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Duricef

Generic Duricef is a medication of cephalosporin antibiotic group. Generic Duricef is used to treat nose, throat, urinary tract, and skin infections that are caused by specific bacteria. Generic Duricef is a cephalosporin-type antibiotic. Generic Duricef prevents bacteria to grow in the organism.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Amoxil, Bactrim, Ampicillin, Augmentin, Macrobid, Trimox, Tinidazole, Biaxin, Chloromycetin, Myambutol

 

Also known as:  Cefadroxil.

Description

Generic Duricef is a medication of cephalosporin antibiotic group.

Generic Duricef is used to treat nose, throat, urinary tract, and skin infections that are caused by specific bacteria. Generic Duricef prevents bacteria to grow in the organism.

Brand name of Generic Duricef is Duricef.

Generic name of Generic Duricef is Cefadroxil Monohydrate.

Dosage

Generic Duricef can be taken in form of tablets which should be taken orally.

Take Generic Duricef with or without food.

For adults:

For urinary tract infections the usual dosage for uncomplicated infections is a total of 1 to 2 grams per day in a single dose or 2 smaller doses. For all other urinary tract infections, the usual dosage is a total of 2 grams per day taken in 2 doses.

For skin and skin structure infections the usual dose is a total of 1 gram per day in a single dose or 2 smaller doses.

Throat Infections"Strep Throat and Tonsillitis: The usual dosage is a total of 1 gram per day in a single dose or 2 smaller doses for 10 days.

For children:

For urinary tract and skin infections the usual dosage is 30 milligrams per 2.2 pounds of body weight per day, divided into 2 doses and taken every 12 hours.

For throat infections the recommended dosage per day is 30 milligrams per 2.2 pounds of body weight in a single dose or 2 smaller doses.

In the treatment of strep throat the dosage should be taken for at least 10 days.

Do not stop taking Generic Duricef suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Generic Duricef and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Generic Duricef overdosage: seizures.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw the medicine away after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Duricef are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not use Generic Duricef if you are allergic to Generic Duricef components.

Be very careful with Generic Duricef while you are pregnant or have nurseling.

Try to be careful with Generic Duricef usage in case of having kidney disorder, gastrointestinal disease.

Try to be careful with Generic Duricef if you have allergies to medicines, foods or other substances.

Try to be careful with Generic Duricef if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation or dietary supplement.

Avoid alcohol.

It can be dangerous to stop Generic Duricef taking suddenly.

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A new chemiluminescence reaction, the luminol-Cu(2+) reaction, was investigated for the determination of thirteen (13) cephalosporin antibiotics, namely cefalexin, cefadroxil, cefradine, cefazolin sodium, cefaclor, cefuroxime axetil, cefotaxime sodium, cefoperazone sodium, ceftriaxone sodium, ceftazidime, cefetamet pivoxil hydrochloride, cefixime, and cefpodoxime. It was found that, without adding any special oxidant, strong chemiluminescent (CL) signal could be produced from the reaction of the alkaline luminol with the above-mentioned antibiotics in the presence of Cu(2+). The experimental conditions for the reaction were carefully optimized with flow-injection mode. The detection limits are 0.3 ng/mL cefalexin, 3 ng/mL cefadroxil, 0.3 ng/mL cefradine, 0.02 μg/mL cefazolin sodium, 0.8 ng/mL cefaclor, 0.02 μg/mL cefuroxime axetil, 5 ng/mL cefotaxime sodium, 0.02 μg/mL cefoperazone sodium, 0.8 ng/mL ceftriaxone sodium, 1 ng/mL ceftazidime, 0.08 ng/mL cefetamet pivoxil hydrochloride, 0.8 ng/mL cefixime, and 2 ng/mL cefpodoxime. The proposed method was validated by direct application to commercial formulations and spiked milk samples containing cefradine. A possible reaction mechanism is also discussed.

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The therapeutic efficacy of 25 mg/kg of cefadroxil administered once daily was compared with that of 50 mg/kg/day of ampicillin administered in four equal doses in the treatment of acute uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs) in children. Nineteen girls and seven boys (mean age, 5.5 years) received cefadroxil, and 18 girls and eight boys (mean age, 5.9 years) received ampicillin. The clinical and bacteriological characteristics, as well as the demographic characteristics, of both populations were well matched. Patients with structural anomalies or with a history of hypersensitivity to cephalosporins or penicillins or abnormal hepatorenal function were excluded from the trial. Only patients with at least two consecutive positive cultures of a single pathogen, obtained in clean-catch midstream urine samples (greater than or equal to 10(5) colony-forming units per ml urine) and susceptible to the respective antibiotic, were admitted to the study. Urine cultures were repeated during the ten days of treatment and ten days after the completion of treatment. All patients in the cefadroxil group were evaluated as clinically and bacteriologically cured. Three (12%) of the patients in the ampicillin group had positive cultures in the immediate post-treatment period. The differences in the cure rates of the two groups were not statistically significant. No adverse effects of either antibiotic were observed.

