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A 31-year-old man ingested 400 mg of citalopram (Celexa) after an argument with his parents and girlfriend 13 h before presentation. Paramedics witnessed the patient having a generalized clonic seizure. The electrocardiogram (EKG) revealed a wide QRS complex, prolongation of the QTc interval, and left bundle branch pattern. He was treated with sodium bicarbonate with resolution of these changes. The patient was continued on a sodium bicarbonate infusion and demonstrated no further EKG abnormalities. Sodium bicarbonate should be considered as a treatment modality in patients with EKG abnormalities of prolongation of QRS or QTc interval after citalopram overdose.
Deconstruction of court documents revealed that protocol-specified outcome measures showed no statistically significant difference between citalopram and placebo. However, the published article concluded that citalopram was safe and significantly more efficacious than placebo for children and adolescents, with possible adverse effects on patient safety.
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Using two years (2011-2012) of usage logs from UpToDate, we measured the volume of searches related to medical conditions with significant burden in the United States, as well as the seasonal distribution of those searches. We quantified the relationship between searches and resulting page views. Using a large collection of online mainstream media articles and Web log posts we also characterized the uptake of a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) alert via changes in UpToDate search activity compared with general online media activity related to the subject of the alert.
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Generic agents do not require large clinical trials of safety and efficacy to enter the market, although they must demonstrate both pharmacological and bioequivalence to the brand name drug. Bioequivalence is attained when the extent of absorption of the generic falls within an FDA predefined range relative to the brand name drug. This potential variation in bioequivalence is not thought to be clinically meaningful, however, there are reports of a lack of therapeutic equivalence between some generic medications and the brand name. This study examines the potential risks posed by a switch from Celexa to generic citalopram. Twenty patients at an Anxiety Disorders Clinic who were unknowingly switched to generic citalopram, from Celexa (Lundbeck, Montreal, Quebec, Canada) and experienced a re-emergence of their anxiety symptoms or development of new adverse events are described in this case series report. The mean time for re-emergence of symptoms or development of adverse events was 3.4 +/- 1.6 weeks (range 0.5-8 weeks). All patients reestablished previous treatment response with a change back to Celexa in a mean time of 3.8 +/- 2.6 weeks (range 0.7-12 weeks). Given these results, it is important for clinicians to be aware of the potential for loss of treatment effect or symptom re-emergence posed by a switch to a generic agent. Randomized, double blind, controlled investigations would likely provide useful information as current bioequivalence and pharmacological equivalence do not necessarily translate into clinical equivalence.
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Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are neurologically active drugs that can contaminate surface waters and have the potential to negatively affect aquatic organisms. In this investigation, the 48-h acute toxicity of mixtures (binary and quaternary) of four common SSRIs (fluoxetine [Prozac], sertraline [Zoloft], paroxetine [Paxil], and citalopram [Celexa]) were determined in the daphnid Ceriodaphnia dubia. Logistic regression was used to model mortality data and to investigate the applicability of concentration addition and independent action models to explain observed mortality. The concentrations estimated to induce 50% mortality in 48 h for the individual SSRIs sertraline, fluoxetine, paroxetine, and citalopram were 0.48 to 0.66, 1.23 to 1.84, 2.23 to 3.57, and 10.47 to 14.53 microM, respectively. Concentration addition was a better predictor of mixture effects than independent action and suggested that the tested SSRIs have a similar mechanism of action. Results indicate that environmental hazard assessments should be conservative and consider that acutely toxic effects in aquatic organisms can be additive for each SSRI in a mixture.
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Drugs take effect at different times in different individuals. Consequently, researchers seek to examine how the timing of the biological response to drugs may be affected by factors such as gender, genotypes, age, or baseline symptom scores.
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To analyze health care professionals' information-seeking behavior and assess the feasibility of measuring drug-safety alert response from the usage logs of an online medical information resource.
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Depression is a rapidly growing issue in the United States. There are many drug classes that may be used to treat depression, including the selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) citalopram (Celexa®) and sertraline (Zoloft®), as well as the aminoketone bupropion (Wellbutrin®). However, therapeutic efficacy and treatment success is often variable, requiring changes in dosing regimens or drug selection. Methods for drug quantification can become important tools in the assessment of drug efficacy to optimize treatment regimens. Here, we present a turbulent flow-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (TFC-MS/MS) method for the robust, simultaneous quantification of citalopram, sertraline, bupropion and its active metabolite, hydroxybupropion (OH-bupropion).
The prognosis for SSRI ingestion in this population of cats was excellent. Decontamination and supportive care for at least 12-24 hours can be considered in cats with SSRI ingestion, particularly venlafaxine to monitor resolution of clinical signs.
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Contamination of surface waters by pharmaceutical chemicals has raised concern among environmental scientists because of the potential for negative effects on aquatic organisms. Of particular importance are pharmaceutical compounds that affect the nervous or endocrine systems because effects on aquatic organisms are possible at low environmental concentrations. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are drugs used to treat clinical depression in humans, and have been detected in low concentrations in surface waters. In this investigation, the acute and chronic toxicity of five SSRIs (fluoxetine, Prozac; fluvoxamine, Luvox; paroxetine, Paxil; citalopram, Celexa; and sertraline, Zoloft) were evaluated in the daphnid Ceriodaphnia dubia. For each SSRI, the 48-h median lethal concentration (LC50) was determined in three static tests with neonate C. dubia, and chronic (8-d) tests were conducted to determine no-observable-effect concentrations (NOEC) and lowest-observable-effect concentrations (LOEC) for reproduction endpoints. The 48-h LC50 for the SSRIs ranged from 0.12 to 3.90 mg/L and the order of toxicity of the compounds was (lowest to highest): Citalopram, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, fluoxetine, sertraline. Mortality data for the 8-d chronic tests were similar to the 48-h acute data. The SSRIs negatively affected C. dubia reproduction by reducing the number of neonates per female, and for some SSRIs, by reducing the number of broods per female. For sertraline, the most toxic SSRI, the LOEC for the number of neonates per female was 0.045 mg/L and the NOEC was 0.009 mg/L. Results indicate that SSRIs can impact survival and reproduction of C. dubia; however, only at concentrations that are considerably higher than those expected in the environment.
