Ceftin is used for treating bacterial infections (sinus, skin, lung, urinary tract, ear, and throat). It may also be used to treat Lyme disease and gonorrhea.
Other names for this medication:
Also known as: Cefuroxime.
Ceftin is a cephalosporin antibiotic. It works by interfering with the formation of the bacteria's cell wall so that the wall ruptures, resulting in the death of the bacteria.
Generic name of Ceftin is Cefuroxime.
Ceftin is also known as Cefuroxime axetil, Zinacef, Bacticef, Cefasun, Cefudura, Cefuhexal, Cefurax, Cefutil, Cetil, Froxime, Elobact, Oraxim, Zinnat.
Brand name of Ceftin is Ceftin.
Take Ceftin by mouth with or without food.
Swallow Ceftin whole. Do not break, crush, or chew before swallowing.
Ceftin works best if it is taken at the same time each day.
If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Ceftin suddenly. To clear up your infection completely, take Ceftin for the full course of treatment. Keep taking it even if you feel better in a few days.
If you overdose Ceftin and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.
Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.
The most common side effects associated with Ceftin are:
Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.
Do not take Ceftin if you are allergic to Ceftin components.
Ceftin should not be used for colds, flu, other virus infections, sore throats or other minor infections, or to prevent infections.
Be careful if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding.
Be careful if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement.
Be careful if you are diabetes patient. Ceftin may cause the results of some tests for urine glucose to be wrong.
To prevent pregnancy, use an extra form of birth control because hormonal birth control pills may not work as well while you are using Ceftin.
It can be dangerous to stop Ceftin taking suddenly.
We conducted a population-based, nested, case-control study using health care data from Ontario for the period April 2002 to March 2011. We identified cases as outpatients aged 66 years or older with no history of liver disease, and who were admitted to hospital for acute liver injury within 30 days of receiving a prescription for 1 of 5 broad-spectrum antibiotic agents: moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, cefuroxime axetil or clarithromycin. For each case, we selected up to 10 age- and sex-matched controls from among patients who had received a study antibiotic, but who were not admitted to hospital for acute liver injury. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) to determine the association between admission to hospital and previous exposure to an antibiotic agent, using clarithromycin as the reference.
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Hopefully this review has brought some cephalosporin contentment to replace cephalosporin confusion. From the classification of these antibiotics in Table 1, we have made some significant reductions. One should know how to use cefazolin for staphylococcal/streptococcal infections and for surgical prophylaxis. One should know that cephalexin is massively overused, and really now not all that useful an agent. Cefuroxime is a useful agent for beta-lactamase producing H. influenzae infections. Cefotetan has a role in surgical prophylaxis in ob/gyn and represents the best antianaerobic activity of the cephalosporins; although no cephalosporin is a primary drug for anaerobic infections. Cefuroxime axetil or cefprozil can be useful for comparatively minor infections due to beta-lactamase producing H. influenzae. A third generation cephalosporin represents a reasonable alternative, in certain situations, to aminoglycoside therapy for infections due to multiply drug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli. Ceftazidime is an alternative antipseudomonal beta-lactam antibiotic. Despite the lack of indications for use of cephalosporins as drugs of choice, rational use of these agents can provide safe, effective, and efficient therapy for a variety of infectious diseases. They will likely remain an important part of the physicians' antimicrobial armamentarium for the foreseeable future.
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Consecutive clinical isolates of carbapenem resistant A. baumannii complex were collected between February and July 2010. Species identification and susceptibility testing was performed by Vitek-2 colorimetric compact system with Advanced Expert System (AES). Strains were tested for carbapenemase production by the modified Hodge test, according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines.
Experts in the management of otitis media and the Drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae Therapeutic Working Group were convened by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to respond to changes in antimicrobial susceptibility among pneumococci. The objective was to provide consensus recommendations for the management of acute otitis media (AOM) and for the surveillance of drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. After summarizing published and unpublished data from the scientific literature and the experience of the panel members, the group concluded that oral amoxicillin should remain the first-line antimicrobial agent for treating AOM. For patients with clinically defined treatment failure after 3 days of therapy, useful alternative agents include amoxicillin-clavulanate, cefuroxime axetil, and intramuscular ceftriaxone. The group also made recommendations to improve surveillance and to obtain antimicrobial susceptibility patterns for local geographic areas.
