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Cytoxan (Cyclophosphamide)

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Cytoxan is used for treating certain types of the following cancers: lymphoma, multiple myeloma, leukemia, mycosis fungoides, neuroblastoma, ovarian cancer, eye cancer, and breast cancer. It is usually used in combination with other medicines. It may also be used to treat certain kidney problems (nephrotic syndrome) in children or for other conditions.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Xeloda, Paclitaxel


Also known as:  Cyclophosphamide.


Cytoxan is an antineoplastic. It works by stopping or slowing the growth or spread of certain cancer cells.

Generic name of Cytoxan is Cyclophosphamide.

Cytoxan is also known as Cyclophosphamide, Cycloxan.

Brand name of Cytoxan is Cytoxan.


Take Cytoxan tablets by mouth.

Swallow Cytoxan with water.

Take your doses at regular intervals.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Cytoxan suddenly.


If you overdose Cytoxan and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.


Store at room temperature at or below 25 degrees C (77 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. This medicine can be stored at room temperatures of up to 30 degrees C (86 degrees F) for a short time. Protect from temperatures above 30 degrees C (86 degrees F). Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Cytoxan are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Cytoxan if you are allergic to Cytoxan components or to other similar medicines.

Do not take Cytoxan if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Do not take Cytoxan if you are taking tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-blocking medicines (etanercept).

Cytoxan may reduce the number of clot-forming cells (platelets) in your blood. To prevent bleeding, avoid situations in which bruising or injury may occur.

Cytoxan may lower your body's ability to fight infection. Prevent infection by avoiding contact with people with colds or other infections.

Use Cytoxan with great care in case you want to undergo an operation (dental or any other).

Cytoxan may decrease your body's ability to heal wounds.

Cytoxan may increase your chance of developing a second cancer, sometimes even years after stopping treatment with Cytoxan.

Cytoxan may cause infertility that is sometimes permanent.

Be very careful receiving any vaccinations while you are using Cytoxan.

The use of birth control is recommended while using Cytoxan.

Lab tests, including complete blood cell counts, platelet counts, and urine tests, may be performed to monitor your progress or to check for side effects.

Elderly people hould be very careful with Cytoxan because they may be more sensitive to its effects.

Do not stop taking Cytoxan suddenly.

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Goserelin therapy results in better survival and higher utility-weighted life-years, and is more cost-effective than TC or TEC chemotherapy.

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A number of lesions have been documented to arise within congenital melanocytic nevi (CMNs). Although the most frequent malignancy arising within a CMN is melanoma, the association between rhabdomyosarcoma and CMN has rarely been documented. We present a case arising in a 4-month-old girl with a giant CMN. She presented for evaluation of a pedunculated lesion at the superior gluteal crease that had been present since birth and exhibited rapid growth. Biopsy of the lesion revealed two distinct components: an expansile proliferation of pleomorphic cells with varying degrees of cellularity and a proliferation of banal-appearing melanocytic nevic cells. The cells of the expansile proliferation displayed a wide range of morphologic features, including nests of round cells, spindle-shaped cells, and more differentiated rhabdomyoblasts within a myxoid, highly vascularized stroma. Cross-striations, a marker of skeletal muscle differentiation, were present. These tumor cells were strongly immunoreactive with desmin, myo-D1, and myogenin. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis with PAX3/7-FKHR probes was negative. A diagnosis of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma in association with CMN was made. Initial excision revealed tumor at the margins, and the patient underwent reexcision with subsequent chemotherapy with vincristine, actinomycin D, and cyclophosphamide. She was disease-free at the 6-year follow-up. It has been postulated that the combination of melanocytic and rhabdomyoblastic cells within the same lesion may imply derivation from a common pluripotent stem cell or neural crest cell. Clinicians following patients with giant CMN should consider rhabdomyosarcoma in the differential diagnosis of lesions arising within the nevus.

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A total of 18 patients had documented relapse of cervical cancer, with only three local recurrences observed; 15 patients developed only distant recurrence, and one patient developed both local and distant recurrence. The distant disease-specific survival after a median follow-up of 96 months was 86.4%.