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A selective and sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method (LC-MS/MS) was developed and validated for the determination of cefdinir in rat plasma and urine. Following a simple protein precipitation using methanol, chromatographic separation was achieved with a run time of 10 min using a Synergi 4 µ polar-RP 80A column (150 × 2.0 mm, 4 µm) with a mobile phase consisting of 0.1% formic acid in water and methanol (65:35, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. The protonated precursor and product ion transitions for cefdinir (m/z 396.1 → 227.2) and cefadroxil, an internal standard (m/z 364.2 → 208.0) were monitored in the multiple reaction monitoring in positive ion mode. The calibration curves for plasma and urine were linear over the concentration range 10-10,000 ng/mL. The lower limit of quantification was 10 ng/mL. All accuracy values were between 95.1 and 113.0% and the intra- and inter-day precisions were <13.0% relative standard deviation. The stability under various conditions in rat plasma and urine was also found to be acceptable at three concentrations. The developed method was applied successfully to the pharmacokinetic study of cefdinir after oral and intravenous administration.

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The cure rate of acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection in general practice using 3 different treatment regimens, was studied in a randomized, multicenter trial. Patients were assigned to receive either cefadroxil 1 g once daily for 3 or 7 days or amoxycillin 375 mg t.i.d. for 7 days. 310 patients entered the study, of whom 230 could be evaluated according to the protocol. Two thirds of the cases were due to infections with Escherichia coli and about one fourth to Staphylococcus saprophyticus. No statistically significant differences in cure rates between the 3 regimens could be demonstrated neither at 1 week nor at 5 weeks of follow-up. The frequency of adverse reactions was low and similar in each treatment group.

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The transport characteristics of the aminocephalosporin [3H]cefadroxil have been studied in brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV) of rat kidney cortex by a rapid filtration technique and by use of a potential sensitive fluorescent dye. Influx of [3H]cefadroxil (0.25 microM) into BBMV as a function of time displayed a pronounced overshoot phenomenon in the presence of a transmembrane pH gradient (pHin > pHout). Evidence for an electrogenic cefadroxil/H+-symport in the presence of an inwardly directed proton gradient is provided by the demonstration of: 1) reduced uptake in the presence of a protonophore; 2) reduced uptake under voltage clamp conditions; and 3) increased uptake in the presence of a valinomycin-induced inside negative K+-diffusion potential. pH-gradient dependent uptake of [3H]cefadroxil as a function of substrate concentration revealed the presence of multiple carrier systems. By kinetic analysis, a high-affinity carrier system (Km, 8.8 +/- 1.3 microM) and a low-affinity system (Km, 2.62 +/- 0.80 mM) could be resolved. The high-affinity transport system was found to be very specific for substrates (cephalosporins and di- and tripeptides) carrying an alpha-amino group. By use of a potential sensitive fluorescent dye 3,3'-dipropylthiadicarbocyanine iodide, the low-affinity transport system was characterized with respect to its driving force and its kinetic features. This transporter was found also to be electrogenic in nature, representing a second cefadroxil/H+-symport system. In summary, our studies demonstrate for the first time uphill transport of cefadroxil in kidney BBMV mediated by multiple carrier systems. Transport is rheogenic, energized by the proton motive force and shared by other aminocephalosporins as well as di- and tripeptides.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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A beta-lactam antibiotic, amoxicillin, was microencapsulated with ethylcellulose using a solvent evaporation process in liquid paraffin containing sorbitan tristearate as a dispersing agent, and the microcapsules obtained showed first-order drug release. Usage of the previous log-log relationship of cefadroxil between in vitro dissolution half-lives (T50) and the experimental release rate constants (k'r) of the drug in vivo, and the nomogram for the design of satisfactory sustained-release preparations resulted in the prediction that ethylcellulose microcapsules containing 60% amoxicillin would show the most effective sustained-release pattern. Prepared microcapsules containing various amounts of amoxicillin were administered to beagle dogs and it was found that above prediction was correct. In addition, a more precise log-log correlation concerning amoxicillin was also undertaken, good linearity was observed and the decline was very similar to that of cefadroxil.

