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Calan (Verapamil Hydrochloride)
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Calan

Calan is in a group of drugs called calcium channel blockers. Calan is used to treat hypertension, angina and certain heart rhythm disorders. It works by relaxing the muscles of your heart and blood vessels.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Cartia XT, Cardizem, Cardizem LA, Nifedical XL , Propranolol, Procardia, Procardia XL

 

Also known as:  Verapamil Hydrochloride.

Description

Calan is in a group of drugs called calcium channel blockers. Calan is used to treat hypertension, angina and certain heart rhythm disorders.

It works by relaxing the muscles of your heart and blood vessels.

Calan is also known as Verapamil, Calaptin, Isoptin, Verelan, Bosoptin, Covera-HS.

Dosage

Take Calan orally.

Do not take Calan in large amounts.

Do not crush, chew, break, or open a controlled-delivery or extended-release tablet or capsule.

Swallow the whole pill.

It is important to use verapamil regularly to get the most benefit.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Calan suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Calan and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Calan overdosage: slow heartbeat, fainting fit.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 25 degrees C (59 and 77 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Calan are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Calan if you are allergic to Calan components.

Be careful with Calan if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Do not take Calan if you have poor heart condition, low blood pressure, recent heart attack.

Be careful with Calan if you suffer from kidney, liver disease, congestive heart failure, muscular dystrophy.

Be careful with Calan if you take medications such as any other blood pressure medications; buspirone (BuSpar); carbamazepine (Carbatrol, Tegretol); cimetidine (Tagamet, Tagamet HB); cyclosporine (Gengraf, Neoral, Sandimmune); digoxin (digitalis, Lanoxin, Lanoxicaps); lithium (Eskalith, LithoBid); lovastatin (Mevacor); phenobarbital (Solfoton); rifampin (Rifadin, Rimactane, Rifater); theophylline (Elixophyllin, Theo-24, Uniphyl); a sedative such as midazolam (Versed) or triazolam (Halcion); an antibiotic such as clarithromycin (Biaxin), erythromycin (E-Mycin, E.E.S., Ery-Tab, Erythrocin), fluconazole (Diflucan), itraconazole (Sporanox), ketoconazole (Nizoral), telithromycin (Ketek), or voriconazole (Vfend); a beta-blocker such as atenolol (Tenormin), bisoprolol (Zebeta, Ziac), metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol), propranolol (Inderal, InnoPran), sotalol (Betapace), timolol (Blocadren), and others; a heart rhythm medication such as amiodarone (Cordarone, Pacerone), disopyramide (Norpace), flecainide (Tambocor), or quinidine (Quinaglute, Quinidex, Quin-Release); HIV/AIDS medicine such as amprenavir (Agenerase), atazanavir (Reyataz), delavirdine (Rescriptor), fosamprenavir (Lexiva), indinavir (Crixivan), nelfinavir (Viracept), or ritonavir (Norvir, Kaletra).

Do not use potassium supplements or salt substitutes.

Avoid eating grapefruit or drinking grapefruit juice while taking Calan.

If you want to achieve most effective results without any side effects it is better to avoid alcohol.

Be very careful when you are driving machine.

Do not stop taking Calan suddenly.

calan 40 mg

Fibroblast growth factor 6 (FGF6) is selectively expressed during muscle development and regeneration. We examined its effect on muscle precursor cells (mpc) by forcing stable FGF6 expression in C2C12 cells in vitro. FGF6 produced in genetically engineered mpc was active, inducing strong morphological changes, altering cell adhesion and compromising their ability to differentiate into myotubes. Expression of MyoD and myogenin, but not of Myf5, was abrogated in FGF6 engineered mpc. These effects were reversed by FGF inhibitors. Ectopic expression of MyoD also restored fiber formation indicating that FGF6 interferes with the myogenic differentiation pathway upstream of MyoD. We also report that in the presence of FGF6, the minor (0.5-2%) subpopulation of cells actively excluding Hoechst 33342 in a verapamil-dependent manner (SP phenotype) was increased to 15-20% and the expression of the mdr1a gene (but not mdr1b) was upregulated by 400-fold. Our data establish a previously undescribed link between FGF6--a muscle specific growth factor--and a multidrug resistance gene expressed in stem cells, and suggest a role for FGF6 in the maintenance of a reserve pool of progenitor cells in the skeletal muscle.

calan sr medication

Overexpression of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is one of the major limitations in cancer chemotherapy. Previous work has shown that amphiphilic diblock copolymers composed of methoxypolyethylene glycol-block-polycaprolactone (MePEG-b-PCL) diblock copolymers enhanced the cellular accumulation of Pgp substrates by modulating the function of this drug efflux transporter. The objective of this work was to determine whether MePEG-b-PCL diblock copolymers modulated Pgp function in multidrug resistant (MDR) cancer cells. The diblock copolymer enhanced the accumulation of various Pgp substrates in Pgp overexpressing MDR cells but did not influence substrate accumulation in non-Pgp expressing cells. Treatment of MDR cells with the diblock copolymer enhanced paclitaxel (ptx) and doxorubicin (dox) accumulation. Following uptake, ptx was rapidly effluxed from MDR cells whereas diblock copolymer treatment retained dox inside MDR cells. Treatment of MDR cells with the diblock copolymer reversed drug resistance to dox but not ptx. However, resistance to ptx was reversed by verapamil, which indicated that a sustained inhibition of Pgp was required for ptx to induce cytotoxicity in MDR cells. Taken together, these results highlight the potential of MePEG-b-PCL diblock copolymer to reverse drug resistance in MDR cancer cells through inhibition of Pgp function, making it a promising candidate for overcoming MDR.