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From March 2012 to March 2014, 46 patients with bladder or upper urinary tract cancer were treated with this regimen in our institution after failure to gemcitabine and cisplatin combination chemotherapy. After excluding four patients with pathologies other than urothelial carcinoma (one collecting duct carcinoma, two small cell carcinoma, and one squamous cell carcinoma), a total of 42 patients were included in this study. The platinum-free interval was <6 months in 33 (78.6%) patients, and 39 (92.8%) were categorized into the intermediate or poor prognosis group according to Bajorin's risk model. The objective response rate was 33.3% (n = 14) with a median response duration of 4.3 months. The median time to progression was 3.0 months (95% CI 1.7-4.3 months), and the median OS was 6.3 months (95% CI 4.6-8.0 months). The most frequent and clinically significant non-hematologic toxicities were peripheral sensory neuropathy (56%), fatigue (35%), and myalgia (28%) in order, but none of them showed severity of grade 3 or more. Grade ≥ 3 neutropenia occurred only in two patients (6%), and one of them developed febrile neutropenia. The duration of metronomic cyclophosphamide did not significantly affect the toxicity profile, and it could be safely administered for whole cycles.

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At birth, a male child presented a 6 cm tumour in the right leg. The tumour was partially removed after just 12 days. Histology showed a congenital fibrosarcoma associated with reactive lymphadenitis. A first cycle of adjuvant chemotherapy did not prevent the rapid progression of the disease. Subsequent evaluation for surgical removal raised serious concerns due to the need for a major operation involving total amputation of the right leg and hemipelvectomy. Since surgery could not exclude the possibility of disease recurrence and since the traditional cycles of chemotherapy did not offer any possibility of a cure, the parents opted for the Di Bella Method. The combined use of Somatostatin, Melatonin, Retinoids solubilized in Vit. E, Vit. C, Vit. D3, Calcium, and Chondroitin sulfate associated with low doses of Cyclophosphamide resulted in a complete objective response, still present 14 years later, with no toxicity and without the need for hospitalization, allowing a normal quality of life and perfectly normal adolescent psycho-physical development.

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Nurses can inform women with breast cancer about the expected changes in body weight after chemotherapy to reduce their uncertainty. Future studies on effective interventions to minimise chemotherapy-induced weight gain are needed.

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This phase I dose-escalation study of marrow-ablative thiotepa regimen determined a maximum tolerated dose that had acceptable toxicity. Overall survival data justify this strategy for current Children's Oncology Group studies.

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Forty patients were randomly divided into two groups: the experimental group with chemotherapy plus low-dose carvedilol combined with candesartan (20 cases) and control group with chemotherapy alone (20 cases). The same chemotherapy was given to the two groups. All the 40 patients had no contraindication for carvedilol and candesartan. Patients of the experimental group received low-dose carvedilol from 2.5 mg orally twice a day at first cycle to 5 mg twice a day gradually if no side reactions, and candesartan 2.5 mg orally once a day. Electrocardiogram, ultrasonic cardiogram, arrhythmia, troponin and non-hematologic toxicity were recorded and compared after the second, forth and sixth cycle of chemotherapy. Each cycle included 21 days.

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Fourteen boys and 36 girls who visited Yokohama City University Hospital between 1983 and 2008 were enrolled. Gender, age at disease onset and diagnosis, presenting clinical features, laboratory data at onset, complications, treatment, and outcome were reviewed.

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Variations in serum miRNA levels during NAC treatment may be therapeutically significant for predicting response and survival outcomes.

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Between diagnosis and aHSCT, 24 patients had 167 clinical relapses over 140 patient-years with 188 Gd-enhancing lesions on 48 pre-aHSCT MRI scans. Median follow-up was 6.7 years (range 3.9-12.7). The primary outcome, multiple sclerosis activity-free survival at 3 years after transplantation was 69.6% (95% CI 46.6-84.2). With up to 13 years of follow-up after aHSCT, no relapses occurred and no Gd enhancing lesions or new T2 lesions were seen on 314 MRI sequential scans. The rate of brain atrophy decreased to that expected for healthy controls. One of 24 patients died of transplantation-related complications. 35% of patients had a sustained improvement in their Expanded Disability Status Scale score.

