To identify the risk factors for the development of postoperative septic complications in patients with intestinal perforation after abdominal trauma, and to compare the efficacies of single-drug and dual-drug prophylactic antibiotic therapy, we studied 145 patients who presented with abdominal trauma and intestinal perforation at two hospitals between July 1979 and June 1982. Logistic-regression analysis showed that a higher risk of infection (P less than 0.05) was associated with increased age, injury to the left colon necessitating colostomy, a larger number of units of blood or blood products administered at surgery, and a larger number of injured organs. The presence of shock on arrival, which was found to increase the risk of infection when this factor was analyzed individually, did not add predictive power. Patients with postoperative sepsis were hospitalized significantly longer than were patients without infection (13.8 vs. 7.7 days, P less than 0.0001). Both treatment regimens--cefoxitin given alone and clindamycin and gentamicin given together--resulted in similar infection rates, drug toxicity, duration of hospitalization, and costs.
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Among 200 Staphylococcus aureus strains, 50 (25%) were found to be MRSA and 36 were D-test positive. Also, MRSA isolates showed both higher inducible resistance and constitutive resistance to clindamycin as compared to Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). Out of 36 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus showing inducible clindamycin resistance, 24 were from the outpatient department and 12 were recovered from indoor patients. All isolates of Staphylococcus aureus showed 100% sensitivity to vancomycin and linezolid.
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A major concern while prescribing clindamycin to treat infections caused by inducible macrolide, lincosamide, and group B streptogramin (iMLS(B))-resistant strains is clinical therapy failure. In this study, we determined the prevalence, mechanism, and clonality of the iMLS(B) phenotype in oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (ORSA) and oxacillin-susceptible S. aureus (OSSA). Among the 729 OSSA isolates collected from July 1995 to March 2006, 72 (10%) were clindamycin sensitive (Cli(s)) and erythromycin resistant (Erm(r)), and 55 (8%) had the iMLS(B) phenotype. In the 709 ORSA isolates collected from January 1997 to March 2006, 31 (4%) were Cli(s) and Erm(r), and 29 (4%) isolates demonstrated the iMLS(B) phenotype. In OSSA, ermC was the predominant (51 of 55 isolates) genetic determinant responsible for the iMLS(B) phenotype, whereas in ORSA, ermA was predominant (27 of 29). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that 8 pulsed types (RA to RH) were present in ORSA isolates (n = 27), and pulsed type RC was predominant in 17 isolates with 5 identifiable subtypes (RC1 to RC5); this type was prevalent from November 1997 to June 2004. In the OSSA (n = 24) isolates, 14 different pulsed types (SA to SN) were identified, but none was predominant. These results indicate that the incidence of iMLS(B) resistance phenotype is higher in OSSA than ORSA in Taiwan, and the genetic determinants responsible for the iMLS(B) phenotype vary in OSSA and ORSA.
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MICs were determined using Etest(®) for all antibiotics except erythromycin, which was evaluated by disc diffusion. Susceptibility was assessed using CLSI, EUCAST and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) breakpoints. For macrolide/clindamycin interpretation, breakpoints were adjusted for incubation in CO2 where available.
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An evaluation is made of bacterial species and susceptibility to various antibiotics used in application to odontogenic infections of periapical location and in pericoronitis of the lower third molar, with the aim of optimizing the antibiotherapy of such infections and thus preventing unnecessary side effects and over-treatment.
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Isolation of a bacterial strain at the infectious site and determination of the susceptibility profile may help to guide appropriate antibiotic treatment. However technical difficulties justify interpretative reading to recognize interfering resistance mechanisms from resistance phenotypes. The aim of this article is to give some examples showing interpretative reading of routine sensitivity test data.
Daily thoracocentesis and treatment with an appropriate antibiotic instilled into the pleural space, continued until the returns are clear, may still have a significant role in the treatment of empyema, thereby avoiding the discomforts and disadvantages of chest tube insertion.
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To test the hypothesis that questionnaire organization affects the recall of antimalarial drugs utilization. Setting Maputo, Mozambique.
Microbial (and clinical) results support use of clindamycin as effective treatment of bacterial vaginosis.
