Bactroban is used to treat certain skin infections such as impetigo and furuncle. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria.
Other names for this medication:
Also known as: Mupirocin.
Bactroban is an antibiotic ointment that is effective in treating impetigo, and other skin infections that bacteria causes. It is important to note that this ointment will not work on fungal infections or infections caused by viruses.
Bactroban consists of 2 medications: sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim. The first inhibits synthesis of dihydrofolic acid (the substance important for human and bacterial metabolism) while the last blocks next stage of its biochemical cycle: formation of tetrahydrofolic acid which occurs only in microorganisms.
This medication is effective against streptococci, staphylococci, pneumococci, bacillus dysentery, typhoid fever, E. coli, Proteus, and ineffective against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, spirochetes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Bactrim is applied in treatment of pneumonia and other diseases of respiratory, gastrointestinal systems, urogenital systems caused by bacterial infections which develop after surgery and others.
Bactroban is an antibacterial. It works by stopping the production of essential proteins needed by the bacteria to survive.
Bactroban is also known as Mupirocin, Centany.
Generic name of Bactroban is Mupirocin.
Follow the directions for using this medicine provided by your doctor. Use Bactroban exactly as directed.
Bactroban should be applied directly to the skin.
This ointment is normally applied to the skin 3 times per day, normally for 1 to 2 weeks.
Before you apply the ointment, ensure that the affected area is clean and dry.
Apply a thin film of the ointment to the affected area. After applying the ointment, you may use a gauze to cover the affected area.
Wash your hands immediately after using Bactroban.
If you overdose Bactroban and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of overdose: dizziness, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, stomach pain, headache, yellowing of your skin or eyes, blood in your urine, fainting.
Store at a room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away the after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.
The most common side effects associated with Bactroban are:
Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.
Do not take Bactroban if you are allergic to Bactroban components.
It is not known whether Bactroban will harm an unborn baby. Do not use this medicine without your doctor's advice if you are pregnant or breast-feeding.
Do not take Bactroban if you suffer from asthma or have severe kidney or liver disorders.
Do not take Bactroban if you have anemia caused by folic acid deficiency.
Bactroban should be used with extreme caution in children younger than 5 years old; safety and effectiveness in these children have not been confirmed.
Do not drink alcohol or use medicines that may cause drowsiness (e.g., sleep aids, muscle relaxers) while you are using Bactroban; it may add to their effects. Ask your pharmacist if you have questions about which medicines may cause drowsiness.
Do not use Bactroban on large areas of broken or damaged skin, especially if you suffer from reduced kidney function.
Avoid exposure to sunlight or getting tanned.
Do not stop taking Bactroban suddenly.
A sentinel practice network covering a population of 700,000 in England and Wales.
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Despite a large body of work evaluating the ability of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) screening and decolonization to decrease the risk of MRSA infection and transmission, many uncertainties remain regarding the efficacy of this strategy in hospitals located in endemic areas. With meticillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), the objective is simply to eradicate the organism in order to diminish the risk of infection. MSSA decolonization was recently found to be effective in high-risk clean surgery, where the intervention was cost-effective and cost-saving. The many unanswered issues include the role for rapid screening tests, the optimal decolonization regimen, the indication for decolonization in other situations at risk, the frequency of replacement of S. aureus infections with infections due to other micro-organisms, and the risk of emergence of mupirocin resistance.
Inpatients and outpatients at the facility.
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Following a retrospective, observational design, we investigated 665 patients incident on PD. The main study variable was survival to the first episode of TESI. We considered selected demographic, clinical, and technical variables, applying multivariate strategies of analysis. ♦
Clinical samples such as wound swabs, tissues and pus which were submitted to the microbiology laboratory during a period of six months were screened for the growth of Staphylococcus species, which were identified as Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase negative Staphylococcus species by the routine microbiological procedures. All the isolates were tested for their Mupirocin susceptibilities by using 5 and 200 μg discs and their resistance was confirmed from their Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs).
To study the efficacy of whole-body washing with chlorhexidine for the control of MRSA.