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The probability of oral bioavailability for beta-lactam antibiotics is mainly determined by their affinity to PEPTI. A threshold K(i) value of 14 mM with respect to Gly-Sar uptake is required.
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Syntheses are described for penicillins (4b approximately 4i, 5a and 5b) which possess a 6 beta-(2-heteroaryl-3-substituted)-propenamido side-chain of fixed geometry. In vitro results for these compounds against a range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria showed in most cases good stability against both penicillinase and TEM-1 beta-lactamase; analogues (4b approximately 4i) bearing a 2-(2-aminothiazol-4-yl) unit showed the best intrinsic activity, the cyclohexyl compound (4b) being the most promising. The 1-acetoxyethyl ester (6) of 4b was also prepared; in experimental animal studies the in vivo properties of this compound compared favourably with cefuroxime axetil and are reported together with selected in vivo data for the other compounds.
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Four commonly-used methods (the paddle, rotating basket and flow-through cell from the US Pharmacopia, and a dialysis method) were employed to measure the dissolution rates of cefuroxime axetil as a model for nanodrug particles.
The results add clinical support for the use of cefuroxime axetil in pregnancy if an antibacterial is needed, thus offering an alternative if antibacterial resistance to older agents is an issue for the pregnant mother.
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To compare the effectiveness of oral moxifloxacin with standard antibiotic therapy in acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (AECB).
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The biological characteristics and molecular epidemiology of Pseudomonas aeruginosa associated with mink hemorrhagic pneumonia from Shandong province of eastern China were determined in this study. From 2010 to 2011, 30 mink P. aeruginosa isolates were identified from lung, fecal and feed samples of clinical cases and subjected to serotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility testing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using SpeI. The P. aeruginosa isolates belonged to four serotypes-21 of type G, four of type I, three of type M, one of type B, and one non-typable strain. The strains were divided into four large groups as determined by PFGE. Isolates from the group 2 were highly homologous and were obtained from the same region as an epidemic. All of the isolates were sensitive to piperacillin, piperacillin/tazobactam, ceftazidime, cefepime, imipenem, amikacin, gentamicin and tobramycin and resistant to ampicillin, cefuroxime and cefuroxime axetil. A high frequency of resistance was found to ampicillin/sulbactam, cefazolin, cefotetan, ceftriaxone, nitrofurantoin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (96.7%). Resistance to ticarcillin/clavulanic acid, ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin was less common (13.3%). There was no relationship between antibiotic resistance and serotype distribution of the isolates. The epidemic serotype of P. aeruginosa from the mink hemorrhagic pneumonia in Shandong province was type G, which was a clone of commonly found in this province. These findings reveal the genetic similarities and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of P. aeruginosa from clinical cases of mink hemorrhagic pneumonia and will facilitate the prevention and control of the disease in Shandong province of China.
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A European, prospective clinical trial in which doxycycline and cefuroxime axetil were compared in the treatment of adult patients with erythema migrans included a control group to address this question. Evaluations of patients were conducted at baseline, 14 days, and 2, 6, and 12 months after enrollment. Control subjects were evaluated at baseline and at 6 and 12 months. Subjective symptoms that newly developed or intensified since the onset of erythema migrans or the date of enrollment for controls were referred to as "new or increased symptoms."
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To evaluate a pilot project of social marketing of urethritis treatment packages. The project, initially designed for over the counter sale in private pharmacies, was finally restricted by national health authorities to primary healthcare settings in Yaoundé and Douala, Cameroon.
