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To study the effect of yiqi huoxue formula (YHF) on healing and recurrence of peptic ulcer.
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Liposome modified by WGA is a promising formulation for bacteria targeted delivery and immunity defensive system through macrophage improving uptake of bacteria, biodistribution, in vitro and in vivo antibacterial efficacy against MRSA.
The activity of clarithromycin (4 micrograms/ml) against the MO-1 strain of M. avium was evaluated within human macrophages in presence of chloroquine (5 micrograms/ml). The minimal inhibitory concentration of clarithromycin for the strain was 2 micrograms/ml.
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Despite rising rates of macrolide resistance to Streptococcus pneumoniae, the current guidelines for outpatient treatment of community-acquired pneumonia include a macrolide as initial empiric therapy. There have only been a few previously documented cases of macrolide treatment failure in community-acquired pneumonia and there is controversy as to whether macrolide resistance in S. pneumoniae is clinically important. Reported here are two cases of community-acquired pneumonia caused by S. pneumoniae, one of which was fatal, that failed to respond to clarithromycin.
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Triple therapy including clarithromycin, amoxicillin, and a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) has been recommended as the treatment of choice for Helicobacter pylori eradication. This regimen is now challenged by an increasing level of clarithromycin resistance that jeopardizes the treatment success. When clarithromycin resistance has been detected, or when its rate is known to be high in the geographic area, this drug cannot be used. It can be replaced by metronidazole, the resistance of which has a limited clinical relevance. Another option is to prescribe tetracycline and metronidazole with a PPI or ranitidine bismuth citrate. New antibiotics such as levofloxacin or rifabutin can also be used in combination with amoxicillin and a PPI. Probiotics can be added to all of these regimens to improve compliance by decreasing adverse events. But some authors advocate a quadruple therapy as a first-line treatment. Solutions to improve the limitations of this last regimen are now being proposed. Clarification of the controversial treatment indications such as gastroesophageal reflux disease or prevention of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug gastroduodenal symptoms has been made. The question of prevention of gastric carcinoma by H. pylori eradication remains unanswered.
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Chronic infection caused by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is associated with chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric cancer. Eradication of H. pylori reduces morbidity of chronic gastritis and incidence of gastric cancer in high-risk population. We aimed at testing the efficacy of clarithromycin-based triple therapy and bismuth-based quadruple therapy for eradicating H. pylori in patients with chronic gastritis in Kuwait.
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65 consecutive children attending the authors' department between 1998 and 2000 who had proven successful H. pylori eradication were enrolled; 52 took part. Patients and family members were invited to undergo C-urea breath testing and to complete a simple questionnaire regarding symptoms and socioeconomic status. Patients with H. pylori reinfection were offered treatment; eradication was assessed by C-urea breath test 8 weeks after completion of treatment.
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Helicobacter pylori causes several gastroduodenal diseases. Various antibiotic regimens are available that eradicate H. pylori in 80 to 90% of patients, but no regimen cures all patients. Dual therapy is now obsolete. Triple therapy with two antibiotics and either a proton pump inhibitor or bismuth is the regimens of choice. Metronidazole and clarithromycin are the two key antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance against these two drugs is becoming more problematic and should be taken into consideration when choosing a regimen. Antibiotic resistance is usually induced after failure. Quadruple therapy has been used as a salvage regimen in failed cases but it is also the most complicated regimen. Several new agents are being studied including a single capsule that contains bismuth, metronidazole, and tetracycline.
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Although colchicine poisoning is relatively uncommon, it is imperative to recognize its features as it is associated with a high mortality rate when missed.
