Generic Casodex is a high-quality medication which is taken in treatment of prostate cancer. Generic Casodex acts by killing the cancer cells growth.
Other names for this medication:
Also known as: Bicalutamide.
Generic Casodex is a perfect remedy in struggle against prostate cancer.
Generic Casodex acts by killing the cancer cells growth.
Casodex is also known as Bicalutamide, Cosudex, Calutide, Kalumid, Bicalox.
Generic name of Generic Casodex is Bicalutamide.
Brand name of Generic Casodex is Casodex.
Take Generic Casodex tablets orally with or without food.
Take Generic Casodex at the same time every day with water.
Do not crush or chew it.
This medicine is only for men.
If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Casodex suddenly.
If you overdose Generic Casodex and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.
Store between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children in a container that small children cannot open.
The most common side effects associated with Casodex are:
Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.
Do not take Generic Casodex if you are allergic to Generic Casodex components.
Use contraception and avoid vaccinations.
Try to be careful using Generic Casodex if you take warfarin (Coumadin), aspirin-substitute products, aspirin.
Be very careful with Generic Casodex if you suffer from or have a history of liver disease.
Do not stop taking Generic Casodex suddenly.
We have demonstrated efficient and specific protein biotinylation and purification of LNCaP plasma membrane proteins using Western analysis. E-cadherin and LDLR were regulated at the cell surface in response to R1881 and bicalutamide. Mass spectrometry identified several androgen-regulated membrane associated proteins including Prx-3 and GRP78 which are known to localize to other cellular compartments as well as the plasma membrane. We confirmed the localization of the identified proteins in LNCaP cells by co-localization with E-cadherin and immunohistochemistry of prostate tissue.
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The expression of 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) 24-hydroxylase (24-hydroxylase) was measured using a real-time quantitative RT-PCR assay and the catabolism of 1alpha,25-(OH)(2)D(3) was measured using a radioreceptor assay.
To explore this issue, androgen-dependent (LNCaP) and -independent (DU145) human prostate cancer cells were exposed for 48 hr to 20, 40, or 80 microM bicalutamide introduced before (neoadjuvant), during (concomitant), or following (adjuvant) radiation. Growth inhibition and cytotoxicity, cell cycle distribution and expression of the prostate serum antigen (PSA) and androgen receptor (AR), were measured as endpoints.
The results of the present study have shown that bicalutamide/raloxifene treatment is well tolerated. However, limited clinical activity occurred in men with CRPC who had previously undergone secondary hormonal therapy or chemotherapy.
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Androgen receptor (AR) signaling is indispensable for the development of prostate cancer from the initial androgen-dependent state to a later aggressive androgen-resistant state. This study examined the role of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), a novel gasotransmitter, in the regulation of AR signaling as well as its mediation in androgen-independent cell growth in prostate cancer cells. Here we found that H(2)S inhibits cell proliferation of both androgen-dependent (LNCaP) and antiandrogen-resistant prostate cancer cells (LNCaP-B), with more significance on the latter, which was established by long term treatment of parental LNCaP cells with bicalutamide. The expression of cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), a major H(2)S producing enzyme in prostate tissue, was reduced in both human prostate cancer tissues and LNCaP-B cells. LNCaP-B cells were resistant to bicalutamide-induced cell growth inhibition, and CSE overexpression could rebuild the sensitivity of LNCaP-B cells to bicalutamide. H(2)S significantly repressed the expression of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and TMPRSS2, two AR-targeted genes. In addition, H(2)S inhibited AR binding with PSA promoter and androgen-responsive element (ARE) luciferase activity. We further found that AR is post-translationally modified by H(2)S through S-sulfhydration. Mutation of cysteine 611 and cysteine 614 in the second zinc finger module of AR-DNA binding domain diminished the effects of H(2)S on AR S-sulfhydration and AR dimerization. These data suggest that reduced CSE/H2S signaling contributes to antiandrogen-resistant status, and sufficient level of H(2)S is able to inhibit AR transactivation and treat castration-resistant prostate cancer.
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Neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapeutic strategies are widely employed for a variety of cancer entities. The basic aim and the potential benefit for the patient are to eradicate micrometastases, with the downside being side effects and overtreatment. Neoadjuvant and adjuvant hormone therapy for prostate cancer have been investigated in a number of clinical studies. Based on these studies, the following recommendations can be given: there is currently no indication for neoadjuvant therapy prior to radical prostatectomy. Adjuvant therapy using LHRH analogs for patients with lymph node-positive tumors following radical prostatectomy can be considered but should be weighed against early"biochemical progression triggered" treatment. For locally advanced tumors the same is true (bicalutamide): adjuvant treatment has shown an advantage in clinically progression-free survival; however, no systematic comparison is available with early"biochemical progression triggered" treatment. Before radiotherapy 2 months of neoadjuvant LHRH analog treatment has shown a survival advantage in patients with locally advanced tumors and a low risk of systemic spread (Gleason <7). For high-risk patients, long-term (2-3 years) adjuvant LHRH analog treatment is indicated.