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Resistance to antimicrobial agents among Staphylococcus aureus is an increasing problem. Two common genes responsible for resistance to macrolide, lincosamide and streptogramin B (MLSB) antibiotics are the ermA and ermC genes. Three resistance phenotypes have been detected to these antibiotics: strains containing cMLSB (constitutive MLSB) and iMLSB (inducible MLSB), which are resistant to macrolide, lincosamide and streptogramin B antibiotics, and MS, which is only resistant to macrolide and streptogramin B antibiotics. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of MLSB phenotypes and genotypes in erythromycin-resistant strains of S. aureus isolated from patients in 4 university hospitals in Tehran, Iran.
Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) differs from healthcare-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) in its molecular and microbiological characteristics.
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In children aged 0-2 years old, the MIC50 values of penicillins decreased after 2010 (PCG: 1 μg/ml (2010) to 0.06 μg/ml (2012); ABPC: 1 μg/ml (2010) to 0.25 μg/ml (2012)). The prevalence of penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (PRSP) decreased from 35.2% (2010) to 14.6% (2012) in rhinorrhea specimens and from 43.4% (2010) to 14.3% (2012) in otorrhea specimens. Susceptibility to cephems (ceftriaxone and cefditoren) and carbapenems (panipenem) also showed improvement after 2010. For macrolides (clarithromycin) and lincosamides (clindamycin), MIC50 values increased in all age groups during the study period, and a high level of resistance was seen until 2012. There were no marked changes of susceptibility to fluoroquinolones (LVFX) during the study period.
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Acne is the common skin problem that 85% of the teenagers face today. In this study, poly herbal anti-acne face wash gels were prepared using two polymers Carbopol and hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) along with the extracts of plants Rawvolfia serpentina, Curcuma longa, and Azadiracta indica.
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Solutions of ceftriaxone in either diluent retained more than 95.2% of the initial concentration for 2 days at room temperature and more than 91.6% of the initial concentration for 14 days at 4°C. Solutions of cefazolin in D5W or NS retained more than 90% of the initial concentration for at least 3 days at room temperature and for at least 26 days at 4°C. Solutions of ceftazidime in D5W or NS retained more than 90% of the initial concentration for only 1 day when stored at room temperature and for at least 4 days at 4°C. Solutions of clindamycin or vancomycin in D5W or NS retained 90% of the initial concentration for at least 7.5 days at room temperature and at least 90% of the initial concentration for at least 27.8 days at 4°C.
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This article describes a 26-year-old African American woman with moderate inflammatory facial acne vulgaris. On examination, she had over 15 inflammatory papules on her face and post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation. The patient had a history of treatment failure with the following therapies: topical benzoyl peroxide, topical antibiotics, topical retinoids and oral antibiotics. At presentation, the patient was using a combination topical benzoyl peroxide/clindamycin product in the morning and tazoratene gel in the evening without success. The patient was treated with 20% aminolevulinic acid/blue-light photodynamic therapy spaced monthly for a total of four treatments, a once-daily application of hydroquinone 4% cream and her existing topical regimen. The patient reported significant improvement of inflammatory acne lesions and post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation following two treatments with photodynamic therapy and was virtually clear of all acne lesions after the third treatment.
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The antimicrobial susceptibilities of Staphylococcus aureus isolates were concurrently determined by the Sceptor system (BBL Microbiology Systems, Cockeysville, Md.) and by the standard disk diffusion method. For the methicillin-resistant isolates, there was greater than 98% agreement between the two test results with penicillin G, erythromycin, clindamycin, tetracycline, gentamicin, and tobramycin. Major disagreements (susceptible by one method and resistant by the other) were 7% for methicillin, 13.5% for cephalothin, 3.5% for cefamandole, and 27% for amikacin. The major discrepancies for methicillin were eliminated by supplementing the inoculum broth with salt. For methicillin-susceptible isolates, agreement between the two methods was 96 to 100% for all antibiotics except amikacin.