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The effects of processed Aloe vera gel (PAG) on cyclophosphamide (CP)-induced immunotoxicity were examined in mice. Intraperitoneal injection of CP significantly reduced the total number of lymphocytes and erythrocytes in the blood. Oral administration of PAG quickly restored CP-induced lymphopenia and erythropenia in a dose-dependent manner. The reversal of CP-induced hematotoxicity by PAG was mediated by the functional preservation of Peyer's patch cells. Peyer's patch cells isolated from CP-treated mice, which were administered PAG, produced higher levels of T helper 1 cytokines and colony-stimulating factors (CSF) in response to concanavalin A stimulation as compared with those isolated from CP-treated control mice. PAG-derived polysaccharides directly activated Peyer's patch cells isolated from normal mice to produce cytokines including interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12, interferon-γ, granulocyte-CSF, and granulocyte-macrophage-CSF. The cytokines produced by polysaccharide-stimulated Peyer's patch cells had potent proliferation-inducing activity on mouse bone marrow cells. In addition, oral administration of PAG restored IgA secretion in the intestine after CP treatment. These results indicated that PAG could be an effective immunomodulator and that it could prevent CP-induced immunotoxic side effects.

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Trabectedin, a marine-derived DNA-binding antineoplastic agent, has been registered by the EMA and recently also by the FDA for the treatment of patients with advanced soft-tissue sarcoma (STS), a rare and heterogeneous disease.

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In total, 540 patients were treated. Overall, 7% of patients died during induction, and 9% abandoned treatment. At 5 and 10 years from diagnosis, event-free survival (EFS) rates of 38.1% and 36.6%, respectively, and overall survival rates of 48.0% and 39.6%, respectively, were obtained, considering abandonment as an event.

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Cyclophosphamide (25 mg/kg b.w.) was administered intraperitoneally for 10 d and the organoselenium compound (3 mg/kg b.w.) was given by oral gavage in concomitant and pretreatment schedules. Various biochemical parameters related to oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes along with histology of lungs were evaluated to assess the effect of the test compound.

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In older patients, the incidence of extraskeletal Ewing sarcoma is high. Intensive chemotherapy treatment can be recommended in this group. The high chemotherapy toxicity can be justified by expected results, similar to those of younger patients.

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Sarcopenia reportedly predicts poor outcomes in elderly patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). However, because previous studies only involved elderly patients, it is difficult to generalize these results to all patients with DLBCL. We retrospectively analyzed 207 patients with DLBCL who received the R-CHOP or R-THP-COP regimen between June 2004 and May 2014. Sarcopenia was measured by the analysis of CT images at the L3 level before treatment. The surface of muscular tissues was selected according to the CT Hounsfield unit. This value was normalized for stature in order to calculate the L3 skeletal muscle index (L3 SMI, cm(2)/m(2)). Median age at diagnosis in the 121 males and 86 females was 67 years (range, 19-86 years). The sex-specific cutoffs for the L3 SMI were determined by receiver operator curve (ROC) analysis. Sarcopenic patients were older than non-sarcopenic patients, with a median age of 70 and 65 years, respectively (p < 0.001). Other International Prognostic Index factors were not significantly different when comparing sarcopenic and non-sarcopenic patients. With a median follow-up of 50.4 months, the 3-year overall survival (OS) was 70 % in the sarcopenic group and 85 % in the non-sarcopenic group (p = 0.0260). In a subgroup analysis by gender, there was a significant difference in the OS when comparing sarcopenic and non-sarcopenic patients in males but not in females (p = 0.0003, p = 0.4440, respectively). Sarcopenia is an independent prognostic factor in male patients with DLBCL.

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Data from two randomized trials were pooled to further characterize the effectiveness of palonosetron combined with dexamethasone in the setting of highly emetogenic chemotherapy.