calan generic name

To characterize the activities of inorganic pyrophophatase (PPase) in the plasma membrane of Leishmania donovani promastigote and amastigote.

calan dosage

These results suggest that dietary phytochemicals, such as glycyrrhetinic acid found in licorice, have dual inhibitory effects on P-glycoprotein and MRP1 and might become useful to enhance the efficacy of cancer chemotherapy.

calan tab

A significant improvement was observed in appearance and texture of the exaggerated scars in all cases following already 4 months of autologous micrograft treatment We have also shown that these micrografts are composed of mesenchymal stem cells and in addition, histological evaluation verified restoration of the structural layers immediately below the epidermis and a horizontal realignment of collagen fibers in the papillary dermis.

calan sr dosage

Monensin induces cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis through regulation of cell cycle- and apoptosis-related proteins, resulting in induction of mitochondrial ROS- and Ca(2+)-dependent apoptosis, respectively.

calan 80 mg

The objectives of this study were to determine the extent of coprescribing of statins with medications that may increase the risk of adverse events and to identify associated patient and prescriber characteristics. The authors conducted a retrospective cohort study in a large database representative of the U.S. prescription-filling population. The authors studied the U.S. retail prescription environment as reflected in prescriptions dispensed. Patients filling a prescription for a statin between October 1, 2001, and September 30, 2002 were studied. A coprescription for medications of interest as reflected in the warnings and precautions of statin product package inserts was studied: fibric acid, niacin, azole antifungal, macrolide antibiotics, nefazodone, protease inhibitors, verapamil, or warfarin within 3 weeks of a statin prescription. Patient and prescriber characteristics and proportion of coprescribing events attributable to the same prescriber were examined.A total of 5,637,918 patients filled a statin prescription during the 12-month study period. Nearly 19% had concomitant use of a medication with warnings and/or precautions for coprescribing (coprescription event). Coprescription was highest for fibrates, macrolides, and niacin accounting for 19.3%, 17.4%, and 9.4%, respectively, and did not differ across statins. One-third of coprescribing events involved same-day prescriptions, 57% occurred within 7 days of the index statin prescription, and 71.2% of all coprescription events originated from the same prescriber. Coprescribing of medications not compatible with statins occurs frequently. The extent of coprescribing indicates the need for additional intervention to assure that the risk of untoward effects is mitigated.

calan eeze review

Buxus papillosa extracts of leaves (BpL), stem (BpS), roots (BpR) and BpL fractions: hexane (BpL-H), aqueous (BpL-A) also plant constituent, cyclomicrobuxine effect were studied in jejunum, atria, aorta and tracheal preparations from rabbit and guine-peg.

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A multicentric, open, placebo controlled study of 81 hypertensive patients older than 20 years-old followed to 8 weeks. Blood pressure was measured in doctor's office and by 24 h ambulatory monitoring (ABPM).

calan dosage forms

To study the role of the tachykinin receptors in spontaneous contractions of longitudinal and circular smooth muscle from rabbit small intestine and to determine the mechanism of action of Substance P (SP).

calan drug

During AP experiments, the hiPSC-CM were paced at 1Hz during a baseline period, and when increasing concentrations of test compound were administered at 4-minute intervals. AP parameters, including duration (APD60 and APD90), resting membrane potential, rate of rise, and amplitude, were measured throughout the entire experiment. Voltage clamp experiments with E-4031 and nifedipine were similarly conducted.

calan medication

The present study focused on the evaluation of behavioural cross-sensitization, particularly in locomotor activities and conditioned rewarding effects, between nicotine and morphine, cocaine, amphetamine or MK-801. Nicotine (0.5 mg kg(-1))-experienced mice manifested an enhanced locomotor response to morphine (5 mg kg(-1)) or MK-801 (0.3 mg kg(-1)). No cross-sensitization was observed between nicotine and amphetamine (2 mg kg(-1)) or cocaine (15 mg kg(-1)). Additionally, the L-type voltage-dependent calcium-channel antagonists, nimodipine and verapamil, but not diltiazem, at a dose of 20 mg kg(-1) injected before morphine or MK-801 challenge, blocked the expression of this cross-sensitization. In the second test, an enhancement of morphine place conditioning in rats pre-exposed to nicotine (0.5 mg kg(-1), injected daily for 5 days) was demonstrated. After two conditioning sessions, morphine (5 mg kg(-1)) induced a clear place preference only in animals that had previously received nicotine injections. The administration of nimodipine (10 and 20 mg kg(-1)), verapamil (10 and 20 mg kg(-1)) and diltiazem (10 and 20 mg kg(-1)) prior to nicotine dose-dependently prevented this sensitization to the rewarding effect of morphine produced by prior injections of nicotine. These findings support the hypothesis that similar neural calcium-dependent mechanisms are involved in the appetitive effects of nicotine and morphine and in the sensitized locomotor stimulant effects of nicotine and morphine or MK-801.