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Investigation was made on the therapeutic effect of a new antibiotic, cefatrizine(CFT), in oral infections according to the following procedure. Results are summarized as follows. Determination was made on the MIC of CFT against 8 clinical isolates of S. epidermidis, 5 of S. aureus and 7 of E. coli in comparison with those of CEX and PBPC. MICs of CFT against S aures were demonstrated 3.13 to 6.25 mcg/ml which were superior to those of CEX and ABPC. CFT was administered orally in a dose of 500 mg at an hour and a half before the extraction of the impacted wisdom tooth in the mandibula. During the operation, gingival and blood specimens were collected and each CFT level was determined. The mean CFT level in the gingiva reached to 0.95 mcg/ml and that in the blood to 5.77 mcg/ml. According to these experimental results, CFT was administered to patients with moderate oral infection at a dose of 500 mg and clinical assessment was made according to the criteria established by Japanese Society of Oral Surgeons. As the results, the effectiveness rate of CFT was 85%. No serious side effect was observed. From the results of the present study, CFT may be effective for moderate oral surgery infections.

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In vitro susceptibility testing of 28 strains of Eikenella corrodens by the agar dilution technique showed that all strains were uniformly susceptible to penicillin, ticarcillin, cefoxitin, cefotaxime, N-formimidoyl thienamycin, and moxalactam and resistant to clindamycin and cefadroxil. Cefoperazone, piperacillin, and mezlocillin showed good activity, with some strains relatively resistant. Bacampicillin and cefamandole showed relatively poor activity.

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A meta-analysis was conducted to compare the efficacy and safety of oral cefadroxil monohydrate (30 mg/kg QD or 15 mg/kg BID) with that of oral penicillin V (8, 10, or 15 mg/kg BID, TID, or QID) in the treatment of group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) pharyngitis and tonsillitis treated for 10 days. A simple random effects model was used for combining the efficacy and safety results of nine comparative trials performed in the United States. A total of 1646 patients aged < or = 19 years were considered evaluable; 1406 patients were evaluable using revised bacteriologic criteria, and 1499 patients were considered fully evaluable for safety. The results demonstrate significantly better response rates (P < 0.05) with cefadroxil monohydrate than with penicillin V for overall cure (91.8% versus 81.3%), bacteriologic cure (92.6% versus 81.4%), and bacteriologic recurrence (4.2% versus 10.5%); clinical cure rates were statistically similar (90.5% versus 90.2%). Revised bacteriologic criteria analysis revealed bacteriologic cure rates of 95.8% versus 88.7% (P < 0.05) and bacteriologic recurrence rates of 4.9% versus 7.1% (P = NS) for cefadroxil monohydrate and penicillin V, respectively. Adverse events related to drug administration occurred infrequently and did not differ significantly between treatment groups (P > 0.05). Compliance with cefadroxil monohydrate was at least as good as with penicillin V. Penicillin is currently the drug of choice in the treatment of GABHS pharyngitis and tonsillitis. Based on the information described in this large meta-analysis, cefadroxil monohydrate is an excellent alternative to oral penicillin V in the treatment of GABHS pharyngitis and tonsillitis.

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This study was designed to compare the in vitro activities of recent cephalosporins and other beta-lactams. One of our objectives was to determine whether the microbiologist could use a single cephalosporin for routine antibiotic sensitivity testing. All the strains studied were recovered from outpatients. Sensitivity and/or resistance were evaluated by MIC determination, according to a program developed in our laboratory, using a personal computer. Using special programs, patterns of activities of beta-lactams were determined quantitatively and graphically for each bacterial strain tested. For most strains ceftriaxone, and to a lesser extent moxalactam and cefoperazone, exhibited greater antibacterial activity than the other beta-lactams, except against group D streptococci. For Enterobacteriaceae, cefadroxil is satisfactory in screening for in vitro activity of cephalosporins.

