A total of 60 patients with lower respiratory tract or urinary tract infections were enrolled in an open, randomized, controlled, parallel study comparing 300 mg ofloxacin (OFX) b.i.d. with trimethoprim + sulfamethoxazole (TMP 800 mg + SMX 160 mg), 1 tablet, b.i.d. The signs and symptoms of low respiratory tract infection were cured in 12 patients (80%) of the OFX group and improved in 2 other patients (13%); at the end of therapy, the 2 germs that persisted were Streptococcus pneumoniae and Branhamella catarrhalis. Clinical cure was achieved in 13 patients (86%) in the TMP-SMX group, while 2 patients were considered as failures (14%); after therapy, the 3 organisms that persisted were 2 S. pneumoniae and 1 Pseudomonas aeruginosa. As far as urinary tract infections are concerned clinical cure and complete eradication of bacteria were achieved in 14 patients in the OFX group (93%); the germ that persisted was Escherichia coli (100,000 CFU), but the patient was asymptomatic. In patients of the TMP-SMX group the urinary infections were cured in 11 subjects (73%); the germs that persisted were 2 E. coli and 1 Proteus mirabilis. Adverse effects were reported for 3 patients (10%) in the OFX group and 4 patients (13%) in the TMP-SMX group. The measurement of serum and intracellular (polymorphonuclear cells and lymphocytes) levels of OFX and TMP-SMX and the assessment of the host's immunocompetence ruled out the possibility of any immunotoxicological side effect.
The published experience with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ) for treatment of infective endocarditis was reviewed. Among 62 cases, a high proportion had unusual causative organisms: 60% of cases were due to Coxiella burnetii or Pseudomonas species. Only 17% of patients had previously normal cardiac valves. Patients often had complicated courses in which TMP-SMZ was tried only after other treatment regimens had failed, yet a successful outcome was achieved in 61% of cases. Thirty-five patients were treated with antibiotics alone, while the other 27 patients required combined medical and surgical management. TMP-SMZ has a limited role in the management of infective endocarditis; specific guidelines for its use, including proper laboratory control, have been delineated.
bactrim 960 mg
Mycetoma is a neglected, chronic, localized, progressively destructive, granulomatous infection caused either by fungi (eumycetoma) or by aerobic actinomycetes (actinomycetoma). It is characterized by a triad of painless subcutaneous mass, multiple sinuses and discharge containing grains. Mycetoma commonly affects young men aged between 20 and 40 years with low socioeconomic status, particularly farmers and herdsmen.
bactrim y alcohol
Our review demonstrated that prophylaxis significantly reduced all-cause mortality. The most significant reduction in mortality was observed in trials assessing prophylaxis with quinolones. The benefit demonstrated in our review outweighs harm, such as adverse effects, and development of resistance, since all-cause mortality is reduced. Since most trials in our review were of patients with haematologic cancer, prophylaxis, preferably with a quinolone, should be considered for these patients.
bactrim liquid suspension
Seventy-five CIP recipients and 71 TMS recipients were assessable for efficacy. No difference was noted between the two groups in occurrence of fever during neutropenia, time to onset of first fever, or overall infection rates. Ten bacteremias occurred in CIP recipients versus six in TMS recipients (P = .43). Ten episodes of Clostridium difficile enterocolitis occurred in TMS recipients versus no episodes in CIP recipients (P = .001). Four infections caused by gram-negative bacilli, including one bacteremia, occurred in TMS recipients versus none in CIP recipients (P = .06). No differences were noted in the incidence of rash or organ toxicity. TMS recipients had longer durations of granulocytopenia at AGC levels < or = to 500/microL and < or = to 100/microL than did CIP recipients (P = .08 for both comparisons). Mean peak and trough serum levels of CIP decreased significantly between weeks 1 and 2 of prophylaxis.
bactrim pediatric suspension
A case of septicaemia due to Yersinia enterocolitica serotype 3, biotype 4, in a non-compromised host is described. The patient showed severe signs of gram-negative septicaemia. Treatment with sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim (Bactrim) was unsuccessful in spite of full sensitivity, bactericidal and synergistic effects in vitro. Tetracycline gave full restitution.