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Our results suggest that c-FLIP immunoexpression can not be used as a prognostic factor in patients with nodal DLBCL treated with immunochemotherapy.

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The efficacy of CYC was observed in 15 of the 19 patients, and remission was still present 6-12 months after CYC suspension in 12 of the 13 patients. GCs were suspended in 6 of the 15 patients, and they were continued at a dose ≤5 mg/day of prednisone in all the remaining responders. Relapse occurred in 4 of the 15 patients, usually >12 months after CYC suspension. Suspension of GC daily dose or reduction to ≤5 mg/day of prednisone occurred within the first 6 months of follow-up after the beginning of CYC in 10 of the 15 patients. Ten adverse events were registered in nine patients, with recovery usually soon after the suspension of CYC or dose reduction. However, one death occurred due to acute hepatitis. Disappearance of the inflammatory infiltrate could be demonstrated when temporal artery biopsy was repeated 3 months after CYC in one patient.

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In our experience, the efficacy of clofarabine is poorer than previously reported. Its toxicity is high and can be life threatening. Prospective studies on clofarabine used during earlier phases of the disease may help to define how best this new drug can be exploited for childhood and adolescent ALL.

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Thirty Lewis-bearing mice were randomly grouped into an untreated group, control group, and treated group. Both treated and untreated groups were intraperitoneally injected with cyclophosphamide to produce a myelosuppression model. Mice in the treated group were fed with the Shuanghuang Shengbai granule (40 g/day) for 6 consecutive days. Standard blood tests and the count of bone marrow nuclear cells were performed, and the cell reproductive cycles of bone marrow and tumors were measured in these mice. In addition, the western blot approach was used to measure the upstream activating signals of CyclinD-CDK4/6 such as c-Myc and CDC25A, the upstream suppression signals such as p16INK4a, and the expression of downstream activated signals such as Rb, pRB, and E2F. All of the tested results were validated by reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.

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The cause behind ruptured and bleeding liver does not always need to be hemangioma but rather amyloidosis. In cases of advanced disease and in patients with contraindications for aggressive treatment, the outlook for complete hematological and organ treatment response is very limited. An early diagnosis is of utmost importance. Although liver biopsy brings the definite results, screening for monoclonal protein in serum or urine, leading to a search for AL amyloidosis, may be sufficient for diagnosis. The presence of some of the warning signs (B-symptoms such as fevers or subfebrile temperatures, fatigue, weight loss; and paraneoplastic laboratory findings such as elevated C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate) should raise suspicion of a lymphoproliferative disease.

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BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE. Nanotechnology works with substances at a nanometer scale, and it offers many solutions for biomedicine. Nanoparticles (NPs) have been shown as effective agents for imaging, drug delivery, pathogen detection, etc. However, to date, NP toxicity is poorly known. The aim of our study was to investigate the embryotoxicity and teratogenicity of quantum dots (QDs) at the different stages of rat embryogenesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Wistar rats were injected with CdSe/ZnS or CdTe QDs on the 6th, 13th, and 18th days of embryogenesis. Cyclophosphamide was chosen as a positive control of embryotoxicity. On the 21st day, the number of resorptions, weight, length, and external malformations of the embryos were estimated. Fluorescence spectroscopy and microscopy analysis were used to determine the accumulation of QDs in the tissues. RESULTS. Exposure to cyclophosphamide during the pregnancy decreased the embryonic weight and length when compared with the control group and produced numerous malformations. The effects depended on the stage of embryogenesis. Meanwhile, QDs did not cause any embryotoxic or teratogenic effects. However, CdTe QDs induced necrosis in the tissues of the peritoneal cavity. The necrotic tissues contained QDs with altered spectroscopic properties. Spectroscopic and microscopic tissue examination revealed that QDs accumulated in the placenta, but no penetration to the embryonic tissues was observed. CONCLUSIONS. QDs did not cause any direct embryotoxic or teratogenic effects, but they had adverse effects on the maternal organism. The observed QD effects and the long-term accumulation of QDs in the maternal organism may increase the risk of adverse effects on embryo development.

