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Levomilnacipran (LVM; F2695) is the more active enantiomer of the serotonin/norepinephrine (5-HT/NE) reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) milnacipran and is currently under development for the treatment of major depressive disorder. LVM was benchmarked against two other SNRIs, duloxetine and venlafaxine, in biochemical, neurochemical and pharmacological assays. LVM exhibited high affinity for human NE (Ki = 92.2 nM) and 5-HT (11.2 nM) transporters, and potently inhibited NE (IC50 = 10.5 nM) and 5-HT (19.0 nM) reuptake (human transporter) in vitro. LVM had 2-fold greater potency for norepinephrine relative to serotonin reuptake inhibition (i.e. NE/5-HT potency ratio: 0.6) and 17 and 27 times higher selectivity for NE reuptake inhibition compared with venlafaxine and duloxetine, respectively. LVM did not exhibit affinity for 23 off-target receptors. LVM (i.p.) increased cortical extracellular levels of 5-HT, and NE (minimal effective doses: MEDs = 20 and 10 mg/kg, respectively). In anti-depressive/anti-stress models, i.p. LVM diminished immobility time in the mouse forced swim (MED = 20 mg/kg) and tail suspension (MED = 2.5 mg/kg) tests, and reduced shock-induced ultrasonic vocalizations in rats (MED = 5 mg/kg). Duloxetine and venlafaxine were less potent (MEDs ≥ 10 mg/kg). At doses active in these three therapeutically-relevant models, LVM (i.p.) did not significantly affect spontaneous locomotor activity. In summary, LVM is a potent, selective inhibitor of NE and 5-HT transporters with preferential activity at the former. It is efficacious in models of anti-depressive/anti-stress activity, with minimal potential for locomotor side effects.
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There was no difference in time to all-cause discontinuation between groups (hazard ratio escitalopram/duloxetine = 0.95 [95% CI 0.64, 1.41]; p = 0.727). Treatment with escitalopram compared with duloxetine resulted in significant improvement in MADRS total score at the end of week 8 (least squares mean difference [LSMD] = -1.87 [95% CI -3.60, -0.14]; p = 0.034) using last observation carried forward (LOCF) analysis. Significantly more escitalopram (54%) than duloxetine (42%) patients achieved remission (MADRS ≤10) by week 8 (p = 0.013). Adverse events were similar between the two treatment groups.
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This multicentre, pragmatic, prospective, open-label, randomised controlled trial includes patients with idiopathic hip/knee OA who are on a waiting list for primary THA/TKA. Patients at risk for CS will be randomly allocated to the preoperative duloxetine treatment programme group or the care-as-usual control group. The primary end point is the degree of postoperative pain 6 months after THA/TKA. Secondary end points at multiple time points up to 12 months postoperatively are: pain, neuropathic pain-like symptoms, (pain) sensitisation, pain catastrophising, joint-associated problems, physical activity, health-related quality of life, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and perceived improvement. Data will be analysed on an intention-to-treat basis.
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Seventeen studies were included in the review: nine of pregabalin, seven of the lidocaine plaster, and one of duloxetine. No head-to-head studies of these treatments were identified. Only six studies included treatments within UK licensed indications and dose ranges. Reported efficacy outcomes were not consistent between studies. Pain scores were most commonly assessed in studies including pregabalin; trials of pregabalin and the lidocaine plaster reported the proportion of responders. Significant improvements in the total, sensory and affective scores of the Short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire, and in function interference, sleep interference and pain associated distress, were associated with pregabalin treatment; limited or no quality of life data were available for the other two interventions. Limitations to the review are the small number of included studies, which are generally small, of poor quality and heterogeneous in patient population and study design.
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Evaluation of the corneal nerve fibre density using CCM in six women with non-length-dependent SFN. The patients were characterised by sensory disturbance involving proximal regions of the limbs, face and trunks, and the diagnosis was confirmed by the findings of decreased intraepidermal nerve fibre density on skin biopsy.
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We encountered a patient with Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia who developed urinary incontinence and parkinsonism when ziprasidone was added to the regimen for behavioral concerns.When he was switched to duloxetine, the incontinence and parkinsonism resolved whereas improvements in perseveration, irritability, paranoia, and agitation persisted.
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Randomised controlled trials allocating patients with major depression to duloxetine versus any other antidepressive agent.
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We used an integrated database that included data from 1,913 women with SUI who were enrolled in four randomized, placebo-controlled pharmaceutical clinical trials and examined the relationship between various levels of reduction in IEF and minimally clinical important difference (MCID) levels established for the validated Incontinence Quality of Life (I-QOL) questionnaire. The first decile of IEF reduction to exceed the within-group MCID was considered to be the point at which the reduction in IEF first became clinically important. The between-group MCID was then used to determine when further reductions in incontinence represented clinically relevant incremental improvements for patients.
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The study results suggest that patients who take newer antidepressants might have significant problems related to body weight.