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Asymptomatic colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is common in long-term care facilities, but the burden of symptomatic infection appears to be low. Patients known to be MRSA carriers should not be refused admission, and routine cultures to identify carriers are not warranted. In the absence of symptomatic MRSA, no measures beyond routine infection control and standard precautions are necessary. Increased rates of infection should prompt investigation of a potential outbreak and initiation of more drastic infection-control measures. During an outbreak, both infected and colonized residents should be isolated until transmission has been halted. Using short-term nasal application of mupirocin ointment for MRSA-colonized residents and staff implicated in the outbreak may help break the chain of transmission.
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Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a significant cause of mortality and morbidity in healthcare and community settings; however, there is a paucity of large-scale, longitudinal studies monitoring the occurrence of MRSA in the care home setting.
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Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) comprised about 7.5% per annum of all S. aureus isolated in a general hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia during the 3 year period 1990-1992. Most isolates were from wound sites (71%). Resistance to gentamicin (83%) and tetracycline (93%) was frequently observed whilst resistance to ciprofloxacin (1%) and rifampicin (6%) was uncommon. Low levels of mupirocin resistance (MIC 8 mg l-1), were detected in 3% of all MRSA isolates.
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Adherence to current recommendations results in a low incidence of TESI in PD patients. Interventions on specific risk subsets have a potential to bring incidence close to negligible levels. Despite systematic screening and management, SAu carriage is still a predictor of TESI. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns may help to refine stratification of the risk of TESI by these bacteria. Early insertion of the peritoneal catheter should be considered whenever possible, to reduce the risk of later TESI.
The common Grape L. (Vitaceae) is regarded as an important medicinal plant. European healers have suggested the use of grapevine sap, juice, and whole grape in the treatment of pain, allergic reactions, inflammation, and to promote wound healing. We evaluated grape-skin powder for its wound-healing activity using an excision wound model in rats. Animals were randomly divided into three groups of six (n = 6) each. The test group animals were treated topically with the grape-skin powder (100 mg/kg/day). The controls and standard group animals were treated with petroleum jelly and mupirocin ointment respectively. Healing was assessed by the rate of wound contraction, period of epithelialization, and hydroxyproline content. On day 13, treatment of the wounds with grape-skin powder enhanced significantly the rate of wound contraction (100 %). Treated animals showed significant decrease in the epithelialization period (p < 0.000) and increase in the hydroxyproline content (p < 0.05) when compared to control and the standard. Histological analysis was also consistent with the proposal that grape-skin powder exhibits significant wound-healing potential. Increased rate of wound contraction, hydroxyproline content, and decrease in epithelialization time in the treated animals support the use of grape-skin powder in the management of wound healing.
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Sixteen of 147 patients (10.9%) were found to be SA carriers: of these 13 (8.8%) had a positive nasal/axillae/groin culture; two (1.4%) had both nasal/axillae/groin- and exit site-positive culture; and one (0.7%) had only exit site-positive culture. In these 16 SA carriers, we found mupirocin-resistant strains (MuRSA) in four patients (25%) and MRSA in two patients (12.5%). Among the four MuRSA carriers, one had both nasal/axillae/groin- and exit site-positive culture and three had only nasal/axillae/groin-positive culture. Three high-level resistance and one low-level resistance MuRSA carriers were isolated. One MuRSA strain was also methicillin resistant. All MRSA strains were sensitive to vancomycin and rifampicin.
A university hospital, tertiary referral center for cardiothoracic surgery.
Interpretation of the mupirocin E-test for low-level mupirocin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains has been improved by adding the indicator dye tetrazolium. E-tests were compared with agar dilution methods for assessing mupirocin susceptibility. MICs obtained by the agar dilution method and E-tests showed 89.3% agreement within 2 log(2) dilution criteria. The agreement between MICs increased to 100% in the 1 log(2) dilution definition when the indicator dye tetrazolium was added to the E-test. The use of the E-test with tetrazolium reduction is more accurate for determining mupirocin MICs for S. aureus strains.
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Our results provide evidence from a clinical setting of a fitness cost associated with MupR in MRSA strains. This provides a plausible explanation for the low levels of mupirocin resistance seen following 'screen and treat' mupirocin usage. From our simulations, even under conservative estimates of relative transmissibility, we see long-term increases in the prevalence of MupR given 'universal' use.