calan drug classification

The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism by which cadmium (Cd2+) crosses the intestinal epithelium using a Caco-2 cell model. Experimentation was designed to determine which of several possible pathways of transport are operative. These pathways include passive diffusion, transport via a calcium pathway, sulfhydryl-mediated transport, and carrier-mediated (active transport and/or facilitated diffusion) transport. To examine the diffusion pathway the effect of various apical cadmium concentrations on the amount of cadmium transported was tested. The effects of verapamil, calcium, and 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3 (vit. D3) on Cd2+ transport were examined to investigate the possible existence of a calcium transport pathway. N-Ethylmaleimide, a sulfhydryl group blocker, was used to determine whether Cd2+ transport is sulfhydryl-mediated. Active transport was evaluated by examining the effect of 2,4-dinitrophenol, a metabolic inhibitor, on the transport of Cd2+. These studies indicated that: (1) a portion of the overall transport of Cd2+ can be attributed to diffusion, (2) stimulation of calcium binding protein transcription by vit. D3 enhances Cd2+ transport, and (3) the transport process for Cd2+ has both sulfhydryl-mediated and carrier-mediated components.

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A total of 119 patients with primary renal disease, blood pressure > 130/85 mmHg, proteinuria > 1 g/day, and creatinine clearance > or = 50 ml/min.

calan 120 mg

Mahuang decoction, Ephedra combined with Cassia twig, Bitter apricot kernel and Prepared licorice, has been widely used as a multi-herb prescription in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Many modern pharmacological studies have shown that the compatibility application of these four herbs has promising therapeutic effects on respiratory infection, acute glomerulonephritis and chronic renal failure. However, the underlying principles for governing the formulation of Mahuang decoction remain unknown. In this study, we used a Caco-2 cell monolayer model to explicate the possible compatibility mechanism of Mahuang decoction from the perspective of intestinal absorption.

calan reviews

We studied the effects of streptozotocin-induced diabetes on the cardiac repolarisation time (Q-T interval) in Sprague-Dawley rats during a 4-day period of hyperglycaemia and a subsequent 4-day period of normoglycaemia. The Q-T interval was also evaluated in isolated hearts of non-diabetic rats, in condition of high glucose concentration.

calan 240 mg

Male New Zealand albino rabbits (2-2.5 kg) were employed in these studies. Animals were kept under anesthesia and a concentric microdialysis probe was implanted in the vitreous humor and a linear probe in the anterior chamber. Isotonic phosphate buffered saline was perfused through the probes, and samples were collected every 20 minutes over a period of 10 hours. Quinidine was administered both systemically (5 mg/kg bodyweight) and intravitreally (5.68 microg and 0.568 microg). Inhibition experiments were performed in vivo in the presence of verapamil, which is a known P-gp inhibitor.

calan tablets

The most frequent drawback of doxorubicin is the onset of drug resistance, due to the active efflux through P-glycoprotein (Pgp). Recently formulations of liposome-encapsulated doxorubicin have been approved for the treatment of tumors resistant to conventional anticancer drugs, but the molecular basis of their efficacy is not known. To clarify by which mechanisms the liposome-encapsulated doxorubicin is effective in drug-resistant cancer cells, we analyzed the effects of doxorubicin and doxorubicin-containing anionic liposomal nanoparticles ("Lipodox") on the drug-sensitive human colon cancer HT29 cells and on the drug-resistant HT29-dx cells. Interestingly, we did not detect any difference in drug accumulation and toxicity between free doxorubicin and Lipodox in HT29 cells, but Lipodox was significantly more effective than doxorubicin in HT29-dx cells, which are rich in Pgp. This effect was lost in HT29-dx cells silenced for Pgp and acquired by HT29 cells overexpressing Pgp. Lipodox was less extruded by Pgp than doxorubicin and inhibited the pump activity. This inhibition was due to a double effect: the liposome shell per se altered the composition of rafts in resistant cells and decreased the lipid raft-associated amount of Pgp, and the doxorubicin-loaded liposomes directly impaired transport and ATPase activity of Pgp. The efficacy of Lipodox was not increased by verapamil and cyclosporin A and was underwent interference by colchicine. Binding assays revealed that Lipodox competed with verapamil for binding Pgp and hampered the interaction of colchicine with this transporter. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments demonstrated that glycine 185 is a critical residue for the direct inhibitory effect of Lipodox on Pgp. Our work describes novel properties of liposomal doxorubicin, investigating the molecular bases that make this formulation an inhibitor of Pgp activity and a vehicle particularly indicated against drug-resistant tumors.