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Lyme borreliosis is an infectious disease caused by spirochaetal bacteria, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato , which is transmitted by Ixodes spp. ticks. Several of Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies are pathogenic to humans. Endemic areas of the disease in Europe include: Scandinavia, Eastern Europe, Austria, Germany, Slovenia. In Poland the number of reported cases has increased since 1996 and large majority of all cases are diagnosed in Podlasie and Warmia-Mazuria provinces. The earliest symptom of Lyme borreliosis is characteristic skin rash, erythema migrans. If untreated, it can affect the nervous system, joints and the heart. Initial diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis is based on symptoms, physical findings, and the history of a tick-bite. Centers for Disease Control recommended two-step laboratory testing. The first step is immunoserological testing with enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the presence of specific antibodies. Only in case of positive or equivocal EIA, the second step with western blot technique should be carried out. Other diagnostic methods are not recommended. In early stages of the disease patients should receive oral antibiotics, e.g. amoxicillin, doxycycline or cefuroxime axetil, with treatment lasting 14-21 days. In some cases (neuroborreliosis, carditis and chronic arthritis) patients require intravenous treatment usually with ceftriaxone or penicillin for 14-28 days. Superiority of longer therapy with higher doses of antibiotics, combination treatment with two or more antibiotics, or sequence therapy is not supported by any results of clinical trials, therefore it should not be applied and recommended according to the principles of evidence based medicine.
Cefuroxime axetil 250 mg twice daily and amoxycillin 250 mg three times daily were compared in an investigator-blind, randomised, parallel group, multicentre study of acute or acute-on-chronic bronchitis. The two compounds had broadly similar efficacy. Analysis of patients on an intention-to-treat basis 24-72 hours after completion of the course of study medication showed that amoxycillin afforded clinical cure or improvement in 123/153 (80.4%) of patients and cefuroxime axetil in 109/143 (76.2%). This result was not significantly different, but the amoxycillin cure rate was not sustained and there were significantly more clinical relapses during the 4-week follow-up period following the end of treatment. Only 4/68 (5.9%) of patients receiving cefuroxime axetil relapsed and required further treatment, whereas 16/77 (20.8%) of those receiving amoxycillin needed further treatment (P = 0.016). These were all patients who had initially responded to treatment and had been adjudged clinically cured or improved. The significant difference in relapse rates suggests that the apparent clinical success with amoxycillin was not sustained. There were no differences between the two treatments in the numbers of patients experiencing adverse events, which were generally mild and transient.
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To compare the efficacy of two sequential therapy regimens of IV cefuroxime followed by oral cefuroxime axetil for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP).
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We assessed the in vitro susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from patients with confirmed community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) to β-lactams, macrolides and fluoroquinolones and the association of non-susceptibility and resistance with serotypes/serogroups (STs/SGs), patient's risk factors and vaccination status. Samples (blood or lower respiratory tract) were obtained in 2007-2009 from 249 patients (from seven hospitals in Belgium) with a clinical and radiological diagnosis of CAP [median age 61 years (11.6% aged <5 years); 85% without previous antibiotic therapy; 86% adults with level II Niederman's severity score]. MIC determination (EUCAST breakpoints) showed for: (i) amoxicillin, 6% non-susceptible; cefuroxime (oral), 6.8% resistant; (ii) macrolides: 24.9% erythromycin-resistant [93.5% erm(B)-positive] but 98.4% telithromycin-susceptible; and (iii) levofloxacin and moxifloxacin, all susceptible. Amongst SGs: ST14, all resistant to macrolides and most intermediate to β-lactams; SG19 (>94% ST19A), 73.5% resistant to macrolides and 18-21% intermediate to β-lactams; and SG6, 33% resistant to clarithromycin. Apparent vaccine failures: 3/17 for 7-valent vaccine (children; ST6B, 23F); 16/29 for 23-valent vaccine (adults ST3, 7F, 12F, 14, 19A, 22F, 23F, 33F). Isolates from nursing home residents, hospitalised patients and patients with non-respiratory co-morbidities showed increased MICs for amoxicillin, all β-lactams, and β-lactams and macrolides, respectively. Regarding antibiotic susceptibilities: (i) amoxicillin is still useful for empirical therapy but with a high daily dose; (ii) cefuroxime axetil and macrolides (but not telithromycin) are inappropriate for empirical therapy; and (iii) moxifloxacin and levofloxacin are the next 'best empirical choice' (no resistant isolates) but levofloxacin will require 500 mg twice-daily dosing for effective coverage.