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Our results showed that marginal resection can be performed in patients with osteosarcoma who obtain clinically favorable responses to chemotherapy. Patients had a good clinical course and there was no negative effect on rates of survival or local recurrence.

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cytoxan 75 mg 2017-02-01

On 9 July 2012, we searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register (July 2012 buy cytoxan online ), CENTRAL (2012, Issue 6 in The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE (January 1977 to July 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to July 2012), CINAHL (January 1982 to July 2012) and LILACS (January 1982 to July 2012). We contacted the authors of the trials identified and other disease experts seeking other published and unpublished trials.

cytoxan storage 2016-04-26

Acute or subacute exacerbations are recognized as a severe complication of rheumatoid arthritis-associated buy cytoxan online interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD). Nevertheless, the role of intensive immunosuppression in RA-ILD remains elusive. We attempted to evaluate the clinical characteristics and efficacy of immunosuppressive treatment in exacerbated RA-ILD.

cytoxan drug classification 2016-06-08

This PICM protocol is a buy cytoxan online well-tolerated regimen for managing severe ocular inflammation and appears particularly useful in patients with scleritis/sclerokeratitis.

cytoxan cost 2017-11-26

RTX is an alternative for CYC for induction of remission in generalized AAV and could be first choice for relapsing patients and patients refractory to CYC. RTX is promising for maintenance of remission, but long-term safety buy cytoxan online should be awaited.

cancer drug cytoxan 2017-10-20

A 65-year-old Caucasian man with a gingival ulceration underwent a biopsy. The histological pattern was compatible with a buy cytoxan online grade III lymphomatoid granulomatosis. The staging revealed a nodular lesion in the lower lobe of his right lung. Our patient also presented with hemoptysis, an unusual and not reported clinical sign. Rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone chemotherapy was performed every three weeks for six cycles.

cytoxan brand name 2015-05-12

Bu, combined with TDM-guided dosing, is associated with fewer graft failures/relapses and lower toxicity in pediatric HSCT. We aimed this retrospective study for comparison of weight- and age-based dosing in terms of clinical outcomes such as time to engraftment, early complications, EFS, OS, and toxicity profiles in children receiving iv Bu. Sixty-one children who underwent HSCT from April 2010 to February buy cytoxan online 2013 by means of a Bu-based conditioning regimen and completed 100 days after transplantation at Ankara Children?s Hematology and Oncology Hospital Bone Marrow Transplantation Unit were enrolled in this study. SOS and neutropenic fever occurred more frequently in the weight-based dosing group. We found a statistically significant correlation between Bu dose and the incidence of SOS (r = 0.26, p = 0.04). Multivariate analysis showed only weight-based dosing of Bu was a significant predictor of SOS (HR = 9.46; p = 0.009). However, no relationship was found between two groups in terms of hemorrhagic cystitis, engraftment syndrome, acute or chronic GvHD, time to engraftment, chimerism, TRM, OS, and EFS rates. Weight-based dosing of Bu may cause higher incidence of SOS and early infectious complications at the places where TDM of Bu cannot be performed.

cytoxan oral dose 2015-05-27

Two major types of amyloidosis are primary amyloidosis or amyloid light chain amyloidosis and secondary amyloidosis. Although amyloidosis involves a variety of organ systems including skin, the occurrence of bullous skin lesions is rare. Little is known about the mechanism of blister formation. These blisters are often hemorrhagic and typically occur in the oral mucosa. Only a few case reports have described skin involvement in systemic amyloidosis. The manifestation of bullous lesions on the breast in association with primary amyloidosis has not been previously reported. Therefore, we report a case of cutaneous hemorrhagic bullous of the breast secondary to primary systemic amyloidosis, which may be important for medical oncologists to be aware of this uncommon presentation of plasma cell dysrasias. Furthermore, this case only partially responded to the commonly used multiple myeloma-type regimen, the skin lesions responded completely to a five-drug combination chemotherapy regimen, utilizing immunomodulators, liposomal doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone, suggesting that a more aggressive modality of buy cytoxan online chemotherapy may be necessary to treat such cases.