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The results showed that basal P-gp ATPase activity was increased by CJY with half-maximal activity concentration (Km) of 2.9±0.3 μM and the maximal ATPase activity velocity (Vmax) of 265±21 nM · min-1 · mg-1. Kinetic studies on ATPase activity showed the effects of Verapamil (Ver) on CJY-stimulated, CJX1 on Ver-stimulated, and CJX1 on CJY-stimulated P-gp ATPase activity were all non-competitive inhibition, indicating that these substrates can simultaneously but independently bind to diverse sites on P-gp. The combined effects of CJY with Ver, and CJY with CJX1 show that mixtures of both drugs at these fixed-ratios displayed synergistic interactions.

calan 180 mg

To investigate whether down-regulation of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is correlated to resistance to cisplatin and VP-16 in four histopathological subtype cell lines of lung cancer (SK-MES-1, SPCA-1, NCI-H-460 and NCI-H-446).

calan 40 mg

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment with 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, potassium channel inhibitor) and Bay K 8644 (calcium channel activator) in experimentally evoked verapamil poisoning in rats and to compare the results of this treatment with the effectiveness of widely accepted methods (adrenaline, calcium compounds). The experiment was carried out on male and female Wistar rats which were divided into 4 experimental (A, B, C, D) and a control (K) groups. Rats were anesthetized and the abdominal aorta was cannulated for mean arterial pressure and heart rate measurements while caudal vein was cannulated for drug administration. All animals were infused with verapamil (150 mg/kg/h) until 50% reduction of mean arterial pressure and/or heart rate was observed. After verapamil, control animals were given 0.9% NaCl solution and the other groups received 687.5 mg/kg/h of calcium glucolactobionicum (group A), 0.3 mg/kg/h of adrenaline (group B), 2 mg/kg/h of 4-AP (group C) or 2 mg/kg/h of Bay K 8644 (group D). The mean blood pressure and heart rate was checked and ECG was recorded every 10 min. A statistically significant decrease in mortality compared with the control group was observed in animals treated with adrenaline (p < or = 0.05), Bay K 8644 (p < or = 0.01) and 4-AP (p < or = 0.005). The treatment of experimentally evoked poisoning in rats using 4-AP or Bay K 8644 resulted in fast receding of poisoning symptoms: increase in blood pressure and heart rate, receding of bradyarrhythmia and return of sinus rhythm. The results of the study suggest the usefulness of 4-AP and Bay K 8644 in the treatment of verapamil poisoning.

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Apical efflux of 3 is associated with P-gp and MRP, but the efflux of 4 involves P-gp and/or MRP. The computational approach used in this study provided the basis for P-gp substrates of compounds 3 and 4 from their electron donor subunits spatial separation.

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The combination of turbidometry and long light path fiber optic UV spectroscopy offers accurate, almost real-time exposure determination in a wide range of concentrations with little effort, affordable instrumentation, and no delay for data reporting. For research compounds with challenging physicochemical properties this method provides valuable data to support the validity of the measurements.

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Development of biochemical modulators and application of the same with anticancer drugs is a current approach of modern cancer chemotherapy. We report the effect of two novel hydroxamic acid derivatives, viz. oxaly bis (N-phenyl) hydroxamic acid (OBPHA) and succinyl bis (N-phenyl) hydroxamic acid (SBPHA) on doxorubicin sensitivity and on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in acetyl amino fluorene (AAF) induced preneoplastic hepatocytes in vitro. OBPHA increases doxorubicin sensitivity in AAF induced preneoplastic hepatocytes compared to normal hepatocytes. SBPHA, with an additional -CH(2)-CH(2)- group than OBPHA does not modulate the sensitivity of doxorubicin. The mechanism of action of OBPHA and SBPHA and their in vivo toxicity on male Swiss mice has been studied. OBPHA in combination with doxorubicin (i.e. OBPHA+doxorubicin) has higher antitumour activity compared to doxorubicin alone group; in consequence, OBPHA may decrease the dose related side effect of doxorubicin.

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We believe this case illustrates that avoiding the use of drugs that are cytochrome P450 3A4 and/or P-glycoprotein substrates reduces the risk of rhabdomyolysis caused by 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors.

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In the cortical collecting duct of the rat two Ca(2+)-dependent K+ channels have been described so far. In the luminal membrane a maxi K+ channel with a single channel conductance of 139 +/- 3 pS in excised membrane patches (n = 91) at 0 mV clamp voltage and asymmetrical KCl-concentrations in pipette and bath was found, while in the basolateral membrane an intermediate conductance K+ channel (85 +/- 1 pS, n = 53) and a small K+ channel (28 +/- 2 pS, n = 15) was described. All these K+ channels had similar pharmacological properties since all could be blocked by the K+ channel inhibitors Ba2+, TEA+, and charybdotoxin. Verapamil, known as a L-type Ca2+ channel blocker, was also capable of inhibiting these K+ channels. While the maxi K+ channel from the luminal membrane was upregulated by intracellular Ca2+ (EC50: 5 microM), the small and the intermediate K+ channel from the basolateral membrane were downregulated (IC50: 10 microM). When the cytosolic Ca(2+)-activity was in the physiological range below 1 microM the activity of the maxi K+ channel was low and regulated via intracellular pH and ATP. Furthermore, when CCD cells were strongly depolarized and under hypoosmotic stress, Ca2+ rose and activated this K+ channel, indicating that this channel is involved in volume regulation. Like the maxi K+ channel the intermediate conductance K+ channel from the basolateral membrane was also sensitive to intracellular changes of pH where acidic pH inhibited while alkaline pH activated this channel. But unlike the K+ channels from the luminal membrane the K+ channel from the basolateral membrane is not regulated by ATP up to 5 mM. The activity of the K+ channels from the basolateral membrane decreased steadily after excision of the membrane. This decrease could be prevented by applying cGMP and MgATP to the bath and thus, activating a membrane-bound cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG). The activation of the PKG could be reversed by its specific inhibitor KT5823 (1 microM). Due to the opposite regulation via intracellular Ca2+ and the involvement of different protein kinases a specific and independent regulation of K+ secretion and Na+ reabsorption is possible in the CCD of the rat.