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Since oligopeptidic drugs such as beta-lactam antibiotics share the same carriers in humans and animals, the absorption and elimination kinetics of cefuroxime (C) were investigated in rats. Plasma C concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of C in the rat were examined after intravenous (i.v.) administration at three doses (1.78, 8.9 and 17.8mg) of cefuroxime sodium and oral administration at two doses (2.02 and 8.9mg) of cefuroxime axetil (CA). Preliminary fits using data from intravenous administration of C showed that the drug disposition kinetics were clearly nonlinear, with an increase in plasma clearance as the intravenous dose increased. After oral administration of CA, normalized C(max) was higher for smaller dose than for the largest dose. The population pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained by means of nonlinear mixed effect modelling approach according to a nonlinear elimination and nonlinear absorption two-compartment model. The nonlinear elimination could be attributed to a saturable renal tubular reabsorption of the antibiotic and nonlinear intestinal absorption of CA mediated by carrier system. The oral bioavailability of C, calculated by numeric integration of an amount of CA drug absorbed was 22 and 17% for 2.02 and 8.9mg of prodrug administered orally.
The approaches to diagnosing and treating Lyme disease (LD) have been improved and refined as a result of basic and clinical research, and considerable practical experience. In addition, there have been recent studies that have allowed improvements in the ability to prevent infection with Borrelia burgdorferi. This paper will review the relevant literature and address recent developments in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of LD. Issues specifically related to the management of children will be identified. Controversies regarding treatment approaches will be examined in some detail. Understanding the clinical manifestations, or stage, of LD is crucial when approaching both diagnosis and treatment. Early localized disease is best diagnosed by recognizing the characteristic skin lesion, erythema migrans. Early disease will frequently, but not always, be accompanied by a detectable antibody response, particularly IgM antibody to the spirochete. Late disease, chiefly arthritis, is generally associated with high levels of IgG antibody. Western blot technology allows confirmation of enzyme immunoassay results and is especially useful when the latter is in the low or equivocal range. Early localized disease responds well to oral antibacterial therapy. Early disseminated disease, often associated with neurologic findings, may require parenteral therapy. The arthritis associated with LD frequently responds to oral antibacterials, but some refractory cases may require intravenous therapy, and occasionally surgery. Doxycycline is the oral antibacterial of choice, while amoxicillin and cefuroxime axetil are alternatives that may be preferred in young children. Owing to its long half-life and once daily dose administration, intravenous ceftriaxone has become the accepted standard for parenteral therapy. Tick avoidance has long been the mainstay for preventing LD. Antibacterial prophylaxis, using doxycycline, for tick bites has been shown to be an effective approach to prevention, but its relevance to pediatrics is uncertain. Vaccines designed to prevent infection have also been developed.
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Cefuroxime axetil has been shown to have efficacy comparable to doxycycline in adults with early Lyme disease (LD). Because of toxicity, doxycycline is usually avoided in children. For children who are unable to tolerate amoxicillin, there is currently no proven alternative oral therapy for LD. This randomized, unblinded study compared 2 dosage regimens of cefuroxime axetil (20 mg/kg/d and 30 mg/kg/d) with amoxicillin (50 mg/kg/d), each given for 20 days. Children were enrolled if they were 6 months to 12 years of age, had erythema migrans, and met other eligibility requirements. Serologic testing occurred at entry and after 6 months. Follow-up evaluations for safety, tolerability, and efficacy occurred at 10 and 20 days, 6 months, and 1 year. Forty-three children were randomized (13 in the amoxicillin group, 15 in each cefuroxime axetil group); 39 completed 12 months of follow-up. At the completion of treatment, there was total resolution of erythema migrans in 67% of the amoxicillin group, 92% of the low-dose cefuroxime group, and 87% of the high-dose cefuroxime group, and resolution of constitutional symptoms occurred in 100%, 69%, and 87%, respectively. All patients had a good outcome, with no long-term problems associated with LD. One patient, who was well at the first 2 follow-up visits, was treated with doxycycline because of new constitutional symptoms. Mild diarrhea occurred in a small number of participants in each group (1 patient was diagnosed and treated for Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, which occurred after completing the full course of study medication). No hypersensitivity reactions occurred. The number of patients in this trial was not sufficient to demonstrate a statistically significant difference between the 3 groups; however, both amoxicillin and cefuroxime axetil seem to be safe, efficacious treatments for children with early LD.