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The reabsorption of filtered di- and tripeptides as well as certain peptide mimetics from the tubular lumen into renal epithelial cells is mediated by an H+-coupled high-affinity transport process. Here we demonstrate for the first time H+-coupled uptake of dipeptides into the renal proximal tubule cell line LLC-PK1. Transport was assessed 1) by uptake studies using the radiolabeled dipeptide D-[3H]Phe-L-Ala, 2) by cellular accumulation of the fluorescent dipeptide D-Ala-Lys-AMCA, and 3) by measurement of intracellular pH (pHi) changes as a consequence of H+-coupled dipeptide transport. Uptake of D-Phe-L-Ala increased linearly over 11 days postconfluency and showed all the characteristics of the kidney cortex high-affinity peptide transporter, e.g., a pH optimum for transport of D-Phe-L-Ala of 6.0, an apparent Km value for influx of 25.8 +/- 3. 6 microM, and affinities of differently charged dipeptides or the beta-lactam antibiotic cefadroxil to the binding site in the range of 20-80 microM. pHi measurements established the peptide transporter to induce pronounced intracellular acidification in LLC-PK1 cells and confirm its postulated role as a cellular acid loader.

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The susceptibility of 24 strains of Eikenella corrodens was determined, by the agar dilution technique, to 10 cephalosporins, as well as to clindamycin, penicillin and dicloxacillin. All strains were uniformly very susceptible to penicillin G and cefoxitin and resistant to clindamycin and dicloxacillin. Cefazolin showed good activity. Cephalexin, cephradine, and cefadroxil showed poor activity, and cefamandole's activity was relatively poor. Cephalothin, cephapirin, cefaclor, and cephaloridine showed moderate activity, with some strains relatively resistant.

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The transport characteristics of cefadroxil, an aminocephalosporin antibiotic, across the brush border membrane of rat small intestine were investigated by a rapid filtration technique. The uptake of cefadroxil was not affected by Na+ gradient, suggesting the absence of a cotransport system between cefadroxil and Na+ in the brush border membrane. The uptake was slightly inhibited by HgCl2 pretreatment and stimulated by the countertransport effect, where cyclacillin played a role as an elicitor. These results suggest the existence of a carrier-mediated transport system for cefadroxil in the brush border membrane, which is shared with cyclacillin. Papain treatment increased the specific transport activities for the antibiotic. This may be the first step of purification of the cefadroxil transport carrier.

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The study was conducted in 3 retail pharmacies in Sarjapur area, Bangalore East. The duration of the study was for a period of 10 days from August 1st to August 10th 2014. The common complaints for which the patients frequented the pharmacies were observed and recorded .The investigator personally interviewed the patients between 6pm to 9pm, near the respective pharmacies. During this study period around 216 patients visited pharmacies without prescription. The drugs supplied to 216 patients by private pharmacies without prescription was recorded. Data was analysed by descriptive statistics using Microsoft Excel.

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We examined the peptide transport activity in renal basolateral membranes. [(14)C]glycylsarcosine (Gly-Sar) uptake in rat renal cortical slices was saturable and inhibited by excess dipeptide and aminocephalosporin cefadroxil. When several renal cell lines were screened for the basolateral peptide transport activity, Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells were demonstrated to have the greatest transport activity. [(14)C]Gly-Sar uptake across the basolateral membranes of MDCK cells was inhibited by di- and tripeptide and decreased with decreases in extracellular pH from 7.4 to 5.0. The Michaelis-Menten constant value of [(14)C]Gly-Sar uptake across the basolateral membranes of MDCK cells was 71 microM. The basolateral peptide transporter in MDCK cells showed several different [(14)C]Gly-Sar transport characteristics in growth dependence, pH profile, substrate affinity, and sensitivities to chemical modifiers from those of the apical H(+)-peptide cotransporter of MDCK cells. The findings of the present investigation indicated that the peptide transporter was expressed in the renal basolateral membranes. In addition, from the functional characteristics, the renal basolateral peptide transporter was suggested to be distinguishable from known peptide transporters, i.e., H(+)-peptide cotransporters (PEPT1 and PEPT2) and the intestinal basolateral peptide transporter.

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The increasing resistance of E. coli to trimethoprim makes this drug less suitable for empiric treatment of UTI. Young children with UTI seem predisposed to early development of resistance. Therefore, surveillance of resistance to antimicrobials with special regard to age and gender is recommended.

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There are several risk factors for the colonisation, infection and spreading of antibiotic resistant bacteria among elderly residents of nursing homes. An updated estimate of the native prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in uropathogens among Swedish nursing home residents is needed.

