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Resistance to cephalosporins in Haemophilus influenzae is usually caused by characteristic alterations in penicillin-binding protein 3 (PBP3), encoded by the ftsI gene. Resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins is associated with high-level PBP3-mediated resistance (high-rPBP3), defined by the second stage S385T substitution in addition to a first stage substitution (R517H or N526K). The third stage L389F substitution is present in some high-rPBP3 strains. High-rPBP3 H. influenzae are considered rare outside Japan and Korea. In this study, 30 high-rPBP3 isolates from Norway, collected between 2006 and 2013, were examined by serotyping, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), ftsI sequencing, detection of beta-lactamase genes and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination. MICs were interpreted according to clinical breakpoints from the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST). Respiratory isolates predominated (proportion: 24/30). The 30 isolates included one serotype f isolate, while the remaining 29 lacked polysaccharide capsule genes. Resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (cefixime, 29 isolates/30 isolates; cefepime, 28/30; cefotaxime, 26 /30; ceftaroline, 26/30; ceftriaxone, 14/30), beta-lactamase production (11/30) and co-resistance to non-beta-lactams (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 13/30; tetracycline, 4/30; chloramphenicol, 4/30; ciprofloxacin, 3/30) was frequent. The N526K substitution in PBP3 was present in 23 of 30 isolates; these included a blood isolate which represents the first invasive S385T + N526K isolate reported from Europe. The L389F substitution, present in 16 of 30 isolates, coincided with higher beta-lactam MICs. Non-susceptibility to meropenem was frequent in S385T + L389F + N526K isolates (8/12). All 11 beta-lactamase positive isolates were TEM-1. Five clonal groups of two to 10 isolates with identical MLST-ftsI allelic profiles were observed, including the first reported high-rPBP3 clone with TEM-1 beta-lactamase and co-resistance to ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Prior to this study, no multidrug resistant high-rPBP3 H. influenzae had been reported in Norway. Intensified surveillance of antimicrobial resistance is needed to guide empiric therapy.
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The Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project (GISP) was established in 1986 as a sentinel surveillance system to monitor trends in antimicrobial susceptibilities of N. gonorrhoeae strains in the United States. Each month, N. gonorrhoeae isolates are collected from up to the first 25 men with gonococcal urethritis attending each of the participating sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics at 27 sites. The number of participating sites has varied over time (21-30 per year). Selected demographic and clinical data are abstracted from medical records. Isolates are tested for antimicrobial susceptibility using agar dilution at one of five regional laboratories.
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To (i) study the serogroup distribution and virulence characteristics of non-sorbitol-fermenting Escherichia coli isolates from foods of animal origin and cattle faeces and (ii) re-examine the true sorbitol and beta-D-glucuronidase (GUD) reactions of sorbitol-negative (Sor(-)) strains from MacConkey sorbitol agar (SMAC) to assess their phenotypic similarity with E. coli O157.
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To describe the phenotypic and genetic characteristics of the first two cases of extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC)-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae in South Africa, one of which was associated with verified cefixime treatment failure.
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In Greifswald we isolated in 1995 and 1996 320 strains of typical pathogens and tested their susceptibility to 14 antibiotics, using the microbouillon dilution method.
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The therapeutic activity of FCE 22891 was compared with that of two new oral cephalosporins, cefuroxime axetil and cefixime against Streptococcus pneumoniae respiratory infection and subcutaneous abscesses induced by mixed aerobes and anaerobes in mice. In experimental pneumonia FCE 22891 was the most active antibiotic. In aerobic abscesses FCE 22891 proved the most active agent in infections induced by methicillin susceptible and resistant Staphylococcus aureus while all three compounds were very active, against Str. pyogenes. In abscesses caused by Gram-negative bacteria, FCE 22891 showed good and constant efficacy. Cefixime was the most active drug against the two susceptible strains of Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae and also against resistant Esch. coli but was inactive against a strain of Ent. cloacae that produced cephalosporinase. Cefuroxime axetil was less active than the other two drugs against Gram-negative bacteria with adequate efficacy only against a susceptible strain of Ent. cloacae. FCE 22891 was more effective than cefixime and cefuroxime axetil in preventing and reducing the size of abscesses induced by Bacteroides fragilis 101. We conclude that FCE 22891, despite its short half life of 6 min in mice, exerts comparable and sometimes better activity than the two oral cephalosporins characterized by longer half lives.
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Following cefepime therapy, a clinically important interaction between meropenem and valproic acid occurred in two critically ill patients with new-onset status epilepticus.
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Random-effects estimates of pooled absolute rate differences of outcomes were derived, and heterogeneity of both the rates and rate differences was assessed. Children with AOM not treated with antibiotics experienced a 1- to 7-day clinical failure rate of 19% (95% confidence interval: 0.10-0.28) and few suppurative complications. When patients were treated with amoxicillin, the 2- to 7-day clinical failure rate was reduced to 7%, a 12% (95% confidence interval: 0.04-0.20) reduction. Adverse effects, primarily gastrointestinal, were more common among children on cefixime than among those on ampicillin or amoxicillin. They were also more common among children on amoxicillin-clavulanate than among those on azithromycin.
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This study has evaluated enrichment and detection procedures for the isolation and detection of Escherichia coli O157 inoculated into minced beef. The use of a 24 h enrichment in modified EC broth containing novobiocin allowed low numbers of contaminating cells to multiply to levels detectable on culture media and by ELISA test kits. Total analysis time was reduced by the use of the Dynabead immunomagnetic separation system. The use of the Petrifilm Test Kit-HEC for E. coli O157:H7 and Organon Teknika EHEC-TEK system detected low numbers of contaminating cells following enrichment and reduced analysis time by 1 d. The incorporation of cefixime and tellurite into Sorbitol MacConkey Agar increased the rate and ease of isolation of E. coli O157 and its use is therefore recommended.
