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Alopecia areata (AA) is an autoimmune disease mediated by T lymphocytes. Many treatments have been used but their results remain disappointing. There is a need to propose new therapeutic alternatives.
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Results showed that in comparison to Sulfasalazine, SP exhibited better therapeutic and safety profile than DS against acetic acid-induced UC.
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According to our results, more active anti-rheumatic therapy coincides with better RA-related outcomes. However, the result was the opposite with regard to overall health and comorbidities. Is this a new challenge in the treatment RA?
Attrition at 24 weeks was similar in the MTX monotherapy and combination groups. Of the 370 evaluable participants in the initial MTX group, 28% achieved low levels of disease activity and did not step-up to combination therapy (MTX monotherapy group). The mean ± SD DAS28-ESR in participants continuing to take MTX monotherapy at week 102 was 2.7 ± 1.2, which is similar to that in participants who were randomized to immediate combination therapy (2.9 ± 1.2). Participants who received MTX monotherapy had less radiographic progression at week 102 as compared to those who received immediate combination therapy (mean ± SD change in modified Sharp score 0.2 ± 1.1 versus 1.1 ± 6.4). Participants assigned to initial MTX who required step-up to combination therapy at 24 weeks (72%) demonstrated similar DAS28-ESR values (3.5 ± 1.3 versus 3.2 ± 1.3 at week 48) and radiographic progression (change in modified Sharp score 1.2 ± 4.1 versus 1.1 ± 6.4 at week 102) as those assigned to immediate combination therapy. The results for either of the immediate combination approaches, whether triple therapy or MTX plus etanercept, were similar.
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Sulphasalazine, that has already been proven to be effective for Crohn's disease, also can be used in ocular cicatricial pemphigoid. However, further studies including a larger series of patients along with a longer follow-up are necessary to confirm the efficacy of sulphasalazine in this disease.
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Numerous agents, including sulfasalazine, have been associated with agranulocytosis. Agranulocytic patients frequently experience life-threatening bacterial and fungal infections. Administration of colony stimulating factors may reduce the duration of agranulocytosis and incidence of life-threatening infections.
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Sulphasalazine is a potent and selective inhibitor in vitro of prostaglandin 15-hydroxydehydrogenase in rabbit colon (ID50 = 50 micrometer) and in several other organs of different species, but does not inhibit prostaglandin delta-13 reductase or microsomal prostaglandin synthesis from arachidonic acid. It is suggested that this action may underly the therapeutic usefulness of sulphasalazine in ulcerative colitis for the prevention of relapse.
We constructed a Markov model to compare two strategies over 2 yr: (a) no maintenance 5-ASA, with 5-ASA 4.8 g/day given for flares, (b) maintenance 5-ASA 2.4 g/day, escalated and maintained at 4.8 g/day after the first flare. In both arms, the failure to induce remission led to other treatments, as needed: prednisone, parenteral corticosteroids, cyclosporine, 6-mercaptopurine, infliximab, and colectomy.
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Computerized searches of bibliographic databases were carried out to identify studies published up to October 1993 that were randomized controlled trials of sulfasalazine or mesalazine as single drug therapy in the prevention of symptomatic disease relapse in quiescent Crohn's disease. We extracted and statistically aggregated data from the trials, using a fixed effects model.
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The Peto odds ratio for the failure to maintain clinical or endoscopic remission (withdrawals and relapses) for 5-ASA versus placebo was 0. 47 (95% CI, 0.36 to 0.62) with an NNT of 6. These values were also calculated for the trials in which SASP and 5-ASA were compared, revealing an odds ratio of 1.29 (95% CI, 1.05 to 1.57), with a negative NNT value (-19), suggesting a higher degree of therapeutic effectiveness for SASP. SASP and 5-ASA had similar adverse event profiles, with odds ratios of 1.16(0.62 to 2.16), and 1.31(0.86 to 1.99), respectively. The NNH values were determined to be 171 and 78 respectively.
K pneumoniae specific antibody levels of both IgA1 and IgA2 subclasses were increased in the sera of patients with AS compared with healthy controls. The increased levels were present in patients with axial and with peripheral AS, and there were no statistically significant differences in the antibody levels between these two groups. Sulphasalazine treatment decreased the Klebsiella specific antibody level of IgA1 subclass in patients with axial AS, but there were no statistically significant changes in the IgA2 subclass, or in the patients with peripheral type AS.
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This case series demonstrates that sulfasalazine can be a successful and safe treatment option for patients with CIU who have not responded adequately to treatment with antihistamines. Sulfasalazine was steroid sparing in all subjects who were steroid dependent.
The authors concluded that a combination of green tea extract with sulfasalazine showed greater efficacy than single drug treatment.
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After 2 years of treatment, 80% of all patients achieved the goal of DAS
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Study the epidemiological, clinical, biological and chronological drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) characteristic and indicate the implicated drugs.