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The aim of this study was to examine the role of PEPT2, a proton-coupled oligopeptide transporter of the SLC15 family, on the disposition of the antibiotic cefadroxil in the body, particularly the kidney and brain. Pharmacokinetic, tissue distribution, and renal clearance studies were performed in wild-type and PEPT2 null mice after intravenous bolus administration of [(3)H]cefadroxil at 1, 12.5, 50, and 100 nmol/g body weight. Studies were also performed in the absence and presence of probenecid and quinine. Cefadroxil disposition kinetics was clearly nonlinear over the dose range studied (1-100 nmol/g), which was attributed to both saturable renal tubular secretion and reabsorption of the antibiotic. After an intravenous bolus dose of 1 nmol/g cefadroxil, PEPT2 null mice exhibited a 3-fold greater total clearance and 3-fold lower systemic concentrations of drug compared with wild-type animals. Renal clearance studies further demonstrated that the renal reabsorption of cefadroxil was almost completely abolished in PEPT2 null versus wild-type mice (3% versus 70%, p < 0.001). Of the 70% of cefadroxil reabsorbed in wild-type mice, PEPT2 accounted for 95% and PEPT1 accounted for 5% of reabsorbed substrate. Tissue distribution studies indicated that PEPT2 had a dramatic effect on cefadroxil tissue exposure, especially in brain where the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-to-blood concentration ratio of cefadroxil was 6-fold greater in PEPT2 null mice compared with wild-type animals. These findings demonstrate that renal PEPT2 is almost entirely responsible for the reabsorption of cefadroxil in kidney and that choroid plexus PEPT2 limits the exposure of cefadroxil (and perhaps other aminocephalosporins) in CSF.

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Violacein works synergistically with most commercial antibiotics and could be used as drug in combination with other antimicrobial agents.

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The aerobic and anaerobic flora from gingival pockets of 49 dogs with severe gingivitis and periodontitis were cultured. The susceptibility of each isolate to four antimicrobial agents currently approved for veterinary use in the USA (amoxicillin-clavulanic acid; clindamycin; cefadroxil; and enrofloxacin) was determined. Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (Clavamox Pfizer Animal Health) had the highest in-vitro susceptibility against all isolates (96%), all aerobes (94%) and all anaerobes (100%) tested. For gram-negative aerobes, enrofloxacin (Baytril, Bayer Corp.) had the highest in-vitro susceptibility activity. For bacteria associated with treatment of gingivitis, which typically are mixed aerobic/anaerobic and gram-positive/gram-negative organisms, the antimicrobial of choice for clinical use based on these susceptibility tests is amoxicillin-clavulanic acid.

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Fast Disintegrating Tablets (FDTs) is a rapidly growing dosage form preferred for special population (pediatric, geriatric and psychotic patients). It is also developed with the aim of improving bioavailability and patient compliance. During the present study, cefadroxil fast disintegrating tablets formulations (n=9) were designed and optimized by central composite design with two independent variables (croscarmellose and crospovidone) using design expert® software. The effects of independent variables on formulation properties such as friability, hardness, in vitro dispersion and disintegration were assessed by drawing response surface graphs with design expert® software. Tablets were assessed for pharmacopeial and non-pharmacopeial parameters to ensure the quality of compressed tablets. Among all formulations, F3, F8 and F9 have shown better results. The formulation F9 containing 15mg croscarmellose and 33.075mg crospovidone showed good pharmacotechnical attributes as well as shelf life. F 9 showed improved dissolution with t90% of> 2 min and will lead to better bioavailability.