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An 84-year-old woman began to have low fever below 38 degrees C with slight lassitude from June 19, 2002. Despite oral administration of Clarithromycin for 3 days, the fever did not subside and the lassitude increased, so she was admitted to our department. While inflammatory findings were noticed, the cause was not identified by blood and imaging examinations (thoracoabdominal CT, etc.). Although her tuberculin reaction was positive, symptoms indicative of pulmonary tuberculosis were absent. Administration of Cefotiam and Imipenem Cilastatin sodium was ineffective. Pyometra was diagnosed. After drainage, the uterine cavity was washed every day. On the basis of culture of fluid retained a few colonies of Gram-negative bacteria were isolated, but were not identified, Cefpirome was administered, whereupon the fever subsided gradually, but mild inflammatory findings remained. Even after discharge on July 24, the retention increased, so drainage and washing were done repeatedly. However, mild inflammatory findings persisted. She began to have a fever from September 17 and was readmitted. After admission, administration of Flomoxef sodium was started, but no improvement was seen. A small amount of hydrothorax appeared on the left. Thoracocentesis yielded a bloody, slightly turbid exudative. Acid-fast staining and Mycobacterium tuberculosis specific PCR of pleural effusion were negative, but adenosindeaminase was 87.4 U/l. Therefore, a diagnosis of tuberculous pleurisy was made. DNA/PCR of tubercle bacilli in the fluid retained in the uterus was positive, and re-retention was prevented by administration of anti-tuberculosis drugs. These findings suggest a strong possibility of tubercle bacillus having been the causative bacteria. Particularly in the case of the elderly, it appears important that pyometra be included in differential diagnosis as the cause of fever even without gynecological symptoms and that tubercle bacillus be considered the causative bacterium.
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In this prospective single center study, H. pylori infected gastritis patients were randomized to receive 7- or 14-day standard triple therapy plus bismuth with probiotic or placebo. Treatment regimen consisted of 30 mg lansoprazole twice daily, 1 g amoxicillin twice daily, 1 g clarithromycin MR once daily and 1,048 mg bismuth subsalicylate twice daily. Probiotic bacteria composed of Bifidobacterium lactis, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus paracasei. Placebo was conventional drinking yogurt without probiotic. CYP2C19 genotyping and antibiotic susceptibility tests were also done. H pylori eradication was defined as a negative 13C-urea breath test at least 2 weeks after completion of treatment.
Statistically equivalent clinical cure and success rates, overall symptomatic improvement, and bacteriologic responses were achieved with both treatments. In the clarithromycin MR group, the clinical cure rate was 72.5% (87/120), and the clinical success rate (cure plus symptomatic improvement) was 97.5% (117/120). Of the 124 patients treated with clarithromycin IR 250 mg BID, 98 (79.0%) achieved a clinical cure, and 120 (96.8%) achieved clinical success. There were no statistically significant between-group differences in clinical cure or success rates. More than 85% of patients in both study groups experienced improvement in dyspnea, cough, wheezing, chest discomfort, fatigue, and fever, and the visual appearance of sputum: these symptoms resolved completely in the majority of patients. Bacteriologic response (efficacy against specific pathogens), which was assessed as an objective efficacy criterion, was assessable for 40 patients treated with clarithromycin MR and 49 patients treated with clarithromycin IR. Bacteriologic eradication of the pretreatment target pathogen was achieved in 95.0% (38/40) of assessable patients treated with clarithromycin MR 500 mg once daily and 91.8% (45/49) of patients treated with clarithromycin IR 250 mg BID. Treatment-related adverse events were mild to moderate in all cases. Nausea (n = 9), diarrhea (n = 6), abdominal pain (n = 5), and gastric pain (n = 3) were the only study drug-related adverse events reported by > or = 1 patient in each treatment arm. Diarrhea was reported only in the clarithromycin IR group (n = 6) (P = 0.029 vs clarithromycin MR).
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For eradication of H. pylori: omeprazole 20 mg twice daily, clarithromycin 500 mg twice daily and amoxicillin 1 g twice daily for 1 week. For ankylosing spondylitis: diclofenac 150 mg/day in combination with omeprazole 20 mg/day for 2 months.