cytoxan online 2017-02-09

Although decades of follow-up will be needed to realize the likely benefit of PT in reducing the risk of buy cytoxan online radiation-induced late effects, PT following chemotherapy in patients with HL is well-tolerated, and disease outcomes were similar to those of conventional photon therapy.

cytoxan 100 mg 2016-06-08

From 1994 to 2004, in the Cancer Institute Hospital, 502 patients who buy cytoxan online were surgically treated with systematic PLA and PALA were enrolled in this study. Their prognosis and clinicopathological features were retrospectively reviewed.

cytoxan dosage forms 2016-08-01

From 1993 to 1999, 214 patients were enrolled. 5 y-EFS and OS were 60% (95% confidence interval (CI), 53-66) and 69% (95% CI, 63-75), respectively. 116 (54%), 46 (21%), 48 (22%) patients were considered as SR, IR and HR of relapse, respectively. No advantage to IE was observed in the IR group. As compared to previous study, tumour with poor histological response to induction chemotherapy seemed to benefit from the consolidation buy cytoxan online strategy including busulfan/melphalan: EFS were 45% (95% CI, 30-60) and 20% (95% CI, 7-43) for EW93 and EW88, respectively. Despite a risk-adapted strategy, histological response to chemotherapy remains the main prognostic factor in resected tumours, while initial tumour volume is the main prognostic factor for unresected tumours.

cytoxan weekly dosing 2017-08-30

Induction chemotherapy consisted of six cycles of carboplatin/etoposide alternating with ifosfamide/etoposide. Patients demonstrating less than complete response buy cytoxan online after induction chemotherapy were encouraged to undergo second-look surgery. Patients who did not achieve complete response or partial response after chemotherapy with or without second-look surgery proceeded to high-dose chemotherapy with thiotepa and etoposide and autologous peripheral blood stem-cell rescue before craniospinal irradiation.

cytoxan drug 2016-12-06

The very low event rate in patients with ER-positive, low Ki-67 cancers, regardless of nodal status, strongly suggests that these patients buy cytoxan online should not be enrolled in adjuvant trials that assess 5-year DFS rates and that central Ki-67 analyses can identify these patients.

cytoxan 1000 mg 2016-03-23

The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the protective effects of ferulic acid (FA) against cyclophosphamide- (CTX-) induced changes in mice. Forty-eight male ICR mice were divided into four groups. Control group was intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with 200 μL of phosphate buffer saline (PBS). Model group was intraperitoneally injected with a single dose of CTX (200 mg/kg). FA (50 mg/kg) and FA (100 mg/kg) groups were intraperitoneally injected with a single dose of CTX (200 mg/kg) followed by the intragastric treatment with FA (50, 100 mg/kg) for 7 consecutive days. After 12 d, the mice were sacrificed to analyze the hematological, biochemical, histological parameters and mechanism research. The results indicated that FA significantly decreased the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in CTX-injected mice. In addition, FA effectively reduced the total numbers of white blood cells (WBCs), red blood cells, platelets, and buy cytoxan online hemoglobin content. FA also obviously attenuated the histological changes of the heart tissues caused by CTX. Moreover, Western blot demonstrated that FA inhibited the phosphorylations of NF-κB signaling pathway in CTX-stimulated cardiac tissues. In conclusion, FA might be considered as an effective agent in the amelioration of the heart toxicity resulting from CTX treatment.

cytoxan chemotherapy drug 2015-05-08

Our results showed increased expression of PKCh (not PKCe) in the cytoplasm and cell membranes of post-chemotherapy buy cytoxan online biopsies (p = 0.03). PKCh presence in cell membranes, indicating activation, was in correlation with poor survival (p = 0.007).