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calan eeze review 2015-10-30

The pharmacological properties of mitemcinal (GM-611), the first acid-resistant non-peptide motilin agonist, were investigated in the smooth muscle of the rabbit small intestine and compared with porcine motilin (pMTL), erythromycin A (EMA) and its derivatives (EM-523, EM-574 and ABT-229). Mitemcinal, pMTL, EMA, EM-523, EM-574 and ABT-229 produced concentration-dependent contractions with approximately the same maximum contractions in the isolated rabbit duodenum longitudinal strips. The contractile response to mitemcinal or pMTL was competitively inhibited by a selective motilin antagonist, GM-109. The pA(2) values for GM-109 as an antagonist of mitemcinal and pMTL showed approximately the same values. However, the concentration-dependent contractile responses to mitemcinal or pMTL were not affected by pretreatment with atropine, tetrodotoxin, hexamethonium, naloxone or tropisetron. The removal of calcium ions from the medium and pretreatment with verapamil greatly suppressed the contractions induced by mitemcinal and pMTL. The contractile response to mitemcinal was not affected by preincubation in acidic solutions, while those of EM-523, EM-574 and ABT-229 were strongly diminished in buy calan online the same condition. Mitemcinal as well as other motilin agonists displaced (125)I-pMTL bound to a homogenate of the rabbit duodenum muscle tissue. The displacement curves of all these compounds were parallel. These results indicate that mitemcinal is a selective and full motilin receptor agonist in the smooth muscle of the rabbit small intestine and that this agent has an excellent acid-resistant property.

calan drug 2016-06-16

We assessed the direct vascular effects of DEP (10-100 microg/mL) in isolated rat aortic rings using myography. We investigated NO scavenging and oxygen-centered free radical generation using an NO electrode and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) with the Tempone-H buy calan online (1-hydroxyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-oxo-piperidine) spin trap, respectively.

calan 240 mg 2016-05-09

Single-step selections were used to obtain Chinese hamster ovary cell lines resistant to Colcemid and vinblastine. Verapamil was included in the selections to circumvent the isolation of cells with P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance and thereby enrich for cells with tubulin alterations. The isolated cell lines were 2-fold resistant to the selecting drug, exhibited cross-resistance to other drugs that inhibit microtubule assembly, and buy calan online had enhanced sensitivity to the microtubule-stabilizing drug paclitaxel. The concomitant resistance to microtubule-destabilizing drugs and enhanced sensitivity to paclitaxel suggested that these cell lines have changes in microtubule assembly. Consistent with this interpretation, drug-resistant cell lines exhibited altered alpha- or beta-tubulin mobility on two-dimensional gels and higher levels (47-54%) of assembled tubulin compared with wild-type (39%) or paclitaxel-resistant cells (25%). Some drug-resistant cells also had bundled microtubules as judged by immunofluorescence. Genomic sequencing of 11 drug-resistant cell lines predicted five different alterations (D45Y, C211F, D224N, S234N, and K350N) in beta-tubulin and four different alterations (H283Y, E55K, A383V, and R390C) in alpha-tubulin. The amino acid substitutions are dispersed on the primary and tertiary structures of tubulin and, together with the other mutant properties, argue against a mechanism involving changes in drug binding. Rather, we propose that the alterations in alpha- and beta-tubulin increase microtubule stability by promoting longitudinal interdimer and intradimer interactions and/or lateral interactions between protofilaments. This enhanced stability of microtubules increases their resistance to drugs that inhibit assembly.

calan 120 mg 2017-06-02

The above data suggest that atorvastatin could inhibit the absorption of verapamil via buy calan online inhibition of P-gp and/or the metabolism of verapamil by CYP3A4 in humans.

calan generic name 2017-03-12

Of the primary outcomes, only the mean ratio of early to late transmitral flow buy calan online velocities increased significantly in the verapamil-treated patients as compared with the carvedilol-based therapy (1.1 ± 0.3 vs. 0.7 ± 0.2; 95% CI -0.6 to -0.1; p = 0.015). Simultaneously, the Minnesota Quality of Life improved significantly in the verapamil group (95% CI 5.2-19.9; p = 0.002). It was accompanied by the favourable effect of verapamil therapy on exercise capacity in the 6-min walk test (95% CI 21.3-110.7; p = 0.005).