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We present here the novel ketolide RBx 14255, a semisynthetic macrolide derivative obtained by the derivatization of clarithromycin, for its in vitro and in vivo activities against sensitive and macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. RBx 14255 showed excellent in vitro activity against macrolide-resistant S. pneumoniae, including an in-house-generated telithromycin-resistant strain (S. pneumoniae 3390 NDDR). RBx 14255 also showed potent protein synthesis inhibition against telithromycin-resistant S. pneumoniae 3390 NDDR. The binding affinity of RBx 14255 toward ribosomes was found to be more than that for other tested drugs. The in vivo efficacy of RBx 14255 was determined in murine pulmonary infection induced by intranasal inoculation of S. pneumoniae ATCC 6303 and systemic infection with S. pneumoniae 3390 NDDR strains. The 50% effective dose (ED50) of RBx 14255 against S. pneumoniae ATCC 6303 in a murine pulmonary infection model was 3.12 mg/kg of body weight. In addition, RBx 14255 resulted in 100% survival of mice with systemic infection caused by macrolide-resistant S. pneumoniae 3390 NDDR at 100 mg/kg four times daily (QID) and at 50 mg/kg QID. RBx 14255 showed favorable pharmacokinetic properties that were comparable to those of telithromycin.
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Reflux oesophagitis, which develops after H. pylori eradication therapy, rarely becomes a long-term clinical problem among patients who complete therapy successfully.
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TIW therapy was less effective for MAC-PD patients with cavitary disease and a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bronchiectasis, or previous treatment for MAC-PD. Further research is needed to study the long-term outcomes of TIW treatment.
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Therapeutic failures in treatment of Helicobacter pylori infections may either be the result of ineffective eradication of the strain from the stomach or of a re-infection. When applying treatment with antibiotics, high frequency of metronidazole resistance should be taken into
Primary therapy for 34 foci of NTM cervical lymphadenitis in 30 children consisted of excisional biopsy (n = 8), incision and drainage procedures (n = 14), fine-needle aspiration biopsy (n = 7), observation only (n = 4), and antimycobacterial chemotherapy only (n = 1).
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We analyzed data on 151 patients who had been prescribed a 10-day PPI/AM re-treatment regimen after eradication failure of 1 to 2 weeks' first-line PPI/AC therapy. The PPI/AM regimen was given according to results of susceptibility testing (S+) in 31 patients. The group that had undergone susceptibility testing was further divided into two subgroups according to dosage: standard dose of omeprazole (O)/AM (n = 11) and double dose of lansoprazole (L)/AM (n = 20). The PPI/AM regimen was given without susceptibility testing (S-) to 120 patients. These patients were also divided into two subgroups according to whether they received omeprazole or lansoprazole: OAM (n = 61) and LAM (n = 59). Cure rates and adverse effects in each group were analyzed.
We have studied the post-surgical tonsils, carrying out a microbiologic study, its culture and sensitivity.
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H.p. status and possible peptic ulceration (urease test, biopsies of gastric antrum and body) were determined in 1242 consecutive patients with upper abdominal pain examined gastroscopically. Patients who were H.p. positive and had a peptic ulcer or recurrent gastritis with erosions were given dual or triple medication (lansoprazole or pantoprazole with one or two antibiotics: amoxycillin, clarithromycin, azithromycin, tinidazole), under conditions of controlled compliance.
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The optimal second-line treatment after failed Helicobacter pylori therapy has not been established.
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Mycobacterium abscessus is the most pathogenic of the fast-growing mycobacteria, and it is resistant to most of the antimicrobial and tuberculostatic drugs available. This non-tuberculous mycobacterium is significant in medicine because it can contaminate post-traumatic wounds and be a causative agent in chronic skin and soft tissue infection after surgical procedures.A 60-year-old immunocompetent woman was suffering from chronic ulcers and abscesses on the heels and malleoli of both feet. Histological examination revealed a granulomatous inflammation with detection of acid-fast rods, albeit without fibrinoid necrosis. The repeated detection of atypical mycobacteria, which were ultimately identified as Mycobacterium abscessus, allowed the diagnosis of an atypical mycobacteriosis of the skin. This was successfully treated first with clarithromycin and rifabutin and later with a combination of ethambutol, minocycline, clofazimine and azithromycin.