bactrim ss dosage
Retrospective cohort study, single center, 2005-2009. Paper and electronic medical records were reviewed by one of several physicians. Subjects with initial SSTI were followed until the time of SSTI recurrence. Standard descriptive statistics were calculated to describe the characteristics of subjects who did and did not develop a recurrent SSTI. Kaplan-Meier methods were used to estimate the risk of recurrent SSTI. A Cox regression model was developed to identify predictors of SSTI recurrence.
bactrim and alcohol
Cranial mycetoma is not as rare as was believed. In the Sudan, the majority of cases are caused by S. somaliensis; no cases were found to be caused by Nocardia species. Cranial actinomycetoma proved to be potentially fatal and was the most difficult to treat. The best treatment results were achieved in cases of A. madurae infection.
The introduction of HAART has been associated with a significant fall in the occurrence of bacteraemia. However, patients with a low CD4 cell count remain at risk of bacteraemia with similar microbiological and epidemiological characteristics than in the pre-HAART era.
The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Neisseria meningitidis with decreased susceptibility to penicillin (MIC, >0.06 microg/mL) in North America (NA). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing by Etest (AB BIODISK, Solna, Sweden) was performed on 53 invasive clinical isolates obtained from 11 SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program participants in NA (9 states, 2 provinces) during 1998-99. All strains were markedly susceptible to ciprofloxacin (MIC(90), 0.008 microg/mL) and cefotaxime (MIC(90), < or = 0.002 microg/mL). Only 54.7% were susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) at < or = 0.5/9.5 microg/mL. One strain was resistant to rifampin (MIC, > 32 microg/mL) and 16 isolates (30.2%) were relatively resistant to penicillin with MICs ranging from 0.094 to 0.25 microg/mL. No beta-lactamase production was detected. The serogroup distribution was 40% Y, 28% B, 24% C, 2% W-135, and 6% of strains were nongroupable. The prevalence of N. meningitidis with decreased susceptibility to penicillin in NA appears higher than previous reports.
bactrim ds generic
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of bacterial pneumonia, meningitis, otitis media, and sinusitis; it results in significant morbidity and mortality in patients with pneumonia and meningitis. The pneumococcus is a common colonizing bacterium in the respiratory tract; it is especially common in the respiratory tracts of children, where it is frequently exposed to antimicrobial agents. This exposure can lead to resistance. Penicillin nonsusceptibility is found in nearly 40% of strains causing disease in adults, although often these cases are treatable with appropriate dosing regimens of many oral and parenteral beta-lactam agents. In the United States resistance to macrolides is widespread--averaging approximately 28%--but geographically variable, ranging from 23% in the northwest to 30% in the northeast. Resistance to tetracyclines and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole are reported in approximately 20% and 35% of isolates, respectively, and resistance to multiple classes of agents is increasingly common. Amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, respiratory fluoroquinolones, and clindamycin are currently the most effective agents for treatment of respiratory tract infections caused by S pneumoniae, with >90% of isolates in the United States being susceptible. Vancomycin is the only agent against which resistance has not emerged. Patient groups that are at increased risk for developing resistant pneumococcal infections have been identified and include patients with malignancies, human immunodeficiency virus infection, and sickle-cell disease. Judicious use of antimicrobials is the key to preventing the emergence of further resistance, particularly as few new classes of agents are likely to become available for clinical use in the short term.
bactrim dosage weight
An illustrative case report shows the positive effect of prolonged treatment with cotrimoxazole in a 49-year-old male with a second relapse of Wegener's granulomatosis.
bactrim renal dosing
In resource-constrained settings, HIV-infected pregnant women should be assessed for HAART eligibility and treated as needed without delay, and should be encouraged to breastfeed their infants for at least 6 months.