calan 180 mg 2015-10-23

The calcium antagonistic and antioxidant properties of a new potential antiatherosclerotic agent, Org 13061 were compared with those of its (-) and (+) enantiomers (Org 13471 and Org 13581) In vitro and with appropriate reference drugs. Org 13061 antagonized contractions induced by potassium in rabbit aortic rings with an IC50 value of 0.50 microM and reduced the maximum rate of phase 0 depolarization (Vmax) of the 'slow' calcium-mediated transmembrane action potentials in cardiac tissue (IC25 = 0.82 microM). Similarly to reference drugs, Org 13061 was more selective in reducing vascular compared to cardiac contraction. In concentrations overlapping those exerting vasorelaxant actions, Org 13061 inhibited copper ion-induced human low density lipoprotein (LDL) peroxidation (0.1-1 microM) and inhibited lipid accumulation by rat aortic smooth muscle cells in culture (1-3 microM buy calan online ). Higher concentrations (3 microM) modestly inhibited proliferation of these cells. The (-) enantiomer was ten times more potent than the (+) enantiomer as a vasorelaxant but was equipotent in inhibiting lipid accumulation and LDL peroxidation (eg, lag phase of conjugated dienes formation increased by 29 and 61 min and by 22 and 56 min in response to 0.3 and 1 microM (-) and (+) enantiomers, respectively). The antioxidant probucol was approximately three times more potent than Org 13061 in inhibiting lipid accumulation but was 30 times less potent in antagonizing LDL peroxidation. The classical calcium channel blocking agents were totally ineffective on lipid accumulation (1-10 microM), whereas human LDL peroxidation was slightly reduced by nifedipine (0.1-3 microM) but unaltered by diltiazem (0.1-30 microM) and verapamil (0.1-3 microM). In conclusion, the racemic Org 13061 selectively blocks voltage-operated calcium channels (VOCs) in concentrations that also exert marked antioxidant activity. The (-) enantiomer is largely responsible for calcium channel block but as antioxidants, the enantiomers are equipotent. This mixed pharmacological profile of Org 13061, not shared by known calcium channel blocking agents, may be potentially useful in the treatment of atherosclerosis.

calan tab 2017-02-16

Proteasome function was measured in cell lysates from ECV304 cells incubated with different doses of verapamil, doxorubicin, daunorubicin, idarubicin, epirubicin, topotecan, mitomycin C, and gemcitabine using a fluorogenic peptide assay. Proteasome function in living cells was monitored using ECV304 cells stably transfected with the gene for an ubiquitin/green fluorescent protein fusion protein. buy calan online The ability of the proteasome inhibitor MG-132 to affect P-glycoprotein function was monitored by fluorescence due to accumulation of daunorubicin in P-glycoprotein overexpressing KB 8-5 cells.

calan dosage forms 2016-09-20

The A549 cells cultured buy calan online on a microfluidic chip were divided into experiment group and control group. The experiment group was exposed to an acidic cell culture medium (pH 6.6), while the control group was treated with a neutral cell culture medium (pH 7.4). The expression of P-gp was detected by cell immunofluorescense analysis and the activity of P-gp was evaluated by Rhodamine 123 efflux experiment. Meanwhile, the cytotoxicity of daunomycin was analyzed by cell live/dead fluorescence staining method.

calan sr dosage 2017-05-09

Diabetes mellitus and hypertension are leading causes of end stage renal disease in the United States. Drug therapy that focuses on tight glycemic control and blood pressure control reduces the progression of nephropathy and cardiovascular complications. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors have been shown to reduce the progression of renal disease in patients with diabetes. The angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) losartan and irbesartan have also been shown to reduce microalbuminuria compared with placebo. The nondihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (CCBs) verapamil and diltiazem have been buy calan online shown to be as effective as an ACE inhibitor in reducing urinary albumin excretion.

calan drug classification 2015-01-04

Our findings did not reveal any medication that had a significant additive or synergistic effect with docetaxel. We did note, however, that patients on digoxin or verapamil had poorer overall survival, possibly due to a trend of fewer cycles of administered chemotherapy being administered to buy calan online the verapamil group, consistent with a pharmacokinectic interaction.

calan pill 2016-01-12

Parameters accounting for the functional refractory periods of the slow and fast pathways (aRPs and aRPf) were estimated using atrial fibrillatory rate (AFR) and ventricular response assessed from buy calan online 15-min ECG segments recorded at baseline and on drug treatment from sixty patients with permanent AF.

calan tablets 2015-05-29

To evaluate the effect of chemosensitizers on the in vitro activity of fluconazole against Candida albicans strains buy calan online .