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A case of recurrent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) neck infection in an HIV-infected patient is presented. HIV infection is a known risk factor for the development of MRSA infections; this report suggests that HIV infection may also increase the risk of recurrent disease. Among HIV-infected persons, risk factors for MRSA infection include injection drug use, low CD4+ cell count, high HIV viral load, sex partners with skin infections, absence of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis, and recent receipt of a beta-lactam antibiotic. The diagnosis of MRSA infection should be entertained and the appropriate cultures obtained when HIV-infected persons present with soft tissue infections. Given the rising rates of MRSA infection among HIV-infected persons, empiric antibiotics may be recommended. Since inducible resistance to clindamycin is increasing in MRSA isolates, an erythromycin/clindamycin "D-zone" test should be performed before this antibiotic is used. Educating HIV-infected patients about the risk factors for MRSA infection and hygienic measures to potentially reduce infection is advocated; further studies of preventive strategies in this population are needed.
Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) was investigated as a tool for monitoring the human intestinal microflora during antibiotic treatment and during ingestion of a probiotic product. Fecal samples from eight healthy volunteers were taken before, during, and after administration of clindamycin. During treatment, four subjects were given a probiotic, and four subjects were given a placebo. Changes in the microbial intestinal community composition and relative abundance of specific microbial populations in each subject were monitored by using viable counts and T-RFLP fingerprints. T-RFLP was also used to monitor specific bacterial populations that were either positively or negatively affected by clindamycin. Some dominant bacterial groups, such as Eubacterium spp., were easily monitored by T-RFLP, while they were hard to recover by cultivation. Furthermore, the two probiotic Lactobacillus strains were easily tracked by T-RFLP and were shown to be the dominant Lactobacillus community members in the intestinal microflora of subjects who received the probiotic.
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Among the 994 procedures in which AICs had been used, 30 shunts were subsequently revised because of shunt infection. Among the 994 controls, 47 were subsequently revised for infection (p = 0.048, chi-square test).
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In order of importance: efficacy, side effects and cost.
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Infectious diseases transmitted by actinomycosis species cause severe destructive lesions. This rare and specific infection is mainly found in the orofacial regions. Causes of any hard tissue swelling in the jaw have, thus, to be assessed carefully. When actinomycosis is identified, a surgical intervention with curettement, draining and long-term antibiosis is required. The aim of the current article is to describe two clinical cases and to show the necessity of both, microbiological and histological laboratory diagnostics, to hedge the clinic diagnosis.
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To longitudinally assess fecal shedding and animal-to-animal transmission of Clostridium difficile among finishing feedlot cattle as a risk for beef carcass contamination, we tested 186 ± 12 steers (mean ± standard deviation; 1,369 samples) in an experimental feedlot facility during the finishing period and at harvest. Clostridium difficile was isolated from 12.9% of steers on arrival (24/186; 0 to 33% among five suppliers). Shedding decreased to undetectable levels a week later (0%; P < 0.001), and remained low (< 3.6%) until immediately prior to shipment for harvest (1.2%). Antimicrobial use did not increase fecal shedding, despite treatment of 53% of animals for signs of respiratory disease. Animals shedding C. difficile on arrival, however, had 4.6 times higher odds of receiving antimicrobials for respiratory signs than nonshedders (95% confidence interval for the odds ratio, 1.4 to 14.8; P = 0.01). Neither the toxin genes nor toxin A or B was detected in most (39/42) isolates based on two complementary multiplex PCRs and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay testing, respectively. Two linezolid- and clindamycin-resistant PCR ribotype 078 (tcdA+/tcdB+/cdtB+/39-bp-type deletion in tcdC) isolates were identified from two steers (at arrival and week 20), but these ribotypes did not become endemic. The other toxigenic isolate (tcdA+/tcdB+/cdtB+/classic tcdC; PCR ribotype 078-like) was identified in the cecum of one steer at harvest. Spatio-temporal analysis indicated transient shedding with no evidence of animal-to-animal transmission. The association between C. difficile shedding upon arrival and the subsequent need for antimicrobials for respiratory disease might indicate common predisposing factors. The isolation of toxigenic C. difficile from bovine intestines at harvest highlights the potential for food contamination in meat processing plants.
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Most cases of childhood AHOM can be treated for 20 days, including a short period intravenously, with large doses of a well-absorbed antimicrobial such as clindamycin or a first-generation cephalosporin, provided the clinical response is good and C-reactive protein normalizes within 7 to 10 days. Extensive surgery is rarely needed.