Gliomas are among the most commonly diagnosed central nervous system tumors. Celecoxib has been utilized with success in the treatment of several types of cancer, including gliomas. The present study examined the antiproliferative effects of celecoxib and its benzimidazole-based analog, LLW-3-6, when used as co-treatment with sulfasalazine against human glioma LN18 cells. At 48-h treatment, the glioma cells maintained 60% viability in the presence of celecoxib or LLW-3-6 at the maximum concentration tested (40 μM). Co-treatment of glioma cells under a non-lethal dose (50 μM) of sulfasalazine and either celecoxib or LLW-3-6 (administered at different concentrations) resulted in improved inhibition of cell viability. The concentration of the molecules required to reduce cell growth in the combined treatment was significantly less than that needed when either molecule was administered independently. Based on computational values, LLW-3-6 has physiochemical characteristics that should allow for improved bioavailability in comparison to that of celecoxib.
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MTX, SSZ, and antimalarials have become the most commonly used traditional DMARD for rheumatoid arthritis. Their use is more often limited by toxicity than by inefficacy. If tolerated, they can be retained for long periods of time.
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The total volume as well as the total cost of drug consumption for RA in Sweden was relatively constant during our 11 year observation period, despite a notable increase in the use of DMARD. This was mainly due to a decrease in costs per DDD of NSAID, and an increased use of cyclosporine. Drug related adverse reactions were dominated by hematological reactions, and fatal events were few. This emphasizes the need for an extended evaluation of which safety procedures are most cost effective for monitoring the drugs used for RA.
After failure of medical therapy, children with refractory inflammatory bowel disease may require surgical intervention. In this article the authors describe one child in whom, after traditional therapies for refractory ulcerative colitis failed, full remission of the disease occurred after the addition of 6-mercaptopurine and cyclosporine A to her medical regimen. 6-Mercaptopurine has been used with increasing frequency in refractory inflammatory bowel disease; the use of cyclosporine A for this condition is still under investigation.
Psoriatic arthritis is an inflammatory arthritis, which occurs in up to 30% of individuals with psoriasis. Dermatologists and other physicians treating psoriasis are in an ideal position to screen for the condition, and with rheumatologists, strategize optimal therapy. Mild skin and joint manifestations may be treated effectively with topical agents, ultraviolet light therapy, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. More severe manifestations of the disease, including progressive peripheral joint damage, spine disease, enthesitis, dactylitis, and severe skin changes, require systemic therapy. Traditional systemic agents include methotrexate, sulfasalazine, and cyclosporine. When these agents are not adequate or not tolerated, new biologic agents, particularly anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) compounds, have shown significant and enduring benefit in all disease domains, improvement in quality of life and function, and inhibition of progressive joint damage.
A total of 160 patients (78 in the combination group and 82 in the single group) completed the 5-year extension study. At 2 years, 40% of the patients in the combination-DMARD group and 18% in the single-DMARD group had achieved remission (P < 0.009). At 5 years, the corresponding percentages were 28% and 22% (P not significant). The median Larsen radiologic damage scores at baseline, 2 years, and 5 years in the combination-DMARD and single-DMARD groups were 0 and 2 (P = 0.50), 4 and 12 (P = 0.005), and 11 and 24 (P = 0.001), respectively.
To assess the effectiveness of the newer 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) delivery systems compared with placebo or sulfasalazine for the treatment of active ulcerative colitis and for the maintenance of remission.
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Although medication-induced colonotoxicity is uncommon, it is important that it be recognized, because the initial therapy for this condition is medication discontinuation. This review categorizes the association between the listed medications and colonotoxicity as "well-established" or "probable," according to the following criteria: number of clinical studies by independent clinical investigators, total number of reported cases, plausibility of an association based on experimental and pharmacologic studies, and validity of an association in each reported case. Medications associated with colonic ischemia include cocaine, ergotamine, estrogen, amphetamines, digitalis, methysergide, and vasopressin. Medications associated with colonic pseudoobstruction include narcotics, phenothiazines, vincristine, atropine or other anticholinergics, ganglionic blocking agents, and tricyclic antidepressants. Medications promoting infectious or necrotizing enterocolitis include numerous antibiotics associated with pseudomembranous colitis, deferoxamine associated with Yersinia enterocolitis, chemotherapy associated with neutropenic colitis, and hyperosmolar medications or formulas in infants. Medications associated with an allergic, inflammatory, or cytotoxic colitis include gold compounds, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, alpha-methyldopa, flucytosine, methotrexate, salicylates, and sulfasalazine. Potassium chloride, administered in slow-release wax matrices, can cause intestinal ulcers. Chronic cathartic use leads to colonic hypomotility and abdominal distention. Methysergide can cause a colonic stricture due to retroperitoneal fibrosis. Intrarectally administered compounds that have produced a toxic colitis include powerful acids, bases, and other corrosives. Enemas using hypertonic radiographic contrast agents have been associated with colitis in patients with colonic obstruction.