calan 80 mg 2015-04-17

Carboxyalkyl methacrylates, a new class of non-cross-linked, hydrophobic weak polyelectrolytes, were synthesized, and then bound to cationic drugs (propranolol.HCl, diltiazem.HCl and verapamil.HCl) to form water-insoluble complexes that release the bound drug only in ionic media (pH 7.4). Compressed tablets were prepared from these cation exchange polyelectrolytes. Release profiles followed zero order kinetics (n>0.90; n is the release exponent). As the hydrophobicity of the polyelectrolytes increased, the rate of release decreased and deviated from linearity (n=0.7). Both the ionic strength of the medium as Paxil 20 Mg well as the solubility of the drug affected the rate of release. In acidic media (pH 1.2) a burst of drug was released but the release was halted by a layer of non-ionized polymer precipitated on the surface of the tablets. The results indicate that it is possible to "tailor-make" the release kinetics by using a polyelectrolyte from the series with the suitable hydrophobicity.

calan 40 mg 2015-12-10

The therapy verapamil COER-24 180/240 mg in a single dose is useful for mild and moderate hypertensive patients, with significant pressure decrease in both Augmentin 500 Dosage office blood pressure measurements and in the ABPM/24 hours, as well as showing good tolerability.

calan medication 2016-07-06

Wheat is one of several cereals that is capable of accumulating higher amounts of Cd in plant tissues. It is important to understand the Cd(2+) transport processes in roots that result in excess Cd accumulation. Traditional destructive technologies have limited capabilities in analyzing root samples due to methodological limitations, and sometimes may result in false conclusions. The mechanisms of Cd(2+) uptake into the roots of wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum L.) were investigated by assessing the impact of various inhibitors and channel blockers on Cd accumulation as well as the real-time net Cd(2+) flux at roots with the non-destructive scanning ion-selective electrode technique. The P-type ATPase inhibitor Na3VO4 (500 μM) had little effect on Cd uptake (p < 0.05) and the kinetics of transport in the root of wheat, suggesting that Cd(2+) uptake into wheat root cells is not directly dependent on H(+) gradients. While, the uncoupler 2,4-dinitrophenol Neurontin 2 Mg significantly limited Cd(2+) uptake (p < 0.05) and transport kinetics in the root of wheat, suggesting the existence of metabolic mediation in the Cd(2+) uptake process by wheat. The Cd content at the whole-plant level in wheat was significantly (p < 0.05) decreased upon pretreatment with the Ca(2+) channel blockers La(3+) or Gd(3+) and Verapamil, but not in case of pretreatment with the K(+) channel blocker tetraethylammonium (TEA). In addition, the inhibitors of the Ca(2+) channel, as well as high concentrations of Ca(2+), reduced the real-time net Cd(2+) fluxes at the root surface in SIET experiments. These results indicate that Cd(2+) moves across the plasma lemma of the wheat root via Ca(2+) channels. In addition, our results suggested a role for protein synthesis in mediating Cd(2+) uptake and transport by wheat.

calan 5 mg 2016-08-13

It has been established that transformation of Vitis amurensis callus culture with the plant oncogene rolB of Agrobacterium rhizogenes results in a high level of resveratrol production in the transformed culture. In the present report, we investigated two rolB transgenic V. amurensis cell cultures with different levels of rolB expression and resveratrol production. We examined whether the calcium ion flux and later steps of the calcium-mediated signal transduction pathway play a role in resveratrol biosynthesis in the rolB transgenic cultures. It has been shown that the calcium channel blockers, LaCl(3), verapamil, and niflumic acid, significantly reduced the accumulation of resveratrol in the rolB transgenic cultures. The number of the calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) transcript variants and abundance of some of the transcripts were considerably altered in the rolB transgenic cell cultures, as revealed Feldene Drug Classification by frequency analysis of RT-PCR products and real-time PCR. Some unusual CDPK transcripts with deletions and insertions in the kinase domain were isolated from cDNA probes of rolB-transformed cells. These results suggest that active resveratrol biosynthesis in rolB transgenic cultures of V. amurensis is Ca2+ dependent. We propose that the rolB gene has an important role in regulation of calcium-dependent transduction pathways in transformed cells.

calan overdose 2016-12-18

Diltiazem treatment decreased tumor growth over time compared to control groups. Increased tumor growth inhibition was seen with increasing doses (p > 0.05). Treatment with verapamil had similar effects; however, there are no statistically significant dose dependent decreases in growth with increasing verapamil doses. There were no tumor "cures" or spontaneous regression of tumor in any group including the control groups. Animal daily weight and average daily water consumption was unaffected by increasing calcium channel antagonist doses compared to control groups. Mouse serum drug levels increased with increasing doses of drug in the drinking water of treatment groups (p > 0.05). Histology and proliferative Imdur Generic Cost index of treatment groups were similar to control groups.

calan dosage 2015-03-02

Solena heterophylla Lour. has traditionally been used in the management of diseases Prevacid Dosage Pediatrics pertaining to gastrointestinal, respiratory and vascular system and present study was undertaken to validate its traditional uses.