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The beta-lactam antibiotic oral absorption pathway is studied using a single-pass perfusion technique in the rat small intestine. Beta-lactam antibiotic absorption in the presence of amino acids, small peptides, and other beta-lactams is modeled using a simple competitive inhibition boundary condition at the intestinal wall, with a corrected value for the intestinal wall concentration, Cw, derived from the modified boundary layer analysis. The model-predicted permeability in the presence of an inhibitor is used to characterize the beta-lactam antibiotic intestinal carrier system. Several concentrations of cephalexin, coperfused with a constant concentration of cefadroxil (equal to its Km), showed that the Km of cephalexin approximately doubled from 7.2 (+/- 1.1) to 18.8 (+/- 4.1) mM; Jmax remained unchanged at 9.2 (+/- 1.2) and 11.1 (+/- 2.1) mM; and the carrier permeability, Pc, was reduced by approximately 50% from 1.11 (+/- 0.10) to 0.59 (+/- 0.04), consistent with competitive absorption kinetics. The predicted in situ wall permeability, the mean value of P*w, of beta-lactams perfused in the presence of other beta-lactams was calculated and then compared with experimentally determined values. For cefadroxil, P*w = 0.27 (+/- 0.04), the mean value of P*w = 0.29; for cefatrizine, P*w = 0.67 (+/- 0.09), the mean value of P*w (+/- 0.09), the mean value of P*w = 0.59; and for cephalexin, P*w = 0.56 (+/- 0.05), the mean value of P*w = 0.59.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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Cefadroxil 1 g twice daily and amoxycillin 500 mg three times a day were compared in 111 patients suffering from acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. Treatment was for seven days. Excellent or good clinical responses were found in 85 per cent of cases receiving cefadroxil and 81 per cent of patients taking amoxycillin. However, residual symptoms of cough and rhonchi were present to a statistically significantly greater extent in the amoxycillin group. Tolerance of both drugs was good with mild to moderate side effects reported in seven of 54 patients in the cefadroxil group and six of 56 patients taking amoxycillin. Severe nausea and vomiting in two cases in the amoxycillin group resulted in discontinuation of therapy. Microbiological examination of sputum samples showed pathogenic bacteria in 16 per cent, principally Haemophilus influenzae. Amoxycillin 500 mg tds and cefadroxil 1 g bd were equally effective in the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis.

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The ECO.SENS study investigated the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogens causing community-acquired acute uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs) in 4734 women aged 18-65 years presenting with symptoms of acute UTI, at 252 community healthcare centres in 16 countries in Europe plus Canada. Resistance in Escherichia coli occurred most frequently to ampicillin (30%) and sulphonamides (29%), followed by trimethoprim (15%), trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole (14%) and nalidixic acid (5%) but was low to co-amoxiclav, mecillinam, cefadroxil, nitrofurantoin, fosfomycin, gentamicin and ciprofloxacin, all at<3%. Consumption of antibiotics in 1997 varied more than 4-fold within Europe and from 9 to 37 DDD/1000 inhabitants/day, the consumption being highest in Southern Europe. The consumption of broad-spectrum penicillins correlated with resistance to ampicillin and there was a clear correlation between quinolone consumption and resistance to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid. The 4-fold difference in antibiotic consumption within Europe and the correlation to resistance emphasises the importance of controlling antibiotic usage.

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The agar dilution method was used to determine the inhibitory activity of 25 antimicrobial agents against 69 strains of Dichelobacter nodosus and 108 strains of the genus Fusobacterium, all of which were isolated from 90 clinical cases of ovine footrot between October 1998 and November 2000. In the case of the micro-organisms belonging to the genus Fusobacterium, the six beta-lactams studied (benzyl penicillin, ampicillin, cloxacillin, cefadroxil, cefuroxime and cephalexine) proved to be, in general, the most effective antimicrobial agents. Chloramphenicol, clindamycin and doxycycline were also quite active against Fusobacterium spp. With regard to the 69 strains of D. nodosus tested, the levels of resistance remain low.

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The mechanisms of renal excretion of cefadroxil were investigated in conscious rats. The drug was intravenously infused at several infusion rates (0.27, 1.08, 5.40, 12.00, and 31.35 mg/hr), and the total and renal clearances were determined after the steady-state was reached. Renal clearance accounted for approximately 91% of total clearance. Renal clearance of cefadroxil increased from 2.51 +/- 0.39 to 3.57 +/- 0.43 ml/min as the steady-state cefadroxil plasma concentration increased from 1.7 +/- 0.3 to 24.4 +/- 3.8 micrograms/ml, and this has been attributed to a saturable renal tubular reabsorption of the antibiotic. The ratio of unbound cefadroxil renal clearance to glomerular filtration rate was larger than unity, which indicates that the antibiotic also undergoes active renal tubular secretion. When cefadroxil was administered together with cephalexin, an increase in the renal clearance of cefadroxil was observed, which has been attributed to a competitive inhibition of the tubular reabsorption of cefadroxil by cephalexin. A pharmacokinetic model for the renal excretion of cefadroxil was developed, and mathematical expressions showing the relationship between renal clearance and steady-state plasma concentration were deduced.

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Survey of 1000 US pediatricians in 1991, chosen randomly from the membership of the American Academy of Pediatrics. The survey included questions related to 2 clinical scenarios, respondent demographics, and knowledge of streptococcal pharyngitis.