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Antimicrobial agents play an important role in the treatment of patients with acute otitis media and otitis media with effusion (OME). The study was undertaken to determine the concentrations of cefuroxime in the blood and middle ear effusions (MEE) of children between 6 and 12 years of age with acute otitis media and chronic OME after a single oral dose administration of cefuroxime axetil, the ester prodrug of cefuroxime. Cefuroxime axetil (250 mg) was administered 2 to 6 hours before either myringotomy for acute otitis media or myringotomy and tube insertion for chronic OME. Blood samples and middle ear aspirates were obtained from 31 children and the samples were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. Cefuroxime was recovered in measurable concentrations in all serum samples and in 15 (79%) of the 19 MEE specimens analyzed. No correlation was seen between cefuroxime MEE concentrations and effusion type, bacteriology or serum concentrations. This study shows that cefuroxime does penetrate into MEE when OME is present and that therapeutic concentrations can be achieved in some patients.
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The 2 cefuroxime axetil preparations, examined in accordance with the European Union bioequivalence requirements, are equivalent with respect to rate and extent of absorption.
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Little information is available about the effect of antibiotic treatment on the prevalence and MIC of the subsequently isolated pathogens in cases of acute otitis media (AOM) failing a course of antibiotic therapy. This information is important, particularly regarding the effectiveness of the oral antibiotics used in children failing initial therapy.
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14 patients (10.9% [95% CI, 6.1% to 17.7%]) had positive results on skin tests for cephalosporins, mostly for cephalothin or cefamandole. Skin test results for the minor determinant mixture were positive in 10 of 14 patients (71.4%) with cross-reactivity and 44 of 114 patients (38.6%) without cross-reactivity (odds ratio, 3.90 [CI, 1.17 to 13.40]; P = 0.0189). All 101 patients with negative results on skin tests for cefuroxime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, and cefotaxime tolerated cefuroxime axetil and ceftriaxone (tolerability rate, 100% [CI, 96.4% to 100%]).
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To know the variability of treatment of acute otitis media in Spain and the appropriateness of such with respect to consensus.
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To compare the efficacy and tolerability of a 5-day course of telithromycin (800 mg once daily) with a 10-day course of telithromycin or standard comparators (amoxicillin-clavulanate 500/125 mg three times daily or cefuroxime axetil 250 mg twice daily) in patients with acute maxillary sinusitis (AMS).
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Clinical isolates of Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Moraxella catarrhalis were gathered from 19 different clinical laboratories throughout the continental United States. The in vitro activities of 12 orally administered antimicrobial agents were compared by broth microdilution tests with 3,151 bacterial isolates. Among 890 H. influenzae isolates, 30% were capable of producing beta-lactamase enzymes (12 to 41% in different medical centers). Most of the 619 beta-lactamase-negative H. influenzae strains were susceptible to ampicillicin (MIC, < or = 1.0 micrograms/ml): 5 strains were intermediate in susceptibility (MIC, 2.0 micrograms/ml) and 1 strain was ampilicillin resistant (MIC, 4.0 micrograms/ml). Ninety-two percent of 698 M. catarrhalis strains were beta-lactamase positive. Of 799 S. pneumoniae isolates, 15% were intermediate in susceptibility to penicillin and 7% were resistant to penicillin. The prevalence of penicillin-susceptible pneumococci in different institutions ranged from 63 to 95%. Only 1% of 764 S. pyogenes isolates were resistant to the macrolides, but 5% of S. pneumoniae isolates were macrolide resistant. Only 71% of 58 penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae isolates were erythromycin susceptible, whereas 97% of the 622 penicillin-susceptible strains were erythromycin susceptible. Penicillin-resistant pneumococci were also relatively resistant to the cephalosporins and amoxicillin. Penicillin-susceptible pneumococci were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (MIC for 90% of isolates tested [MIC90], < or = 0.12/0.06 microgram/ml), cefixime (MIC90, 0.25 microgram/ml), cefuroxime axetil (MIC90, < or = 0.5 microgram/ml), cefprozil (MIC90, < or = 0.5 micrograms/ml), cefaclor (MIC90, 0.5 microgram/ml), and loracarbef (MIC90, 1.0 microgram/ml). Most strains of the other species remained susceptible to the study drugs other than amoxicillin.
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