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Urine concentration during the day is dependent on age with older children having more concentrated urine in the latter part of the day. Growth inhibition is enhanced by concentrated urine. Compared to nalidixic acid and cephalexin, cotrimoxazole and cefixime produce a sustained bactericidal effect for about 60% of a 24-hour day due to the longer half-life.
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A retrospective cohort study of culture-positive N. gonorrhoeae infections at a single sexual health clinic in Toronto, Canada, that routinely performs test of cure. The cohort comprised N. gonorrhoeae culture-positive individuals identified between May 1, 2010, and April 30, 2011, treated with cefixime as recommended by Public Health Agency of Canada guidelines.
The susceptibility of N gonorrhoeae isolates, cultured during June-November 2004 mainly from consecutive patients with gonorrhoea (n = 76) in Arkhangelsk, to penicillin G, ampicillin, cefixime, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, azithromycin, kanamycin, spectinomycin and tetracycline was analysed using Etest. Nitrocefin discs were used for beta-lactamase detection.
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Healthcare facilities providing STI care were identified. Interviews were held with healthcare providers and STI patients and a manual check made of the STI register and standard medical history forms for female sex workers (SWs) registered with the 100% condom use program. Clinical management was assessed for SWs, women with vaginal discharge, and men with urethral discharge. Advice about condom use, partner notification, STI and HIV education, and availability of STI drugs were reviewed.
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Cefixime, a new orally absorbed cephalosporin, was compared by in vitro testing with other oral beta-lactams, including cephalexin, cefaclor, cefuroxime, amoxicillin, and amoxicillin + clavulanate. Enterobacteriaceae were inhibited by lower concentrations of cefixime than any of the reference drugs; 90% and 95% were inhibited by less than or equal to 1.0 and less than or equal to 8.0 micrograms/ml, respectively. Cefixime was the least active among these drugs against staphylococci, with only 31% of 1106 strains inhibited by less than or equal to 8.0 micrograms/ml and less than 1% by less than or equal to 1.0 microgram/ml. Enterococci and pseudomonads were not susceptible to any of the drugs tested. Penicillin-resistant pneumococci were relatively resistant to cefixime, but penicillin-susceptible pneumococci were very susceptible to cefixime. Other streptococci were generally susceptible to all compounds tested, with relative activities of amoxicillin greater than cefaclor and cefuroxime greater than cefixime greater than cephalexin. Cefixime was inactive against Bacteroides species. A slight inoculum effect occurred with cefixime with inocolum concentrations varying from 10(5) to 10(6) colony forming units per milliliter, but this was more marked at 10(7) colony forming units per milliliter. Cefixime was resistant to hydrolysis by seven common beta-lactamases. It inhibited the hydrolysis of nitrocefin only by type 1 cephalosporinases. The disk diffusion zone diameter breakpoints for the 30-micrograms cefixime disk were determined by regression analysis to be greater than or equal to 27 mm (susceptible) and less than or equal to 23 mm (resistant), respectively corresponding to minimal inhibitory concentration breakpoints of less than or equal to 1.0 and greater than or equal to 4.0 micrograms/ml. Because of the high interpretive error rate (13.8%) and the occurrence of these breakpoints on the parabolic portion of the regression curve, we recommend further evaluation of cefixime disks with lower potencies.
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To assess the efficacy of 200 mg cefixime in the treatment of uncomplicated gonorrhea.
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Use of preexposure antibiotic prophylaxis for syphilis control has been limited by concerns about acceptability and adverse behavioral effects.
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The antibiotic resistance of S. pneumoniae was serious in Wuhan area. The ribosomal modification (ermB gene mediated) was the main mechanism of S. pneumoniae resistant to erythromycin. The major prevalent serotypes were 19, 23 and 6.
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Urinary tract infection is the second most common clinical indication for empirical antibiotic treatment in primary and secondary health care settings. The incidence of diabetes mellitus throughout the world is increasing strikingly and in the long run, it has some major effects on the genitourinary system which makes diabetic patients more liable to urinary tract infection. This study is designed to reveal the distribution of uropathogens in diabetic patients according to age and sex, and corresponding resistance patterns.
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Two authors independently assessed study quality and extracted data. Statistical analyses were performed using the random effects model and the results expressed as relative risk (RR) for dichotomous outcomes or mean difference (WMD) for continuous data with 95% confidence intervals (CI).
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Moraxella catarrhalis isolates (n = 413) were collected from 20 clinical laboratories in England and Scotland in 1991 and were examined for beta-lactamase production by isoelectric focusing. beta-Lactamases were found in 375 isolates of which, 349 (93.1%) had BRO-1 enzyme and 26 (6.9%) had BRO-2. Minor variation in electrofocusing pattern occurred within both enzyme types. Ampicillin MICs for BRO-1 producers were 25-fold higher than for non-producers, but those for BRO-2 producers were raised only four-fold. MICs of cefaclor, cefixime, loracarbef, co-amoxiclav and cefetamet generally were two- to four-fold higher for BRO-1 producers than for BRO-2 producers and enzyme non-producers. Similarly, the inhibition zones of discs containing cefaclor, cefixime, loracarbef or co-amoxiclav were smaller for BRO-1 producers than for non-producers. Amongst the compounds tested, cefetamet seemed the least affected by beta-lactamase production in both MIC and disc tests. Overall, these results indicate that BRO-1 enzyme predominates amongst M. catarrhalis isolates from the UK, as in other countries, and suggest that BRO-1 production gives slight protection against many of the newer oral beta-lactams as well as causing ampicillin resistance.