bactrim buy online
In a study comprising 116 patients at a hospital for general care, ofloxacin was tested in various doses and at various time intervals against pipemidic acid (for infections of the lower urinary tract) and co-trimoxazole forte (for infections of the upper urinary tract). Ofloxacin proved superior to the other drugs both clinically and, particularly, bacteriologically. Of 77 patients treated with ofloxacin, only one complained of diarrhoea as a side-effect of the drug.
bactrim cystitis dosage
Seventy-two patients (46 women [64%]; mean [SD] age, 57.7 ± 13.89 years]) were included. The most common patient-reported reactions to TMP-SMX were rash 39 (54%), and hives 9 (13%). TMP-SMX administration was needed for the following indications: prophylaxis (62 [86%]) and treatment of infection (10 [14%]). Forty-three of the patients (60%) underwent a 1-day TMP-SMX administration protocol. Thirty-five of the 43 (81%) underwent a 6-step (90 minutes to 6 hours) protocol and 7 of the 43 (16%) underwent a novel 14-step TMP-SMX protocol. Twenty-nine (40%) underwent a >1-day TMP-SMX administration protocol. Our overall success rate was 90% (mean duration of 11 months). Ninety-eight percent of the patients successfully completed a 1-day graded administration protocol, and 76% successfully completed a >1-day protocol. TMP-SMX was stopped in 8 patients because of the ADR.
bactrim uti dose
Patients with cleft lip and palate presenting with SCOM exhibited 100% positive cultures, with the highest frequency of Pseudomonas and enterobacteriaceae. With regard to the action of antibiotics, imipenem was effective against the four species of isolated microorganisms, followed by ciprofloxacin, which was effective against 75% of isolated species.
To determine whether temperature (42 degrees C)-sensitive auxotrophs of Escherichia coli have special virulence properties (W. D. Welch, D. Kitts, H. S. Moyed, and L. D. Thrupp, J. Clin. Microbiol. 13:606-608, 1981), we examined 301 strains isolated from patients with bacteremia or acute cystitis and from the stools of healthy subjects. Of these strains, 49.5% grew at 42 degrees C without supplements, 39.2% required a nutritional supplement, and 11.3% failed to grow even with selected nutrients. Nicotinamide restored growth for 35.2% of strains at either 37 or 42 degrees C. Some of strains required methionine, glutamic, aspartic, and amino acid mixtures or NaCl for growth at 42 degrees C. Temperature-sensitive strains were significantly more abundant in isolates from blood and urine than in stool, but temperature-sensitive auxotrophs were isolated at about the same frequency from each site. There were no discernible clonal patterns, by serotype, among of the nicotinamide-requiring temperature-sensitive auxotrophs. Resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was associated with ability to grow at 42 degrees C. This was not observed with any other antimicrobial drug. Temperature-sensitive strains are a heterogenous group. The relationship of temperature-sensitive auxotrophy to virulence is uncertain.
bactrim dosage peds
AP in children is well tolerated and shows high efficacy for PCP prophylaxis in children with leukemia. We conclude that AP should be considered as second-line PCP prophylactic therapy for children with acute leukemia in instances in which TMP/SMX cannot be tolerated. Phase III trials are required to determine its effect on dose intensification and event-free survival.
bactrim f dosage
Four studies matched the inclusion criteria-2 randomized and 2 case controls-for a total of 570 patients. The pneumonia incidence was 0% after full-dose prophylaxis (0/181), 1% after the low-dose regimen (1/105), and 11% with no prophylaxis (31/284). Pneumonia occurrences were significant lower between the full-dose prophylaxis versus the no prophylaxis group (0% vs 11%; P < .001), and between the low-dose and no prophylaxis groups (1% vs 11%; P < .001). There was no difference between patients receiving the full-dose prophylaxis versus the low-dose regimen (0% vs 1%; P = NS).
bactrim ds dosage
E. americana is a rare gram-negative bacillus that has infrequently been reported to cause infection. This organism has been reported in humans in the blood, sputum, conjunctiva, wounds, and peritoneal fluid. In several of these cases, as well as in our case, this organism appeared to occur more frequently in immunocompromised patients. Although generally susceptible to most antibiotics, our patient's organism was resistant to all antibiotics tested, with the exception of TMP/SMX, ticarcillin/clavulanate, and cefotetan.
