Generic Combivir is used for treating HIV infection in combination with other medicines.
Other names for this medication:
Also known as: Lamivudine\Zidovudine.
Generic Combivir is an antiviral combination. Lamivudine and Zidovudine are both nucleoside analogues that work together to slow the growth of HIV by blocking an enzyme needed by the virus to reproduce.
Generic Name of Generic Combivir is Lamivudine plus Zidovudine.
Combivir is also known as Lamivudine, Zidovudine, Duovir.
Brand name of Generic Combivir is Combivir.
Generic Combivir is available in tablets which should be taken orally.
Take Generic Combivir with or without food.
Continue to use Generic Combivir even if you feel well. Do not miss any doses.
Take Generic Combivir at the same time each day.
Do not stop taking it suddenly.
If you overdose Generic Combivir and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.
Store between 2 and 30 degrees C (36 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep the container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.
The most common side effects associated with Combivir are:
Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.
Be careful with Generic Combivir while you are pregnant or have nurseling. Generic Combivir can pass in breast milk and harm your baby.
Do not use Generic Combivir if you are allergic to Generic Combivir components.
Do not use Generic Combivir if you are taking stavudine, zalcitabine, or other medicines containing lamivudine or zidovudine.
Do not use Generic Combivir if you have severe kidney problems, decreased liver function, abnormal liver function tests, or high levels of lactic acid in the blood (lactic acidosis).
Be careful with Generic Combivir if you weigh less than 66 lbs (30 kg) .
Be careful with Generic Combivir if you have a history of liver problems (eg, abnormal liver function tests, hepatitis B infection) or lactic acidosis, kidney problems, a bone marrow disorder, pancreas problems, abnormal blood cell counts, or nerve or muscle problems.
Be careful with Generic Combivir if you are significantly overweight.
Be careful with Generic Combivir if you take interferon alfa or ribavirin because serious liver problems may occur; stavudine because its effectiveness may be decreased by Generic Combivir; clarithromycin, doxorubicin, rifampin, or zalcitabine because they may decrease Generic Combivir 's effectiveness; acetaminophen, ganciclovir, ibuprofen, methadone, probenecid, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, valproic acid, vancomycin, or zalcitabine because they may increase the risk of Generic Combivir 's side effects or toxic effects.
Do not stop taking it suddenly.
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With the FDC tablet, the geometric mean (90% CI) area under the curve (AUC) for ZDV, 3TC and NVP was 1.58 (1.49-1.68), 7.78 (7.38-8.19) and 68.88 (62.13-76.36) μg•h/ml, respectively. Rules for NVP therapeutic inadequacy were defined a priori, and despite lower NVP exposure with the tablet (P<0.001), the levels remained therapeutically adequate. ZDV AUC was similar between formulations. 3TC exposure was significantly higher with the tablet but comparable to historical data in adults and children taking branded tablets. While receiving the tablet, NVP AUC in children with CYP2B 516 GG (45%), GT (45%) and TT (10%) genotypes were 67.0, 74.5 and 106.4 μg•h/ml, respectively (P=0.04).
Subjective and objective improvements in psychotic symptoms and presentation.
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Abacavir (ABC) may be associated with a small, increased risk of myocardial infarction in HIV-infected adults, possibly related to cytokine-mediated inflammation.
After starting treatment with Combivir-containing regimens viral load and CD4(+) T-cell count improved as well as the control group. Rates of adverse events in Combivir group and ZDV (400 mg/day) + 3TC group were 50.9% (28/55) and 60% (12/20), respectively. Some of these Japanese patients who started Combivir regimen as a first-line HAART (primary Combivir group) showed some decrease in hemoglobin levels or neutrophil counts within 6 months. However, a significant recovery of these indices of hematological toxicities occurred in patients who continued the regimen for 18-24 months.
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Although established in controlled studies that there is no advantage to 4-drug highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) or regimens with or without protease inhibitors (PIs), we questioned this finding in a clinical setting (ie, no inclusion criteria). Ours is a single clinic retrospective study including all participants >18 years of age during their first year of HAART. A total of 190 participants were reviewed, with 168 (88%) attaining a viral load <400 copies/mL at the end of a year of HAART; 144 of 164 (88%) succeeded with 3 drugs and 24 of 26 (92%) with 4 drugs (P = .51). In all, 59 of 71 (83%) succeeded using a PI versus 109 of 119 (92%) without a PI (P = .08). Male gender and exposure time to HAART were significant variables for a successful outcome. Failures were due to side effects (50%), nonadherence (45%), and drug allergy (5%). Our results support current guidelines recommending 3-drug HAART.