cytoxan mesna dosing 2017-08-19

The TACT trial is the largest study assessing the benefit of taxanes as part of adjuvant therapy for early breast cancer. The goal of this translational study was to clarify the predictive and prognostic value of Tau within the TACT trial. Tissue microarrays (TMA) were available from 3,610 patients. ER, PR, HER2 from the TACT trial and Tau protein expression was determined by immunohistochemistry on duplicate TMAs. Two parallel scoring systems were generated for Tau expression ('dichotomised' vs. 'combined' score). The positivity rate of Tau expression Deltasone Tabs was 50 % in the trial population (n = 2,483). Tau expression correlated positively with ER (p < 0.001) and PR status (p < 0.001); but negatively with histological grade (p < 0.001) and HER2 status (p < 0.001). Analyses with either scoring systems for Tau expression demonstrated no significant interaction between Tau expression and efficacy of docetaxel. Contrary to the hypothesis that taxane benefit would be enriched in Tau negative/low patients, the only groups with a suggestion of a reduced event rate in the taxane group were the HER2-positive, Tau positive subgroups. Tau expression was seen to be a prognostic factor on univariate analysis associated with an improved DFS, independent of the treatment group (p < 0.001). It had no prognostic value in ER-negative tumours and the weak prognostic effect of Tau in ER-positive tumours (p = 0.02) diminished, when considering ER as an ordinal variable. On multivariable analyses, Tau had no prognostic value in either group. In addition, no significant interaction between Tau expression and benefit from docetaxel in patients within the PR-positive and negative subsets was seen. This is now the second large adjuvant study, and the first with quantitative analysis of ER and Tau expression, failing to show an association between Tau and taxane benefit with limited utility as a prognostic marker for Tau in ER-positive early breast cancer patients.

cytoxan drug interactions 2016-11-22

New-onset refractory status epilepticus (NORSE) is a syndrome of new-onset drug resistant status epilepticus that often has a catastrophic outcome. A 30-year-old man of Somali origin presented with refractory status to a district general hospital. A clinical diagnosis of NORSE syndrome was made, and he was transferred to the regional epilepsy center for immunomodulatory treatment and consideration for cyclophosphamide treatment. After transfer to the regional epilepsy center, his repeat cerebrospinal fluid tested strongly positive for syphilis, indicating a diagnosis of neurosyphilis, and Depakote Maximum Dosage the patient was treated with high-dose intravenous (IV) benzylpenicillin. His status epilepticus abated 24 h later. New-onset refractory status epilepticus syndrome is a diagnosis of exclusion. Before instigation of potentially harmful neuromodulatory therapies, treatable causes such as neurosyphilis should be considered. We advocate the early transfer of refractory status patients to a specialist epilepsy center for both seizure management and cause determination.

cytoxan dosage 2017-03-06

Immune thrombocytopenia complicates the course and impacts the outcome of non-Hodgkin Lasix Dosage Forms lymphoma (NHL-ITP, non-Hodgkin lymphoma-immune thrombocytopenic purpura). The response to corticosteroids and/or intravenous immune globulins is usually short lasting, but NHL-ITP usually responds to anti-lymphoma chemotherapy. It is not clear if this success is due to the elimination of the lymphomatous tissue or to the immunosuppressor/immunomodulator effect of chemotherapy. Myelosuppressive anti-lymphoma chemotherapy carries the risk of severe thrombocytopenia that may not respond adequately to platelet transfusion support. We report on a patient with recurrent diffuse large B-cell lymphoma that coincided with immune thrombocytopenia. Both diseases completely responded to involved field radiation therapy. This supports the hypothesis that at least in some cases of NHL-ITP, the lymphomatous clone secretes the anti-platelet antibodies. This supports the therapeutic decision making for these patients.

cytoxan drug action 2017-11-02

We identified multiple single nucleotide variants (SNVs) in the TP53 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) in tumor specimens from 244 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Patients carrying a wild-type TP53 coding sequence (CDS) and 1 or more 3'UTR SNVs had a better 5-year survival rate than patients carrying a wild-type CDS and the reference 3'UTR, yet there is no statistically significance difference in overall survival (OS). In contrast, 3'UTR variation predicted poorer OS for patients with a mutant TP53 CDS. We then sequenced TP53 3'UTR in 247 additional DLBCL patients as a validation set. Altogether, we identified 187 novel SNVs; 36 occurred at least twice. Most of the newly identified 3'UTR SNVs were located at sites that are complementary to seed sequences of microRNAs (miRNAs) that are predicted or experimentally known to target TP53. Three SNVs disrupt the seed match between miR-125b and the TP53 Vermox 500mg Reviews 3'UTR, thereby impeding suppression of p53 by this miRNA. In addition, a germline SNV (rs78378222) located in the TP53 polyadenylation signal resulted in downregulation of both p53 messenger RNA and protein levels and reduction of cellular apoptosis. This study is the first to demonstrate the prognostic value of the TP53 3'UTR in cancer.