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Escitalopram (Lexapro) is the active s-enantiomer of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), citalopram (Celexa). It is labeled for the treatment of major depressive disorder.
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Diseases and symptoms dominate UpToDate searches. Some searches result in page views of only short duration, while others consistently result in longer-than-average page views. The response to an FDA alert for Celexa, characterized by a change in UpToDate search activity, differed considerably from general online media activity. Changes in search activity appeared later and persisted longer in UpToDate logs. The volume of searches and page view durations related to Celexa before the alert also differed from those after the alert.
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In August 2011, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration issued a drug safety communication that the antidepressant drug citalopram (Celexa®) should not be used at dosages greater than 40 mg per day (or greater than 20 mg per day for patients 60 and older) because higher doses have been associated with abnormal heart rhythms. Clinical studies using citalopram in patients with cardiac disease and in older patients do not confirm such a risk. The major metabolite of citalopram is demethylcitalopram, which is subsequently metabolized to the minor metabolite didemethylcitalopram (DDCT). High DDCT concentrations have been associated with QT interval prolongation in beagle dogs. Therapeutic drug monitoring study data suggest that routine or even high oral doses of citalopram are unlikely to result in cardiotoxic concentrations of the DDCT metabolite. Based on evidence taken from a wide variety of studies, the citalopram dose limitations described in the safety announcement do not have strong clinical justification.
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Background: Cataplexy is a disabling component of the narcolepsy tetrad that is sometimes resistant to standard treatment.Case reports: Three of our patients with narcolepsy, including one who had post-traumatic narcolepsy, suffered from intractable cataplexy with failure of treatment with established drugs due to unacceptable side-effects.Results: We explored the use of citalopram (Celexa), the newest and most specific of the serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and were successful in treating cataplexy without significant side-effects. Stimulant drugs remained necessary for controlling symptoms of excessive drowsiness.Conclusions: Citalopram was effective in relieving the symptoms of resistant cataplexy in out patients.
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Previous reviews have focused on the potential cardiac toxicity of the racemic drug citalopram (Celexa(®)). Evaluating the safety of escitalopram (Lexapro(®)) is an important issue to consider, since it is the S-enantiomer of citalopram. Escitalopram has a small effect on the QTc interval. A prolonged QTc was seen in 2% to 14% of escitalopram overdose cases, without serious cardiac sequelae. The QTc prolongation effect of citalopram in beagle dogs has been attributed to the minor metabolite racemic didemethylcitalopram (DDCT). Whether the escitalopram minor metabolite S-DDCT has this effect is not known. Concentrations of S-DDCT are lower than DDCT, but for a broad range of doses of escitalopram and citalopram, the S-DDCT and DDCT concentrations are well below the QTc prolonging concentrations reported in dogs. There is no strong evidence from human and animal studies that the cardiac safety of escitalopram is significantly superior to that of citalopram.
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The medical records of cats with a witnessed SSRI ingestion identified by review of an animal poison control center electronic database were evaluated. The most common SSRIs ingested were venlafaxine (Effexor; 12/33; 36%), fluoxetine (Prozac; 12/33; 36%), citalopram (Celexa; 6/33; 18%), and escitalopram (Lexapro; 3/33; 9%). Overall, 24% of cats (8/33) became symptomatic, while 76% (25/33) remained asymptomatic. Of the symptomatic cats, sedation was the most common clinical sign (6/8; 75%), followed by gastrointestinal signs (4/8; 50%), central nervous system stimulation (1/8; 13%), cardiovascular signs (1/8; 13%), and hyperthermia (1/8; 13%). Veterinary care was sought in 20 cats (20/33; 61%). Sixteen cats (16/20; 80%) were hospitalized, while 4 cats (4/20; 20%) were treated as outpatients. Treatment for hospitalized patients included administration of IV fluid therapy (14/16; 88%), activated charcoal (12/16; 75%), anti-arrhythmic agents (7/16; 44%), methocarbamol (6/16; 38%), cyproheptadine (6/16; 38%), anti-emetics (5/16; 31%), and sedation (5/16; 31%). Diagnostics included blood work (7/16; 44%), blood pressure measurement (3/16; 19%), and electrocardiogram monitoring (2/16; 13%). Mean hospitalization time for all cases of SSRI ingestion was 14.6 ± 7.8 hours (n = 16). All symptomatic cats in this study (8/8; 100%) had resolution of clinical signs and survived to discharge.
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To evaluate the economic impact of implementing a sertraline (Zoloft--Pfizer) tablet-splitting program on the Nebraska Medicaid program based on the change in total and per-member-per-month (PMPM) prescription drug costs and to identify any real or perceived problems with tablet splitting using switches among selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) as a proxy indicator.
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Total costs, PMPM costs, and switches among SSRIs.
Thirty-three witnessed cat SSRI ingestions.
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The published article contained efficacy and safety data inconsistent with the protocol criteria. Procedural deviations went unreported imparting statistical significance to the primary outcome, and an implausible effect size was claimed; positive post hoc measures were introduced and negative secondary outcomes were not reported; and adverse events were misleadingly analysed. Manuscript drafts were prepared by company employees and outside ghostwriters with academic researchers solicited as 'authors'.