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Thirty-four patients in each arm were enrolled. Baseline characteristics were similar in the three groups. The proportion of patients with viral load <50 copies/ml at week 52 were 74.4, 74.4 and 50.0% for OD group, BID-low group and BID-high group, respectively (P=0.02, ITT analysis). According to on-treatment analysis, the same figures were 88.9, 85.7 and 60% (P<0.02). Overall, 26 (25.5%) patients discontinued treatment for different reasons and immune recovery was similar in all study arms.
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Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-containing regimens may be a valid alternative to protease inhibitor-containing regimens for initial antiretroviral therapy, but to date few studies comparing these two strategies have been performed.
To assess the extent to which the current practice for first line therapy concurs with the recommended guidelines and to examine the response of treatment naïve patients to first line Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) at the University Hospital of the West Indies, using CD4 cell counts.
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Efavirenz and abacavir, two recently approved drugs, have simplified HIV treatment. They are taken less often than some other drugs, and fewer pills are required. Results are reported from studies which have evaluated different dosing schedules and the effectiveness of new drug combinations. The studies have involved AZT, Combivir, d4T, amprenavir, Indinavir, Ritonavir, and Delavirdine. Researchers hope that the results of these studies may provide alternatives to three times a day dosing schedules.
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Treatment-naïve, HIV-1-infected adults were randomized to receive rilpivirine (RPV; TMC278) 25 mg once a day (qd), or efavirenz (EFV) 600 mg qd, plus tenofovir/emtricitabine (ECHO) or tenofovir/emtricitabine, zidovudine/lamivudine or abacavir/lamivudine (THRIVE).
To present a rare case of bilateral conjunctival molluscum contagiosum (MC) in an HIV-positive individual who had unilateral lesion excision before induction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), and to discuss the pathophysiological consequences of immune restoration.
This Phase IIb study explored the antiviral activity and safety of the investigational CCR5 antagonist aplaviroc (APL) in antiretroviral-naive patients harbouring R5-tropic virus.
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This is the first study to determine the actual costs of HIV treatment in rural areas of China. Costs for ARV drugs represented the major portion of HIV medical expenditures. Initiating HAART in patients with higher CD4 cell count levels is likely to reduce treatment expenses for ADEs and OIs in patients with AIDS.
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Over 96 weeks, TZV twice daily has significantly less effect on LDL cholesterol than COM/NFV or d4T/3TC/NFV twice daily, especially in women and black patients, and is associated with similar virological and CD4 responses.
The PEP literature was assessed to identify studies reporting safety and completion rates for children given PEP, and this information was complemented by safety and efficacy data for drugs used in antiretroviral therapy. The proportion of patients experiencing each outcome was calculated and data were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis.
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Twenty seven outpatient treatment sites.
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The results of this large European cohort study validate that SVR rates are generally not affected by ABC. Use of d4T or AZT as part of the HIV treatment regimen was associated with a lower likelihood of achieving an SVR.
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HIV-infected patients aged ≥15 years and attending Care and Treatment Clinic (CTC) at Muhimbili National Hospital, in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, were recruited for the study. Blood samples from patients were collected during their regular visits at the CTC and assayed for determination of total cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and CD4 counts.
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The primary study end point was the proportion of patients who maintained less than a 0.5-log10 increase from baseline in HIV-1 RNA (virologic success) through week 24. Clinical equivalence of the treatments was established if the 95.1% lower confidence limit (LCL) for the difference in proportion of virologic success with Trizivir minus Combivir-ABC was -0.12 or greater. Trizivir was clinically equivalent to Combivir-ABC. The intent-to-treat observed analysis at week 24 with Trizivir and Combivir-ABC showed a similar rate of virologic success (83% [80/97] and 77% [75/98], respectively, 95.1% LCL -0.026), of patients with HIV-1 RNA levels of 400 or fewer copies/ml (99% [82/83] and 93% [77/83], respectively, 95.1% LCL 0.021), and of patients with HIV-1 RNA levels of fewer than 50 copies/ml (89% [74/83] and 77% [64/83], respectively, 95.1% LCL 0.038). The intent-to-treat missing = failure analysis showed comparable results. Changes in CD4+ cell count from baseline, overall mean self-reported adherence (Trizivir 97%, Combivir-ABC 92%), and adverse events did not differ significantly between treatments. No ABC-related hypersensitivity reactions occurred.