Since specific treatment has not yet been decided on for Crohn's disease, the immediate target is the induction of remission and its maintenance. We examined the effects of an elemental diet (ED) in Crohn's disease with special reference to the maintenance of remission. Eighty-four patients received total enteral nutrition with the ED (35 to 40 kcal/kg ideal body weight/day) and/or conventional drug treatment for induction of remission. Sixty-one patients in remission were then followed-up with prolonged ED therapy (home elemental enteral hyperalimentation, HEEH) and/or drugs. During the follow-up periods the course of patients receiving HEEH was better than those of patients without HEEH, namely the cumulative continuous remission rates after one, 2 and 4 years were, 94%, 63% and 63% in the group receiving HEEH, 75%, 66% and 66% in the group receiving HEEH and drugs, 63%, 42% and 0% in the group receiving drugs, and 50%, 33% and 0% in the group receiving no maintenance therapy, respectively. In particular, when more than 30 kcal/kg ideal body weight/day of the ED was given, the maintenance of remission was successful in 95% of the patients. These results indicated that ED therapy was effective not only for the induction of remission but also for the maintenance of remission in Crohn's disease.
Fifteen children followed as outpatients with chronic inflammatory disease of the colon were given sulfasalazine in doses from 1 to 4 gm/day (22 to 68 mg/kg, or 0.69 to 2.33 gm/m2). No correlation was found between the dose/m2 administered and the total serum sulfapyridine levels. However, 11 of 15 patients achieved SP levels greater than or equal to 17 micrograms/ml, a level approximating that reputedly associated with therapeutic efficacy. Patients who were either slow acetylators or slow hydroxylators of sulfapyridine had total SP levels significantly higher than patients who were both rapid acetylators and hydroxylators (20.0 +/- 1.2 vs 14.6 +/- 1.6). Total SP serum levels were not correlated with the activity of the disease. No toxic levels (greater than 50 micrograms/ml of SP) were encountered. We conclude that a dose of SASP in the range of 1.5 to 2.0 gm/m2 can be safely administered to children and is usually associated with serum SP levels considered in the therapeutic range. Although one-third of children are both rapid acetylators and hydroxylators and will have somewhat lower SP levels, the routine monitoring of SASP therapy with SP levels is not necessary for management of disease.
Significant clinical success of colon targeted dosage forms has been limited by their inappropriate release profile at the target site. Their failure to release the drug completely in the colon may be attributed to changes in the colonic milieu because of pathological state, drug effect and psychological stress accompanying the diseased state or, a combination of these. Alteration in normal colonic pH and bacterial picture leads to incomplete release of drug from the designed delivery system. We report the effectiveness of a targeted delivery system wherein the constant replenishment of the colonic microbiota is achieved by concomitant administration of probiotics along with the polysaccharide based drug delivery system. Guar gum coated spheroids of sulfasalazine were prepared. In the dissolution studies, these spheroids showed markedly higher release in the simulated colonic fluid. In vivo experiments conducted in rats clearly demonstrated the therapeutic advantage of co-administration of probiotics with guar gum coated spheroids. Our results suggest that concomitant use of probiotics along with the polysaccharide based delivery systems can be a simple strategy to achieve satisfactory colon targeting of drugs.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic inflammatory arthritis that leads to severe joint damage and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) are the mainstay of treatment in RA. DMARDs not only relieve the clinical signs and symptoms of RA but also inhibit the radiographic progression of disease. Recently, a new class of disease-modifying medications, the biologic agents, has been added to the existing spectrum of DMARDs in RA. However, patients' response to these agents is not uniform, with considerable variability in both efficacy and toxicity. There are no reliable means of predicting an individual patient's response to a given DMARD prior to initiation of therapy. In this chapter, the current published literature on the pharmacogenomics of traditional DMARDs and the newer biologic DMARDs in RA is highlighted. Pharmacogenomics may help individualize drug therapy in patients with RA in the near future.
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Combination therapy was better and not more hazardous than single treatment in induction of remission in early rheumatoid arthritis. The combination strategy as an initial therapy seems to increase the efficacy of the treatment in at least a proportion of patients with early rheumatoid arthritis.
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The COBRA (Combinatietherapie Bij Reumatoide Artritis) multicenter trial compared the efficacy of prednisolone, methotrexate, and sulfasalazine against sulfasalazine alone in 155 patients with early RA. Two blinded observers interpreted radiographs in sequence (using the Sharp/Van der Heijde scoring system); in each center, one blinded observer performed clinical assessments every 3 months. The current analysis is based on clinical and radiologic data of the individual metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints of 135 patients. Conditional stepwise logistic regression analyzed the relationship between damage (progression) and clinical signs at baseline and followup for each of these joints individually in each patient.