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Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from nasal discharge was identified in 37 (2.5%) cardiovascular patients operated between 1995 and 1997; 25 male and 12 female, ranging from 1 to 83 years (mean 63); 2 were excluded because of Arbekacin or Isodine-gel treatment. The first 17 were treated with Vancomycin inhalation (V group) and eradication was considered to have been achieved when 3 consecutive negative cultures were obtained; the subsequent 18 were treated with Mupirocin (M group) and eradication was determined by 1 negative culture. In post-eradication electively operated 13 V and 15 M, postoperative MRSA infection was observed in one M (wound infection); the interval from the first nasal culture to the operation was 68 +/- 58 in V and 32 +/- 12 days in M, respectively (p < 0.05). In the remaining 7 who had to undergo emergency surgery while waiting for eradication because of progression of symptoms (2 V) or prior to instituting treatment (2 V, and 3 M), postoperative MRSA infection was observed in 2 M (both pneumonia). No deaths from infection were observed. Though the time required for conversion of the nasal culture was longer in V (13 +/- 20) than in M (7 +/- 1 days) differences were not significant. Mupirocin is easier to use, eradication can be achieved generally within a week.
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Presumed skin cancers were excised from 46 consecutive outpatients without antibiotic cover. A purulent wound developed in ten patients. Similar, but contaminated lesions were excised from 40 patients, but mupirocin ointment was used before surgery. Not one purulent wound developed out of 45 excisions.
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Fifty-two Tet(R) MRSA strains from unrelated patients were included in this study. Susceptibility to 26 antimicrobial agents was determined and 24 resistance genes were tested for by PCR. The sequences of the genes grlA and gyrA were analysed in all ciprofloxacin-resistant MRSA isolates. For all strains, spa, SCCmec and agr typing was implemented. Multilocus sequence typing was performed for 16 representative strains of the different spa types. The presence of the genes tst, lukF/lukS-PV, eta, etb, etd and cna was investigated by PCR.
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Although infrequent, postoperative methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) surgical site infection (SSI) is associated with significant morbidity and cost. Previous studies have identified the importance of MRSA screening to diminish the risk of postoperative MRSA SSI. The current study quantifies the importance of eradication of the MRSA carrier state to prevent MRSA SSI. Beginning February 2007, all admissions to an 800-bed tertiary care hospital were screened for MRSA by nasal swab using rapid polymerase chain reaction-based testing. Patients found to be nasal carriers of MRSA were treated with 2 per cent mupirocin nasal ointment and 4 per cent chlorhexidine soap before surgery. The subset of patients undergoing procedures that are part of the Surgical Care Improvement Project (SCIP) were followed for MRSA SSI (n = 8980). The results of preoperative MRSA screening and eradication of the carrier state were analyzed. Since the initiation of universal MRSA screening, 11 patients undergoing SCIP procedures have developed MRSA SSI (0.12%). Of these, six patients (55%) had negative preoperative screens. Of the five patients with positive preoperative screens, only one received treatment to eradicate the carrier state. In patients who develop MRSA SSI, failure to treat the carrier state before surgery results in MRSA SSI.
The introduction of ciprofloxacin on an unrestricted basis into a 900-bed community hospital resulted in the emergence of high-level fluoroquinolone resistance among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) during the subsequent 18 months. Susceptibility testing revealed several old and new compounds to which all the S. aureus strains were susceptible. When an MRSA strain became resistant to ciprofloxacin it also exhibited high-level resistance to ofloxacin, fleroxacin, norfloxacin, and enoxacin. Two new experimental fluoroquinolones, WIN 57273 and CI-960, exhibited good activity against all test strains. Among the glycopeptide compounds, mupirocin and teicoplanin were approximately fourfold more active than vancomycin and ramoplanin. Rifampin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMZ) showed good activity against most strains as did imipenem. For clindamycin, gentamicin, and tetracycline susceptibilities exhibited a bimodal distribution with at least 10% of strains having resistant MIC values. Surprisingly, the addition of sulbactam potentiated the activity of ampicillin against the ciprofloxacin-resistant MRSA strains, however, sulbactam had little effect on cefoperazone activity against these same strains. Time-kill kinetic studies of selected antimicrobials against ciprofloxacin-resistant strains indicated good killing by vancomycin, ampicillin-sulbactam, and TMP/SMZ. Teicoplanin was less bactericidal than vancomycin while these same strains rapidly developed resistance to rifampin even at concentrations 8 x MIC. These data indicate certain alternative compounds within our study warrant further investigation, especially in vivo, against multiply-resistant staphylococci.