Rifabutin, clarithromycin, and ethambutol, which were administered at concentrations similar to those used in clinical trials that are now under way, were tested for their capacities to inhibit the growth of two highly virulent isolates of Mycobacterium avium in inbred C57BL/6 mice and in vitro in a bone marrow-derived murine macrophage model. In the latter model rifabutin and clarithromycin had modest activities against strain 101 and somewhat better activities against strain 2-151. When they were tested in vivo, however, the best results, against strain 101 were seen when the three drugs were given in combination, whereas against strain 2-151 the combination therapy showed no significant improvement over that of clarithromycin given alone. It will be of interest to note to what degree the eventual outcomes of the current trials correlate with the predictions of these animal model systems.
Among participants with UBT-negative results who had a 1-year follow-up UBT (n=1091), 125 tested UBT positive, a recurrence risk of 11.5% (95% CI, 9.6%-13.5%). Recurrence was significantly associated with study site (P = .03), nonadherence to initial therapy (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.94; 95% CI, 1.31-6.13; P = .01), and children in the household (AOR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.01-1.35 per child; P = .03). Of the 281 with positive posttreatment UBT results, 138 completed re-treatment, of whom 93 tested UBT negative at 1 year. Among the 1340 who had a 1-year UBT, 80.4% (95% CI, 76.4%-83.9%), 79.8% (95% CI, 75.8%-83.5%), and 77.8% (95% CI, 73.6%-81.6%) had UBT-negative results in the triple, sequential, and concomitant groups, respectively (P = .61), with 79.3% overall effectiveness (95% CI, 77.1%-81.5%). In a single-treatment course analysis that ignored the effects of re-treatment, the percentage of UBT-negative results at 1 year was 72.4% (95% CI, 69.9%-74.8%) and was significantly associated with study site (P < .001), adherence to initial therapy (AOR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.15-0.42; P < .001), male sex (AOR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.25-2.13; P < .001), and age (AOR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.02-1.27 per decade; P = .02). One-year effectiveness among all 1463 enrolled participants, considering all missing UBT results as positive, was 72.7% (95% CI, 70.3%-74.9%).
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The results of this study suggest that Helicobacter pylori is a causal factor in symptoms of non-ulcer dyspepsia and that eradication therapy improves symptoms and endoscopic findings but has no effect on gastric emptying.
Although omeprazole is an important component in anti-Helicobacter pylori therapeutic regimes using clarithromycin, amoxycillin and metronidazole, the mechanism by which it enhances antimicrobial action is unknown. One potential explanation for this effect is increased antibiotic chemical stability resulting from gastric pH changes induced by co-administration of omeprazole. The chemical stability of clarithromycin, amoxycillin and metronidazole was investigated in aqueous solutions and in human gastric juice collected before and after a 7-day course of omeprazole. Amoxycillin, clarithromycin and metronidazole were prepared in buffered aqueous solutions of pH 1.0 to 8.0 and in gastric juice of pH 2.0 and 7.0. The gastric juice samples were obtained from fasted H. pylori-negative volunteers before and after they had received a 7-day course of omeprazole. All the samples were incubated at 37 degrees C and analysed at intervals by HPLC. Amoxycillin, clarithromycin and metronidazole were stable in aqueous solutions of pH 4.0-7.0, pH 5.0-8.0 and pH 2.0-7.0, respectively. At pH 2.0, the degradation half-lives were 19.0 +/- 0.2 h, 1.3 +/- 0.05 h and 2200 +/- 1100 h, respectively. In gastric juice samples of pH 2.0, the degradation half-lives were 15.2 +/- 0.3 h, 1.0 +/- 0.04 h and > or = 800 h, respectively. The half-lives of the drugs in the gastric juice samples of pH 7.0 were all > 68 h. The co-administration of omeprazole with amoxycillin or clarithromycin is likely to increase the chemical stability of amoxycillin and clarithromycin in gastric juice. Clarithromycin degrades rapidly at normal gastric pH (1.0-2.0) but amoxycillin and metronidazole are sufficiently stable at this pH to maintain an antibacterial concentration in the stomach.