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To evaluate the induction of inflammatory cytokine transcription by ABC, we used samples from women randomized to receive zidovudine/lamivudine/ABC (Trizivir) or lopinavir/ritonavir and zidovudine/lamividine (Kaletra/Combivir) from the third trimester through six-months postpartum for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT). Women were matched by CD4 count and baseline HIV RNA. All women attained viral suppression (<50 copies/ml) by the time of sampling.
Evaluation of high active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) patients receiving combined antiretroviral therapy in China.
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We prospectively assessed all patients consulting for PEP following sexual exposures from October 2000 to July 2014. Patients were followed at 4 and 16 weeks after starting PEP. Treatment adherence was determined by self-report at week 4. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the factors predicting adherence to treatment.
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Two laboratories extensively investigated the use of HPTLC to perform assays on lamivudine-zidovudine, metronidazole, nevirapine, and quinine composite samples. To minimize the effects of differences in analysts' technique, the laboratories conducted the study with automatic sample application devices in conjunction with variable-wavelength scanning densitometers to evaluate the plates. The HPTLC procedures used relatively innocuous, inexpensive, and readily available chromatography solvents used in the Kenyon or the Global Pharma Health Fund Minilabs TLC methods. The use of automatic sample applications in conjunction with variable- wavelength scanning densitometry demonstrated an average repeatability or within-laboratory RSD of 1.90%, with 73% less than 2% and 97% at 2.60% or less, and an average reproducibility or among-laboratory RSD of 2.74%.
In total 1309 HIV/HCV co-infected patients who had received HCV therapy were included, of whom 490 (37 %) had achieved an SVR. No statistically significant difference was seen for patients using ABC-containing regimens compared to patients using an emtricitabine + tenofovir (FTC + TDF)-containing backbone, which was the most frequently used backbone. In the multivariate analyses, patients using a protease inhibitor (PI)-boosted regimen were less likely to achieve an SVR compared to patients using a non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based regimen (OR: 0.61, 95 % CI: 0.41-0.91). The backbone combinations zidovudine&lamivudine (AZT + 3TC) and stavudine&lamivudine (d4t + 3TC) were associated with lower SRV rates (0.45 (0.24-0.82) and 0.46 (0.22-0.96), respectively).
In this study, a slight but not significant decrease in the plasma lopinavir C(trough) was found during the third trimester of pregnancy, suggesting that standard dosing of the tablet formulation is also appropriate during the later stages of pregnancy.
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The current worldwide spread of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) to the heterosexual population has resulted in approximately 800,000 children born yearly to HIV-1-infected mothers. In the absence of anti-retroviral intervention, about 25% of the approximately 7,000 children born yearly to HIV-1-infected women in the United States are HIV-1 infected. Administration of zidovudine (AZT) prophylaxis during pregnancy reduces the rate of infant HIV-1 infection to approximately 7%, and further reductions are achieved with the addition of lamivudine (3TC) in the clinical formulation Combivir. Whereas clinically this is a remarkable achievement, AZT and 3TC are DNA replication chain terminators known to induce various types of genotoxicity. Studies in rodents have demonstrated AZT-DNA incorporation, HPRT mutagenesis, telomere shortening, and tumorigenicity in organs of fetal mice exposed transplacentally to AZT. In monkeys, both AZT and 3TC become incorporated into the DNA from multiple fetal organs taken at birth after administration of human-equivalent protocols to pregnant dams during gestation, and telomere shortening has been found in monkey fetuses exposed to both drugs. In human infants, AZT-DNA and 3TC-DNA incorporation as well as HPRT and GPA mutagenesis have been documented in cord blood from infants exposed in utero to Combivir. In infants of mice, monkeys, and humans, levels of AZT-DNA incorporation were remarkably similar, and in newborn mice and humans, mutation frequencies were also very similar. Given the risk-benefit ratio, these highly successful drugs will continue to be used for prevention of vertical viral transmission, however evidence of genotoxicity in mouse and monkey models and in the infants themselves would suggest that exposed children should be followed well past adolescence for early detection of potential cancer hazard.
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An expanded access program for DMP 266 (Sustiva/efavirenz) is now available to people with less than 400 T-cells and on failing therapy. Studies show DMP 266 is effective with Combivir (AZT/3TC), a combination that does not include a protease inhibitor. DuPont Merck warns that it may not be effective in people who have taken other non-nucleoside analogues that have similar resistance patterns.
To establish the clinical equivalence (noninferiority) of one tablet containing abacavir 300 mg-lamivudine 150 mg-zidovudine 300 mg (Trizivir) versus a tablet containing lamivudine 150 mg-zidovudine 300 mg (Combivir) given with one abacavir (ABC) 300-mg tablet, administered twice/day, in antiretroviral-experienced, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-infected patients.
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