bactrim 800mg dosage
Classic Whipple's disease is a chronic disease caused by Tropheryma whipplei. A recent study reported that intravenous treatment with ceftriaxone or meropenem followed by a 1 year treatment with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole cured all patients. However, we have previously reported that T. whipplei is poorly susceptible to beta-lactams and resistant to trimethoprim. Herein, we want to evaluate these antibiotic regimens.
bactrim 30 mg
The level of antibiotic resistance in pneumococci from healthy children was of concern. Carriage of pneumococcus was significantly higher in children who attended a day care centre. Resistance was significantly correlated with antibiotic use in combination with day-care attendance. These findings warrant more judicious use of antibiotics in children.
bactrim iv dosing
Among the 222 patients, the mean rates of E. coli susceptibility to levofloxacin and SMX-TMP were 82.4% and 72.5%, respectively. Significant risk factors for resistance to SMX-TMP included prior antibiotic use (p=0.04) and prior diagnosis of UTI (p= 0.01). Significant risk factors for resistance to levofloxacin included: male gender, age, presence of hypertension, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, nursing home resident, previous antibiotic use, previous diagnosis of UTI, existence of renal or genitourinary abnormalities, and prior surgical procedures (p <0.05 for all comparisons). The number of hospital days prior to initial ED evaluation (p<0.001) was determined to be a predictive factor in hospital and ED readmission.
bactrim ds tablet
This study examined gene polymorphisms in dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS), dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and cytochrome b of Pneumocystis carinii isolated from 34 patients with P. carinii pneumonia (PCP) in Japan. Four amino acid substitutions (Thr55Ala, Pro57Ser, His60Gln and Glu169Gly) in DHPS, 2 mutations (Ala67Val and Cys166Tyr) in DHFR and 1 mutation (Leu280Phe) in cytochrome b were found in 9 (26.5%), 2 (5.9%) and 1 (2.9%) patient, respectively. No linkage of mutations in DHPS to those in DHFR or cytochrome b was observed. The patients whose isolates showed mutations in DHPS, DHFR and cytochrome b were not exposed to sulfonamides, DHFR inhibitors and atovaquone before they developed PCP, except for 2 patients. Co-trimoxazole treatment failed more frequently in patients whose isolates had DHPS mutations than in those whose isolates showed wild-type DHPS (n=6 [85.7%] versus n=3 [12.5%]; P=0.001). Our results suggest that DHPS mutations may contribute to failure of co-trimoxazole treatment for PCP.
bactrim dosing peds
Blood samples were collected before (time 0) and 5, 15, 30, and 45 minutes and 1, 1.25, 1.5, 1.75, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 4.5, 5, 6, 8, 10, and 24 hours after IV administration of sulfamethoxazole (12.5 mg/kg) and trimethoprim (2.5 mg/kg). Serum was analyzed in triplicate with high-performance liquid chromatography for determination of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim concentrations. Serum concentration-time curve for each animal was analyzed separately to estimate noncompartmental pharmacokinetic variables.
Among 1,102 recent Escherichia coli clinical isolates, clonal group A was identified in 17 of 20 (U.S. and non-U.S.) geographic locales, mainly among U.S. isolates (9% vs. 3%; p < 0.001) and those resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (10% vs. 1.7%; p < 0.001). The extensive antimicrobial resistance and virulence profiles of clonal group A may underlie its recent widespread emergence.
bactrim 960 dosage
To analyse the incidence of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia after the withdrawal of prophylaxis, in patients with AIDS who were receiving HAART (highly active antiretroviral treatment).
cotrimoxazole bactrim dosage
We searched PubMed and four other databases to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cohort studies. Two independent reviewers searched the databases, identified studies and extracted data. Risk ratios (RRs) were pooled across studies using random-effects models.
A 55-year-old man became acutely psychotic and had a pseudoseizure after receiving six doses of intravenously administered trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. These symptoms resolved within 24 hours after discontinuation of the medication; this finding suggests a causal effect of the drug administration.