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What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? The additional use of anti-androgen (deferred combined androgen blockade [CAB] therapy) for patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) initially treated with androgen deprivation monotherapy (ADMT) can provide a clinical response, although the reported response rates vary widely. Our previous study, which reported a response rate of 66% to deferred CAB therapy, suggested that deferred CAB responders would also respond better to subsequent therapies than non-responders because the difference in cancer-specific survival between the deferred CAB responders and the non-responders was much larger than the progression-free survival rates for the responders. The present study showed that PSA response to deferred CAB therapy predicts clinical outcomes after subsequent oestrogen and docetaxel therapy. We propose that PSA response to deferred CAB be used for planning individualized treatment that includes secondary hormonal therapy and chemotherapy.
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S-40542 displayed twofold higher affinity to androgen receptor than bicalutamide in vitro. Subcutaneous repeated administration of S-40542 (10-100 mg/kg) significantly reduced the prostate weight. Oral repeated treatment with S-40542 (30, 100 mg/kg) for 28 days significantly suppressed growth of KUCaP-2 tumor. Similar administration of bicalutamide also exerted significantly anti-tumor effect in the model. The serum prostate-specific antigen level was little influenced by the S-40542 treatment, while significantly decreased by bicalutamide. Oral treatment with S-40542 resulted in a dose-dependent elevation of the plasma concentration, and its Cmax and AUC were much lower than those of bicalutamide. The pharmacokinetic study showed that this agent had relatively short plasma half-life and low oral bioavailability.
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All articles with subject matter on nilutamide, bicalutamide, and flutamide were considered for inclusion. For studies published in more than one journal, the first publication was used unless a subsequent publication included additional or follow-up data, in which case the latter publication was cited instead.
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'Casodex' (bicalutamide) is an orally active, non-steroidal, pure antiandrogen; it is a racemate with antiandrogenic activity residing predominantly in the (R)-enantiomer. Healthy male volunteers (n = 15) were administered single oral doses of bicalutamide (50 mg) after food and after fasting as part of a three-treatment, three-period, randomized cross-over study, with a 9 week washout. After fasting, plasma concentrations of (R)-bicalutamide were much higher than those of (S)-bicalutamide; the mean (R)-enantiomer Cmax (734 ng mL-1) was about nine times higher than the (S)-enantiomer value (84 ng mL-1). The corresponding tmax values were 19 and 3 h for (R)- and (S)-bicalutamide, respectively. Elimination of (R)-bicalutamide from plasma was monoexponential and slow (t1/2 = 5.8 d). Elimination of (S)-bicalutamide was biphasic in some volunteers but monophasic in others (terminal t1/2 =1.2 d; n = 11). There was no significant effect of food on AUC, tmax, or t1/2 data for either enantiomer. The observed slightly higher values of Cmax for (R)-bicalutamide (14%) and (S)-bicalutamide (19%), when dosing with food, achieved statistical significance. However, differences of this magnitude are unlikely to to be of any clinical relevance. These data indicate that 'Casodex' can be taken without reference to meal times; this may be of particular relevance for its indication in a disease of the elderly.
The mean level of HER2 in serum was significantly higher in prostate cancer patients than non-prostate cancer patients (P = 0.006). Also, the serum HER2 level was significantly higher in bone metastatic cancer patients (14.3 +/- 6.3 ng/mL) than in non-metastatic patients (T2: 11.9 +/- 2.3 ng/mL, P = 0.003; T3: 12.2 +/- 2.8 ng/mL, P = 0.011). The metastatic patients were divided into those with low and high HER2 levels using a cutoff value of 12.6 ng/mL based on receiver-operating characteristic curves. The biochemical recurrence-free rate was significantly poorer in patients with a high HER2 level (P = 0.0078, log-rank test). Multivariate Cox logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the pretreatment serum HER2 value (P = 0.022), serum prostate-specific antigen value (P = 0.018), and extent of disease score (P = 0.027) were independent predictors of recurrence.
PTEN induction confers androgen independent CaP cells enhanced responsiveness to the anti-proliferative effects of anti-androgens and this action may involve non-AR mediated effects.
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To determine the cost-effectiveness of combined androgen blockade (CAB) with bicalutamide versus CAB with flutamide in men with Stage D2 prostate cancer. Both bicalutamide and flutamide are commonly used in CAB for prostate cancer. Although the cost of bicalutamide is more than that of flutamide, it is important that the efficacy, quality of life, and side effects are also considered when determining whether CAB with bicalutamide is a cost-effective option.