cytoxan generic price 2016-10-17

Based on our results, Plavix 225 Mg we conclude that more than 50% of our SDNS patients with MCD remained relapse-free 4 years post-CYC treatment. No significant difference in the response to CYC was observed between patients with or without IgM positivity.

cytoxan iv dosage 2016-03-28

We analyzed clinical features, radiographic findings, pulmonary function tests, and dosimetric parameters of children receiving irradiation to Arcoxia 30 Mg the lung fields over a 10-year period.

cytoxan tablet strength 2015-10-08

Compared with the healthy control group, the serum Th1 cytokines such as IL-12 and IFN-gamma, Th2 cytokines such as IL-10 and IL-4 increased, the Th1/Th2 ratios such as IFN-gamma/IL-4 and IL-12/IL-10 decreased in the treatment group and the control group before treatment (P < 0.01). Compared with before Duphaston Capsule treatment in the same group, the serum Th1 cytokines such as IL-12 and IFN-gamma decreased, the serum Th2 cytokines such as IL-10 and IL-4 decreased, the ratios of Th1/Th2 cytokines such as IFN-gamma/IL-4 and IL-12/IL-10 increased in the treatment group (all P < 0.05). Compared with the control group after treatment, IL-4 decreased, and the ratio of IFN-gamma/IL-4 increased in the treatment group (P < 0.05). Fewer patients suffered from adverse reactions in the treatment group than in the control group (P < 0.01).

cytoxan 500 mg 2015-03-11

Our results indicated that the combination of salvaged Detrol Xl Medication HSCT with prophylactic immunotherapy might be a promising modality for treatment of refractory/recurrent AML, even with high leukemia burden.

cytoxan tablets 2016-02-27

The rituximab s.c. safety profile was comparable with rituximab Cleocin Gel Reviews i.v., except that local administration-related reactions, mainly mild/moderate injection site reactions, occurred more frequently with rituximab s.c., which was not unexpected. Subcutaneous administration was preferred to i.v. administration by >90% of patients and nurses (n = 112).

cytoxan 150 mg 2017-10-15

Conventional chemotherapy continues to be an important part of cancer management, but may cause various cutaneous reactions because it disturbs specific cell cycle phases. The alkylating agents cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, and thiotepa can produce hyperpigmentation, while hypersensitivity reactions can be seen with platinum alkylating agents. Antimetabolites vary in reactions from exanthematous to bullous skin lesions. 5-fluorouracil and its derivatives and liposomal doxorubicin and daunorubicin are characteristically known to Singulair Pill cause hand-foot syndrome, while bleomycin can cause fibrosis and flagellate dermatitis. Several hypersensitivity reactions may also occur from mitotic inhibitors and topoisomerase inhibitors. These different characteristic presentations are important to dermatologists in identifying the correct diagnosis and management for the cancer patient.

cytoxan dosing schedule 2015-12-27

This phase II trial evaluated the effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy with or without second-look surgery before craniospinal irradiation on response rates and survival outcomes in children with newly diagnosed Cardura Cost non-germinomatous germ cell tumors.

cytoxan low dosage 2015-04-06

TNBC patients were eligible for enrolment if they had TNM stages II-III and fit with our inclusion criteria. Patients were assigned to either: group 1, 3 cycles FEC-100 then 3 cycles docetaxel, carboplatin, followed by maintenance metronomic chemotherapy for 1 year; and group 2, 3 cycles FEC-100 then 3 cycles docetaxel.