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Vehicle or a dose of duloxetine alone (1-100 mg/kg), ibuprofen alone (10-300 mg/kg), or duloxetine and ibuprofen in combination in a dose-ratio of 1:10 duloxetine:ibuprofen were orally administered 30 or 60 min before testing. Isobolographic analysis of the effects of duloxetine in combination with ibuprofen revealed a significant synergistic (greater than additive) interaction between duloxetine and ibuprofen both for reducing acetic acid-induced writhing and carrageenan-induced thermal hyperalgesia, but were additive for reversing mechanical allodynia.
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Fifty-nine consecutive patients with MD were enrolled in this prospective case-control study and received duloxetine 60/120 mg per day for 12 weeks. Twenty-seven patients were affected by cancer, whereas 32 had an MD without cancer. All the patients were assessed by means of efficacy and effectiveness tolerability scales for depression (Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Y1/Y2) and severity of symptoms (Clinical Global Impression (CGI)-Severity) at baseline (T0), after 4 weeks (T1) and 12 weeks (T2). The CGI-Improvement, CGI-Effectiveness Index and Dosage Record Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale were administered at T1 and T2.
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An aim of the study was to assess effect of duloxetine, a selective inhibitor of serotonin and noradrenalin reuptake, on chronic daily headache (CDH) and its antinociceptive mechanisms. Duloxetine was administered in dosage 60 mg per day during 8 weeks to 40 patients. The high efficacy of the drug by different clinical indices--decrease of days of headache per month, frequency of headache attacks, reduction of analgetics used--was found, all changes being statistically significant. The therapeutic response was developed from the 2nd month of the treatment. The study of the nociceptive flexion reflex revealed the increase of its threshold and of subjective pain threshold as well. Intensity of comorbid disorders, depression and anxiety, was also significantly decreased. Side-effects were small and transient.
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Meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials identified through bibliographical databases and other sources, including unpublished manufacturer reports.
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Under base-case assumptions, although duloxetine was a cheaper option, TVT gave a considerably higher QALY gain. When a longer follow-up period was considered, TVT had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of pound 7,710 ($12,651) at 10 years. If the QALY gain from cure was 0.09, then the ICER for duloxetine and TVT would both fall within the indicative National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence willingness to pay threshold at 2 years, but TVT would be the cost-effective option having extended dominance over duloxetine.
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Adult patients (mean age=42.4 years; 65% women) were randomly assigned to duloxetine (N=668) or placebo (N=495). At baseline, the majority of patients were impaired on the SDS global functioning (89%), Q-LES-Q-SF maximum percent (95%), and EQ-5D (76%) scores. On each measure, a greater percentage of duloxetine-treated patients converted from an impaired baseline to a normative endpoint score than did placebo-treated patients (p0.001, all comparisons). Remission defined as a HAMA total score at endpoint of 10, compared with 7, captured a greater proportion of patients who were functionally in remission.
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Ten subjects who were 1 year post-RYGB where compared with healthy control subjects matched for body mass index, age, and sex. Ultrarapid or poor metabolizers for cytochrome P450 2D6 were excluded from the study. Subjects received a single dose of 60 mg of duloxetine. Nineteen plasma samples were obtained during 72 hours to characterize the plasma level profile.
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Administrative claims from both commercially and Medicare supplemental-insured fibromyalgia patents aged 18+ who initiated duloxetine in 2006 were analyzed. Initiation was defined as a 90-day clean period without duloxetine. The dispense date of the first duloxetine prescription was denoted as the index date. Two cohorts were constructed based on duloxetine adherence over the 12-month postindex period (high adherence as medication possession ratio ≥0.8). Predictors of high adherence were examined via logistic regression. Generalized linear regressions were performed to estimate the association between duloxetine adherence and healthcare costs.
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Duloxetine is a balanced serotonin noradrenaline re-uptake inhibitor that has recently become the first agent to receive regulatory approval for the treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy in the US. This compound has no other significant receptor or channel activities other than the serotonin and noradrenaline re-uptake inhibition mechanisms and works to diminish or control the symptoms of diabetic neuropathy. Duloxetine has no known neuroprotective or other effects that prevent the development of neuropathy in patients with diabetes. Its effectiveness in diabetic neuropathy confirms the proposed role of serotonin and noradrenaline as key mediators of the descending pain inhibition pathways of the brain stem and spinal cord. Clinical studies have demonstrated the high degree of safety and efficacy for the compound with no adverse effects on glycaemic control due to the action of duloxetine being identified.
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Present results from two hepatic safety studies conducted within 20 months after duloxetine launch.
We describe a case of drug-induced fever probably associated with clonidine administration. The higher dose of clonidine alone or in interaction with duloxetine and atorvastatin may have contributed to the development of drug-induced fever.
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Three hundred and ninety-eight patients registered for the study; 69.1 % were female. Depression was the main indication. Three hundred and three patients (76.1 %) filled in at least one questionnaire and 78.9 % of these reported an ADR. Serious ADRs were reported by 4 patients. Three new signals were identified, amenorrhea, shock-like paraesthesias and micturition problems.
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Generalizability of these results may be limited by the relatively short observation period used to define remission.