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Prostate cancer growth depends on androgens. Synthetic antiandrogens are used in the cancer treatment. However, antiandrogens, such as bicalutamide (BIC), have a mixed agonist/antagonist activity. Here we compare the antiandrogenic capacity of BIC to a new antiandrogen, MDV3100 (MDV) or Enzalutamide™. By reconstitution of a hormone-regulated enhancer in Xenopus oocytes we show that both antagonists trigger the androgen receptor (AR) translocation to the nucleus, albeit with a reduced efficiency for MDV. Once in the nucleus, both AR-antagonist complexes can bind sequence specifically to DNA in vivo. The forkhead box transcription factor A (FoxA1) is a negative prognostic indicator for prostate cancer disease. FoxA1 expression presets the enhancer chromatin and makes the DNA more accessible for AR binding. In this context the BIC-AR antiandrogenic effect is seriously compromised as demonstrated by a significant chromatin remodeling and induction of a robust MMTV transcription whereas the MDV-AR complex displays a more persistent antagonistic character.
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The utility of monotherapy with antiandrogens in prostate cancer is under investigation. Flutamide (Eulexin, Schering-Plough International) appears equally effective to castration in prolonging progression-free survival. Nilutamide (Anandron, Roussel) has been studied less widely, but may represent a valid treatment option in advanced prostate cancer. Preliminary results suggest that bicalutamide (Casodex, Zeneca Ltd) is as effective as castration in non-metastatic disease. Monotherapy with non-steroidal antiandrogens may offer successful palliative management of advanced prostate cancer with significant value in enhancing certain aspects of quality of life.
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We evaluated changes in bone mineral density (BMD), fat-free mass (FFM) and serum lipid levels during bicalutamide 150 mg monotherapy compared with medical castration for 2 years.
Data from phase III trials of 150 mg bicalutamide monotherapy for locally advanced disease are discussed. In addition, the first overall results are examined from the bicalutamide early prostate cancer program conducted at a median followup of 3 years, in which patients with localized or locally advanced disease were randomized to receive 150 mg bicalutamide or placebo as well as standard care.
We explored changes in hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1) signaling during androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) of androgen-sensitive prostate cancer xenografts under conditions in which no significant change in immunostaining of the hypoxia marker pimonidazole had occurred.
According to d'Amico's criteria, high-risk localized prostate cancer are defined either by an extracapsular extension (T3 or T4), either by a high Gleason score (> 7) or a PSA rate higher than 20 ng/ml. Pelvic lymph node involvement also corresponds to locally advanced prostate cancer. Statistical models called nomograms have been developed to predict the probability of prostate cancer recurrence and are also used to define locally advanced patients. Prostate MRI may help to detect an extracapsular extension or a seminal vesicles involvement but remains still discussed. A bone scan, an abdominal and pelvic CT scan have to be performed in order to detect metastases. A pelvic lymph node dissection is recommended in order to adapt the treatment of these patients. Standard treatment for high-risk localized prostate cancer without lymph node involvement is now well defined. The association of both local radiation and a long androgen deprivation (GnHR agonist) showed an overall survival benefit (more than 10%). The radiation dose of 74 Gy is recommended. Other questions are still debating : the optimal duration of the hormonotherapy , the use of the bicalutamide 150 mg instead of GnRH agonists, the optimal radiation dose. Radical prostatectomy is no more considered as a standard treatment for these patients. Since the use of chemotherapy for metastatic patients showed a benefit in overall survival, the place of chemotherapy as adjuvant or neo-adjuvant treatment is questionned in several randomized phase III studies. Sometimes high-risk disease is diagnosed after performance of a radical prostatectomy. A postoperative radiation may be performed in order to decrease clinical and biochemical progression. The use of bicalutamide 150 mg in this situation may have a positive impact too on progression free survival. In case of lymph node involvement, androgen deprivation is the standard treatment with an overall survival benefit. The place of local radiation therapy is still debating.
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In the present study, we designed Bicalutamide (BCT) and Hesperetin (HSP) co-loaded self nano-emulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) to encounter the problem of BCT induced toxicity, low solubility, and bioavailability. Optimized BCT-HSP SNEDDS would produce an emulsion of globule size 30.84±1.24nm with a high encapsulation efficiency of BCT (91.29%) and HSP (88.19%), and showed rapid drug release. DPPH assay confirmed the retention of antioxidant potential of HSP in SNEDDS. DCFH-DA confirmed intense green fluorescence in HSP treated groups due to the generation of reactive oxygen species. Thermogravimetric analysis showed the change in the polymorphic form of BCT. After 14days of sub-acute toxicity study, no significant increase (p>0.05) in the hepatotoxicity markers was observed but BCT-HSP SNEDDS significantly decreased (p<0.001) the levels of nephrotoxicity biochemical markers. Additionally, the histopathological study showed that pulmonary fibrosis and alteration in the bowman's by BCT treatment were conquered by co-administration of HSP. BCT-HSP SNEDDS revealed high AUC0-t of BCT (1.23 fold) and HSP (3.42 fold) than aqueous suspension in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The BCT-HSP SNEDDS were absorbed by clathrin-mediated endocytosis and lymphatic transport absorption pathway. Our results proposed that the co-delivery approach may be useful for in vivo management of prostate cancer.
