA expression and transcription factor activation in cells were also examined by real-time RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively.
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Interstitial cystitis is associated with substantial costs and health care resource utilization.
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The therapeutic effects of AAG and cetirizine on chronic urticaria patients allocated in two groups were observed respectively, and the serum levels of RANTES, Eotaxin and TNF-alpha in patients were measured by ELISA before and after treatment, and were compared with those in normal subjects.
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Elderly ED patients are frequently administered inappropriate medications. Potentially appropriate uses of generally inappropriate drugs cannot account for such administrations. Inappropriate administration rates remain unchanged despite the 1997 publication of explicit criteria.
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Personal experience in minor surgery with Althesin alone (200 cases) and in association with hydroxyzine in the same syringe (250 cases) is reported. Comparison showed that the association is useful, particularly in cases where the operation lasts longer and involves greater pain stimuli. It is felt that the method described will extend the use of Althesin in minor surgery.
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To evaluate the effect of levocetirizine on the Total 4 Symptoms Score, the 50% response rate, the Pediatric Rhinitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (PRQLQ), and investigators' global evaluation of symptom improvement.
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None; retrospective study.
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Organic cation/carnitine transporter (OCTN2; SLC22A5) is an important transporter for L-carnitine homeostasis, but can be inhibited by drugs, which may cause L-carnitine deficiency and possibly other OCTN2-mediated drug-drug interactions. One objective was to develop a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) of OCTN2 inhibitors, in order to predict and identify other potential OCTN2 inhibitors and infer potential clinical interactions. A second objective was to assess two high renal clearance drugs that interact with OCTN2 in vitro (cetirizine and cephaloridine) for possible OCTN2-mediated drug-drug interactions. Using previously generated in vitro data of 22 drugs, a 3D quantitative pharmacophore model and a Bayesian machine learning model were developed. The four pharmacophore features include two hydrophobic groups, one hydrogen-bond acceptor, and one positive ionizable center. The Bayesian machine learning model was developed using simple interpretable descriptors and function class fingerprints of maximum diameter 6 (FCFP_6). An external test set of 27 molecules, including 15 newly identified OCTN2 inhibitors, and a literature test set of 22 molecules were used to validate both models. The computational models afforded good capability to identify structurally diverse OCTN2 inhibitors, providing a valuable tool to predict new inhibitors efficiently. Inhibition results confirmed our previously observed association between rhabdomyolysis and C(max)/K(i) ratio. The two high renal clearance drugs cetirizine and cephaloridine were found not to be OCTN2 substrates, and their diminished elimination by other drugs is concluded not to be mediated by OCTN2.
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PSH, whether causative or not, is associated with a worse long-term course in rehabilitation. Clinical management of PSH may be helped by a number of acutely administered drug therapies.
The diversity of psychiatric morbidity in SLE and SS may be due to differences in patient selection and a lack of uniform clinical criteria. Studies which use standardized diagnostic criteria and control groups don't allow one to come to a conclusion about the relative prevalence of the psychiatric disorders in these autoimmune diseases. This will probably be resolved thanks to the recently published "American College of Rheumatology nomenclature and case definitions for neuropsychiatric lupus syndromes" (1). Finally, we can ask ourselves if there is a significant number of undiagnosed SLE and SS in psychiatric departments. Two studies report systematic search for SLE in psychiatric patients. In 1992, Hopkinson et al. (39) searched for several autoantibodies in serum samples of nearly 300 hospitalized psychiatric patients. In 1993, Van Dam et al. (65) did the same with more than 2,000 patients admitted to a psychiatric hospital. Hopkinson et al. found 1% undiagnosed SLE, which is much higher than in general population, and recommended to search SLE in every patient with a high erythrocyte sedimentation rate in psychiatric services. Results of the Van Dam et al. study suggest on the contrary, that SLE is not a common cause of admission to psychiatric hospitals. There is no study which report systematic search of Sjögren's syndrome in a psychiatric department. This is probably because most of patients receive or have recently received psychotropics with anticholinergic side-effects which is an exclusion criteria of SS.
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Both prazosin and hydroxyzine can be used to treat psychopharmacological sleep disorders and nightmares in patients suffering from PTSD, also leading to reductions in PTSD symptoms.