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duricef pediatric dose 2016-05-24

The activity of BAY buy duricef online v 3522 against 340 strains of anaerobic bacteria was determined by an agar dilution method. Its activity was compared with those of amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefoxitin, cefuroxime, cephalexin, clindamycin, doxycycline, and metronidazole. BAY v 3522, amoxicillin-clavulanate, cefoxitin, clindamycin, and metronidazole were the most active agents tested. On the basis of these results, BAY v 3522 appears to have an antibacterial activity that warrants further investigation in clinical trials.

duricef brand name 2015-06-29

Fast Disintegrating Tablets (FDTs) is a rapidly growing dosage form preferred for special population (pediatric, geriatric and psychotic patients). It is also developed with the aim of improving bioavailability and patient compliance. buy duricef online During the present study, cefadroxil fast disintegrating tablets formulations (n=9) were designed and optimized by central composite design with two independent variables (croscarmellose and crospovidone) using design expert® software. The effects of independent variables on formulation properties such as friability, hardness, in vitro dispersion and disintegration were assessed by drawing response surface graphs with design expert® software. Tablets were assessed for pharmacopeial and non-pharmacopeial parameters to ensure the quality of compressed tablets. Among all formulations, F3, F8 and F9 have shown better results. The formulation F9 containing 15mg croscarmellose and 33.075mg crospovidone showed good pharmacotechnical attributes as well as shelf life. F 9 showed improved dissolution with t90% of> 2 min and will lead to better bioavailability.

duricef 1000 mg 2016-02-08

The use of OTC drugs is alarmingly high in Bangalore East. Pharmacists have to be trained and educated regarding rationale dispensing of drugs. The need for promoting the appropriate use of drugs in the Indian health care system is important. This can be buy duricef online achieved through educational, regulatory and managerial strategies.

duricef generic 2016-07-08

Twenty-three males with the clinical diagnosis of chronic prostatitis were evaluated for a bacterial etiology by the Stamey and Meares method. In addition, 16 patients, regardless of culture results, were placed on either cefadroxil or oral carbenicillin antimicrobial therapy. Culture results identified only four (17%) of 23 patients with bacterial prostatitis: coagulase buy duricef online -negative Staphylococcus (2), Enterobacter agglomerans (1), and Haemophilus parainfluenzae, and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (1). Four of seven patients who received oral carbenicillin and three of nine patients who received cefadroxil reported symptomatic relief. This study did not identify a common etiology for chronic prostatitis or a consistently effective antimicrobial treatment. Rather, we observed that the etiologic agent in most cases of chronic prostatitis (83%) could not be identified by routine bacteriologic culture. Future research efforts in chronic prostatitis must address not only treatment regimens but expand the search for etiologic agents.

duricef dosage forms 2015-06-02

Total outpatient cephalosporin use in 2003 varied by a factor of 270 between the country with the highest (6.18 DID in Greece) and lowest (0.02 DID in Denmark) use. First-, second- and third-generation cephalosporins were used most in 6, 16 and 3 countries, respectively. We observed fourth-generation use (mainly cefepime) in ambulatory care in 11 countries. From 1997 to 2003 cephalosporin use decreased in 13 countries, in France by more than 1 DID. A relative increase of second-generation (mainly cefuroxime) or third-generation use (mainly cefpodoxime or cefixime) by buy duricef online more than 10% in 12 countries coincided with an equally large decrease of first-generation use in eight countries (mainly cefadroxil, cefalexin or cefatrizine). In six countries, first-generation use increased, second-generation use decreased or both occurred.

duricef dosage 2015-08-18

Therapeutic use of cephaloridine, a beta-lactam antibiotic, in humans is associated with carnitine deficiency. A potential mechanism for the development of carnitine deficiency is competition between cephaloridine and carnitine for the renal reabsorptive process. OCTN2 is an organic cation/carnitine transporter that is responsible for Na(+)-coupled transport of carnitine in the kidney and other tissues. We investigated the interaction of several beta-lactam antibiotics with OCTN2 using human cell lines that express the transporter constitutively as well as using cloned human and rat OCTN2s expressed heterologously in human cell lines. The beta-lactam antibiotics cephaloridine, cefoselis, cefepime, and cefluprenam were found to inhibit OCTN2-mediated carnitine transport. These antibiotics possess a quaternary nitrogen as does carnitine. Several other beta-lactam antibiotics that do not possess this structural feature did not interact with OCTN2. The interaction of cephaloridine with OCTN2 is competitive with respect to carnitine. Interestingly, many of the beta-lactam antibiotics that were not recognized by OCTN2 were good substrates for the H(+)-coupled peptide transporters PEPT1 and PEPT2. In contrast, cephaloridine, cefoselis, cefepime, and cefluprenam, which were recognized by OCTN2, did not interact with PEPT1 buy duricef online and PEPT2. The interaction of cephaloridine with OCTN2 was Na(+)-dependent, whereas the interaction of cefoselis and cefepime with OCTN2 was largely Na(+)-independent. Furthermore, the Na(+)-dependent, OCTN2-mediated cellular uptake of cephaloridine could be demonstrated by direct uptake measurements. These studies show that OCTN2 plays a crucial role in the pharmacokinetics and therapeutic efficacy of certain beta-lactam antibiotics such as cephaloridine and that cephaloridine-induced carnitine deficiency is likely to be due to inhibition of carnitine reabsorption in the kidney.