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A recent trial showed that universal decolonization in adult intensive care units (ICUs) resulted in greater reductions in all bloodstream infections and clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) than either targeted decolonization or screening and isolation. Since regional health-care facilities are highly interconnected through patient-sharing, focusing on individual ICUs may miss the broader impact of decolonization. Using our Regional Healthcare Ecosystem Analyst simulation model of all health-care facilities in Orange County, California, we evaluated the impact of chlorhexidine baths and mupirocin on all ICU admissions when universal decolonization was implemented for 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of ICU beds countywide (compared with screening and contact precautions). Direct benefits were substantial in ICUs implementing decolonization (a median 60% relative reduction in MRSA prevalence). When 100% of countywide ICU beds were decolonized, there were spillover effects in general wards, long-term acute-care facilities, and nursing homes resulting in median 8.0%, 3.0%, and 1.9% relative MRSA reductions at 1 year, respectively. MRSA prevalence decreased by a relative 3.2% countywide, with similar effects for methicillin-susceptible S. aureus. We showed that a large proportion of decolonization's benefits are missed when accounting only for ICU impact. Approximately 70% of the countywide cases of MRSA carriage averted after 1 year of universal ICU decolonization were outside the ICU.
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Topical mupirocin therapy is used to treat symptomatic chronic sinusitis (CRS). However, the potential adverse impact of this therapy on the sinus microbiota has not been well quantified.
Staphylococcus aureus infections in the Down syndrome (DS) population have not been well characterized. This study determined clinical and molecular characteristics of S. aureus infections in children with DS followed at Texas Children's Hospital (TCH), from 2001 to 2011. Patients were retrospectively identified from an ongoing S. aureus surveillance study. Medical records were reviewed. Isolates were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns, and detection of PVL genes (pvl), mupA (high-level mupirocin resistance gene), smr (chlorhexidine resistance conferring gene), and Staphylococcal Chromosomal Cassette mec (SCCmec) type. Twenty-six patients with DS had a total of 34 S. aureus infections (8 recurrent); 61% were MRSA. DS patients represented 16.8 per 10,000 community onset S. aureus infections seen at TCH. Among 26 initial infections 17 were skin and soft tissue (SSTI), 7 were outer or middle ear and 2 were invasive infections. Seventeen patients were hospitalized. Thirteen (65%) of 20 available isolates were USA300, 14 were pvl+, 5 were mupA+, and 8 were smr+. Five of 8 (63%) recurrent infections were ear infections. All 4 recurrent ear isolates available for study were smr+, ciprofloxacin non-susceptible and treated with ciprofloxacin otic drops. S. aureus infections among patients with DS were similar in presentation to other patient groups, except for a greater proportion being associated with ear infections. Seventy percent of ear fluid isolates carried antiseptic and fluoroquinolone resistance genes. A study of a greater number of DS patients is warranted to further explore these findings.
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Mupirocin and antiseptic body wash reduced the rate of superficial but not deep or organ/space SSIs. Postoperative patient treatment may be critical in reducing the risk for superficial SSI, presumably due to a reduction of bacterial skin load. A high proportion of SSI was due to methicillin-resistant CoNS and thus not covered by routine perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis.
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How to eradicate methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization in hospitalized patients is uncertain. We reviewed our experience with MRSA decolonization therapy in hospitalized patients.
To investigate the development of mutational resistance to antibiotics in staphylococcal biofilms.
The problems presented by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) must be accommodated in both prophylactic and treatment regimens for orthopaedic implant surgery. The rationale of pre-admission nasal swabbing in directing prophylaxis for orthopaedic patients is discussed. The potential advantage of nasal mupirocin for Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA carriers is described. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis is commented upon as another hazard in orthopaedics. Criteria for choosing glycopeptides in the treatment of implant infections are discussed, and need to be defined in orthopaedic units. Treatment regimens are briefly described.
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The MRSA strain contained a conjugative plasmid expressing mupA that was identical with that found in the S. epidermidis strain which colonized the patient. These findings suggest that transfer of mupA from S. epidermidis to MRSA probably occurred during mupirocin prophylaxis.
Medical ICUs of 2 French university hospitals.
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A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial.
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