The results of our in vivo preclinical studies corroborate those obtained from previously conducted in vitro experiments of bilastine, and provide evidence that bilastine possesses antihistaminic as well as antiallergic properties, with similar potency to cetirizine and superior potency to fexofenadine.
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A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study was conducted between July and October 2006. Symptomatic patients with SAR were exposed to ragweed pollen under controlled conditions in an environmental exposure chamber for 4 to 5 hours after treatment with 5 mg of levocetirizine, 10 mg of montelukast, or matched placebo on 2 consecutive days. The mean change from baseline in pollen-induced rhinitis symptoms, expressed as a major symptoms complex (MSC) score (sum of scores for rhinorrhea, itchy nose, sniffles, nose blows, sneezes, and watery eyes), in period 1 (first 5 hours after first drug intake) was the primary efficacy outcome.
Mast cells from different anatomic sites differ in cytochemistry and response to various secretory stimuli. We have investigated whether responsiveness to the second-generation H1-receptor antagonists, which are important first-line drugs for the relief of symptoms in patients with chronic urticaria and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, also differs according to the site of origin of mast cells. The effects of terfenadine, ketotifen, and cetirizine were therefore examined in relation to the IgE-dependent release of histamine and prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) from dispersed human lung, tonsil, and skin mast cells. Terfenadine had a biphasic effect on lung and skin mast cells: at low concentrations, a concentration-dependent inhibition of histamine release from lung and skin mast cells was observed, whereas at higher concentrations the drug stimulated mediator release. Even at a high concentration, terfenadine inhibited mediator release from tonsil mast cells. Ketotifen had low potency as an inhibitor of mediator release from lung and tonsil mast cells. In skin mast cells, no inhibition of mediator release was observed below 1.0 microM, and above that concentration it induced mediator release. Cetirizine, a much less lipophilic drug than the others tested, did not induce mediator release from mast cells even at concentrations up to 100 microM. This drug showed concentration-dependent inhibition of IgE-dependent mediator release from lung and tonsil mast cells only. Our results show that human mast cells are heterogeneous with respect to modulation of mediator release by these H1-antihistamines. In particular, differences were observed between skin mast cells and those dispersed from lung and tonsils.
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Retrospective analysis of ED visits in the 1992-2000 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey. Inappropriate medications identified using Beers' 1997 explicit criteria.
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of FDE to cetirizine with positive patch testing to hydroxyzine, cetirizine, and levocetirizine. This case highlights the importance of patch testing in the study of cutaneous drug reactions, namely FDE.
The clinical pharmacology of H1-antihistamines has not yet been optimally studied in children and other special groups of patients. Our objective was to determine the onset, extent, and duration of H1-antihistaminic activity of cetirizine and fexofenadine in the pediatric population. We performed a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover, single-dose study of these H1-antihistamines in 15 allergic children, mean+/-SEM age 8.8+/-0.5 years. We used suppression of the histamine-induced wheal and flare as the primary outcome. Compared with pre-dose baseline, cetirizine 10 mg suppressed the wheals significantly (p
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The preoperative and intraoperative anesthesia course of 1,064 patients > or = 50 years of age who underwent ocular surgery under PBA was prospectively examined. The following data were recorded: (i) patient characteristics, state of health or disease, medications and premedications; (ii) heart rate (HR), systolic arterial pressure (SAP), and diastolic arterial pressure (DAP) at 0600 hrs before surgery (baseline), on admission to the operating room, maximum and minimum values of HR, SAP and DAP recorded at the start of, and during, surgery; and (iii) all instances of benzodiazepine, opioid or NSAID drug administration during surgery, according to standard protocols.
All antiemetics used in the last 20 years to prevent PONV are effective (some more than others) in women undergoing dilatation and curettage for pregnancy termination. However, there is a need for benefit and risk analyses of the different treatments.
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A total of 6,364 cardiac surgical patients.
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A post-hoc analysis indicated that bilastine and cetirizine were similarly effective and more effective than placebo during a 4-week treatment period in patients with PAR. In addition, bilastine was shown to be safe and well-tolerated over a 1-year treatment period.