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An affinity purified rabbit anti-PAK6 antiserum was generated to assess PAK6 protein expression. PAK6 associated proteins were identified by immunopurification of 3xFlag-tagged PAK6 followed by LC/MS/MS.
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Bicalutamide is an oral non-steroidal anti-androgen used in the treatment of prostate cancer. Drug transporters P-glycoprotein encoded by ABCB1 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) encoded by ABCG2 are involved in the transportation of bicalutamide and its treatment failure. We evaluated the roles of ABCB1 and ABCG2 genetic polymorphisms in the pharmacokinetics of bicalutamide in humans.
39 patients were enrolled including eight without clinical evidence of metastases. Eighteen (47%) patients have had either a PSA response or stable disease ≥ 6 months. PSA declines of ≥ 50% occurred in 12 (32%) of 38 assessable patients, including seven of 27 patients (26%) with prior anti-androgen use. Median time to treatment failure was 5.5 months (95%CI = 4.8.1-8.3). Grade ≥ 3 adverse events included fatigue, skin rash, and hand-foot syndrome.
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Three publications involving a total of 466 patients were used in the analysis, including three RCTs that compared degarelix with goserelin plus bicalutamide therapy for PCa over 12 weeks. For the comparison of degarelix with goserelin plus bicalutamide therapy, International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) reduction (standardized mean difference [SMD] = -1.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -2.97 to -0.72, p = 0.001) and IPSS ≥13 (SMD = -2.68, 95% CI = -4.57 to -0.78, p = 0.006) indicated that decreases in IPSS were greater in degarelix-treated patients than in goserelin plus bicalutamide-treated patients.
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Previously available androgen receptor (AR) antagonists (bicalutamide, flutamide, and nilutamide) have limited activity against AR in prostate cancers that relapse after castration [castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC)]. However, recent AR competitive antagonists such as MDV3100, generated through chemical modifications to the current AR ligands, appear to have increased activity in CRPC and have novel mechanisms of action. Using pharmacophore models and a refined homology model of the antagonist-liganded AR ligand binding domain, we carried out in silico screens of small molecule libraries and report here on the identification of a series of structurally distinct nonsteroidal small molecule competitive AR antagonists. Despite their unique chemical architectures, compounds representing each of six chemotypes functioned in vitro as pure AR antagonists. Moreover, similarly to MDV3100 and in contrast to previous AR antagonists, these compounds all prevented AR binding to chromatin, consistent with each of the six chemotypes stabilizing a similar AR antagonist conformation. Additional studies with the lead chemotype (chemotype A) showed enhanced AR protein degradation, which was dependent on helix 12 in the AR ligand binding domain. Significantly, chemotype A compounds functioned as AR antagonists in vivo in normal male mice and suppressed AR activity and tumor cell proliferation in human CRPC xenografts. These data indicate that certain ligand-induced structural alterations in the AR ligand binding domain may both impair AR chromatin binding and enhance AR degradation and support continued efforts to develop AR antagonists with unique mechanisms of action and efficacy in CRPC.
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We present a case of a 72-year-old White man of British origin with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer with bulky lymphadenopathy and a serum prostate-specific antigen of 295 μg/L. He received treatment with docetaxel chemotherapy plus prednisolone, but received just 3 cycles before treatment was stopped due to toxicity and lack of response (prostate-specific antigen was 276 μg/L 4 weeks after the last dose and there was a confirmed stable appearance on computed tomography scan). Unexpectedly, at follow-up 4 months later, the patient was clinically better; his prostate-specific antigen had dramatically improved to 4.1 μg/L and a re-staging computed tomography scan revealed complete resolution of his bulky lymphadenopathy. At the time, he was receiving a luteinising hormone-releasing hormone analogue but no other disease-modulating treatment. He remains well and asymptomatic, with his most recent serum prostate-specific antigen measuring 0.14 μg/L, 18 months after last receiving chemotherapy.
Forty-five patients who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) for localized prostate carcinoma were recruited for this study. The study population included two groups: 35 patients who did not receive chemo-, hormone, or radiation therapy before surgery, and 10 patients who were under complete androgen blockade (CAB) for 3 months at time of surgery. VEGF was examined by immunohistochemistry, and its tissue expression was compared with the pattern of capillary architecture evaluated by immunostaining the endothelial antigen CD34. The relationship of VEGF expression to chromogranin A-positive (e.g., neuroendocrine) cells was investigated.
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