calan sr medication 2017-10-04

Left ventricular pressure (LVP) and Glucophage Pills ECG were monitored during infusion of SEA-0400 and verapamil in anesthetized dogs. Different doses were tested against dofetilide-induced TdP in chronic atrioventricular block dogs. In ventricular myocytes, effects of SEA-0400 were tested on action potentials, calcium transients, and early afterdepolarizations. In cardiomyocytes, SEA-0400 (1 μmol/L) blocked 66±3% of outward NCX, 50±2% of inward NCX, and 33±9% of LTCC current. SEA-0400 had no effect on systolic calcium, but slowed relaxation, despite action potential shortening, and increased diastolic calcium. SEA-0400 stabilized dofetilide-induced lability of repolarization and suppressed early afterdepolarizations. In vivo, SEA-0400 (0.4 and 0.8 mg/kg) had no effect on left ventricular pressure and suppressed dofetilide-induced TdPs dose dependently. Verapamil (0.3 mg/kg) also inhibited TdP, but caused a 15±8% drop of left ventricular pressure. A lower dose of verapamil without effects on left ventricular pressure (0.06 mg/kg) was not antiarrhythmic.

calan reviews 2016-10-31

The influence of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) on intestinal absorption of drugs was investigated by comparison of the uptakes of two P-gp substrates, verapamil and vinblastine, using intestinal segments of wild-type and mdr1a/1b gene-deficient (mdr1a/1b(-/-)) mice, and Caco-2 cells. When [(3)H]vinblastine was injected into intestinal segments of wild-type mice, vinblastine was absorbed from duodenum and ileum, but not from jejunum. This difference among intestinal regions Cymbalta Overdose Fatal could not be explained by segmental differences of mdr1a mRNA expression. In Caco-2 cells, it was found that vinblastine had a high value of efflux/influx ratio (an index of affinity for P-gp) of 12.1, and a low permeability of less than 1 x 10(-6) cm/sec. The corresponding values for verapamil were 4.9 and 10.6 x 10(-6) cm/sec, respectively. After oral administration of [(3)H]vinblastine to mice, the maximum concentration (C(max)) and the area under the plasma concentration time-curve from time 0 to 24 hr (AUC(0-24 hr)) for mdr1a/1b(-/-) mice were 1.5 times greater than those for wild-type mice, while these parameters were not significantly different between the two strains in the case of [(3)H]verapamil. Therefore, P-gp substrates may be classified into at least two types, i.e., verapamil-type, for which the intestinal absorption is unaffected by P-gp, and vinblastine-type, for which the intestinal absorption is influenced by P-gp. Vinblastine-type P-gp substrates, with low permeability and high affinity for P-gp, would be unfavorable candidates for oral drugs.

calan eeze review 2016-03-15

The public health burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus has been dramatically increasing world-wide. The chronic complications of type 2 diabetes play an important role in decreasing life expectancy and adversely affecting quality of life. Diabetic nephropathy, which is originally microvascular in nature, is widely considered an important complication of Cleocin Cream Dosage diabetes. In prospective clinical investigations, increased urinary albumin excretion proved to be associated not only with subsequent renal outcomes but also with cardiovascular morbidity/mortality independently of other risk factors. Therefore, microalbuminuria as an early sign of increased urinary albumin excretion should be considered important for both treatment and even for prevention. Preventing microalbuminuria might diminish progression to overt nephropathy and, hopefully, might limit cardiovascular events. Regarding primary prevention of diabetic nephropathy, therapeutic intervention should optimally be initiated at the stage of normoalbuminuria. Although additional factors such as smoking cessation, reduction of protein intake, and treatment of lipid abnormalities are important, providing optimal diabetic control as well as targeting optimal blood pressure are the key elements of a prevention strategy in diabetic patients. Recently, the Bergamo Nephrologic Diabetes Complications Trial (BENEDICT) documented that a significant decrease of the development of persistent microalbuminuria could be achieved by using an ACE-inhibitor, trandolapril alone or in combination with verapamil SR, a non-dihydropyridine calcium-channel blocker in hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients with normoalbuminuria. The results of this primary-prevention strategy should be corroborated by further investigations to determine whether these beneficial changes could later result in improvement of renal clinical outcomes, macrovascular complications, or both.

calan drug 2017-02-26

The pathogenesis of kidney stones remains elusive. There is some evidence that hyperoxaluria may effect vascular endothelium and many studies link renal stones to atherosclerosis. Also, renal vascular endothelial cells Duricef Drug Interactions regulate proximal tubular epithelial cell function. We determined the effect of hyperoxaluria on plasma and tissue levels of asymmetrical dimethylarginine. The secondary aim was to determine the effect of verapamil on asymmetrical dimethylarginine.

calan 240 mg 2015-06-12

All these results indicated that the combination of verapamil and IFN-gamma exerts a synergistic antifibrotic effect on rat liver fibrosis. The mechanism was partially based on the enhanced oral Coumadin Daily Dose bioavailability of verapamil by increasing the intestinal absorption as well as reducing the first-pass metabolism, through inhibition of CYP3A activity and P-glycoprotein expression by IFN-gamma

calan 120 mg 2015-08-23

Optimal use of digoxin in the elderly population requires information about the drug's pharmacokinetics and the influence of various factors on the drug's disposition. However, because of sampling restrictions, it is often difficult to perform traditional pharmacokinetic studies in elderly patients.