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Patients were prospectively randomized into groups to evaluate the efficacy of an AIS system against an identical control shunt system. The data accrued were subjected to a detailed statistical analysis. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the independent association between outcome and predictor variables. Shunt function analysis was also performed to compare the average time to infection between the two groups. One hundred ten patients were recruited; 60 received control shunt systems and 50 received AIS systems. Thirteen shunt infections were recorded (10 in the control group and three in the AIS group). Nine (69%) of 13 infections occurred within 2 months after shunt implantation (eight of 10 in the control group and one of three in the AIS group). Apart from one patient in whom no organism was identified, a total of 14 organisms (12 patients) were cultured from either the CSF (nine) or the shunt apparatus (three). Staphylococcus species accounted for the majority of shunt infections (83%): all 10 control shunts were found to have a positive culture of staphylococci, whereas none of the AISs had any staphylococci (p = 0.038).
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Infections due to antimicrobial-resistant viridans group streptococci are increasing. The present study was done to determine the frequency of antibiotic resistance among community-acquired viridans group streptococci isolated from blood cultures and to identify the risk factors associated with acquiring antibiotic-resistant viridans group streptococci. Twenty-eight community-acquired viridans group streptococcal isolates were recovered from 27 patients, of which 89%, 86%, 79%, 61%, and 39% were susceptible to ceftriaxone, clindamycin, tetracycline, penicillin, and erythromycin, respectively; 100% were susceptible to levofloxacin and vancomycin. Among the patients with previous antibiotic use, 73% had penicillin non-susceptible viridans group streptococci, compared with 18% who did not receive prior antibiotics (p = 0.006). Patients with and without prior antibiotic use, 27% and 0%, respectively, had ceftriaxone non-susceptible viridans group streptococci isolates, respectively (p = 0.05). Patients with and without prior antibiotic use, 45% and 6%, respectively, had tetracycline non-susceptible viridans group streptococci isolates, respectively (p = 0.02). No other risk factors for isolation of non-susceptible viridans group streptococci were identified.
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A case report of severe rhabdomyolysis in a patient who presented with endocarditis caused by methicillin-susceptible S. aureus and review of relevant literature.
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Bacterial vaginosis is common among patients seen by gynecologists. Several types of therapy have been proposed. The purpose of this prospective, randomized, double-blind clinical trial was to examine the efficacy of clindamycin vaginal cream for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis. Sixty patients with symptoms of bacterial vaginosis were randomized into the study, and 46 completed the protocol. Twenty-three patients received 2% clindamycin vaginal cream (5 g applied intravaginally at bedtime for 7 days), with placebo oral tablets twice daily for 7 days. The other 23 patients received oral metronidazole tablets (500 mg twice a day for 7 days) and placebo vaginal cream (5 g intravaginally for 7 days). The cure rates for the two regimens were comparable. Twenty-two (97%) of the patients treated with clindamycin vaginal cream had improvement or cure at the first follow-up visit versus 19 (83%) of those taking metronidazole. There was no statistically significant difference between the two results. Side effects for both regimens were comparable. We conclude that 2% clindamycin vaginal cream offers similar efficacy and safety to standard oral metronidazole therapy for bacterial vaginosis.
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Forty-five patients completed treatment. Investigator-rated scores for erythema, dryness, and peeling were significantly higher with adapalene/BPO than clindamycin/BPO. Patients rated clindamycin/BPO as significantly more tolerable than adapalene/BPO for redness, dryness, burning, itching, and scaling. Investigator Static Global Assessment scores and lesion counts improved with both products, with no significant difference between treatments. Patients' Global Change Assessment showed a statistically significant difference in favor of clindamycin/BPO at week 1, but not week 2. Overall, >80% of patients were "satisfied" or "very satisfied" with treatment at week 2, but 63% of patients stated that they preferred clindamycin/BPO. Both products were well tolerated, with no serious adverse events (AEs), but a post hoc analysis indicated that treatment-related AEs, including irritation, dryness and erythema, were significantly less common with clindamycin/BPO.