duricef dosing 2017-03-07

The transport of dipeptides and beta-lactam antibiotics across the rat renal basolateral membrane was examined. The initial uptake of glycylsarcosine and cefadroxil by rat renal basolateral membrane vesicles buy duricef online was inhibited by the presence of all the di- and tripeptides and beta-lactam antibiotics that were tested in this study. However, the uptake of both substrates was not inhibited by glycine, an amino acid. The initial uptake of zwitterionic beta-lactam antibiotics, cefadroxil, cephradine, and cephalexin, was stimulated by preloaded glycylsarcosine (countertransport effect). On the other hand, the uptake of dianionic beta-lactam antibiotics, ceftibuten and cefixime, was not affected. A concentration-dependent initial uptake of glycylsarcosine and cefadroxil suggested the existence of a carrier-mediated mechanism, whereas the transport of ceftibuten did not show any saturated uptake. The transporter that participates in the permeation of dipeptides and beta-lactam antibiotics across basolateral membranes showed lower affinity than did PEPT1 and PEPT2. This is the first study that showed an evidence for a peptide transporter, expressed in the rat renal basolateral membrane, that recognizes zwitterionic beta-lactam antibiotics using basolateral membrane vesicles isolated from normal rat kidney.

duricef 125 dosage 2015-12-15

LEO Pharma buy duricef online .

duricef medicine 2015-01-02

The study was carried out in allergic subjects who are selectively responsive to amoxicillin to determine allergenic cross-reactivity with a cephalosporin containing a side chain buy duricef online identical to that of amoxicillin, cefadroxil, and one containing a different side chain, cefamandole.

duricef cost 2015-09-07

Ciprofloxacin is a new antibacterial agent of the 4-quinolone group. With an agar dilution technique we compared its activity on 365 clinical isolates with those of norfloxacin, nalidixic acid, ampicillin, mezlocillin, cefadroxil, cefuroxime, ceftazidime, ceftriazone , cefotaxime, latamoxef (moxalactam), and gentamicin. Ciprofloxacin was overall the most active agent tested against aerobic Gram-negative species, with the MIC90 values for all species being below 1 mg/l (excepting Providencia stuartii with 4 mg/l), and the large majority being below 0.12 mg/l. Many of the strains were selected on the basis of resistance to beta-lactam agents or gentamicin, and ciprofloxacin was also active against these. There was little difference in the activity of ciprofloxacin at inocula of 10(4) or 10(6) cfu. Strains with higher MIC's of the related agents norfloxacin and nalidixic acid were less susceptible to ciprofloxacin . Ciprofloxacin was less active against Gram-positive species (typical MIC90 values were 0.5 or 1 mg/l) and obligate anaerobes (4 mg/l for Bacteroides fragilis). The activity of ciprofloxacin in broth dilution tests was little affected by pH over the range 6.0-8.0, or by human serum or tissue fluid; its activity was reduced by the presence of urine. Binding to human serum protein was 20-28%. Ciprofloxacin was rapidly bacterial in broth at concentrations near to its MICs. By exposure to subinhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin it was possible to increase its MIC for bacteria in daily subcultures. The final MIC values after ten days were often about 16-fold greater than buy duricef online those observed initially.

duricef overdose 2017-05-04

The transport characteristics of the aminocephalosporin [3H]cefadroxil have been studied in brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV) of rat kidney cortex by a rapid filtration technique and by use of a potential sensitive fluorescent dye. Influx of [3H]cefadroxil (0.25 microM) into BBMV as a function of time displayed a pronounced overshoot phenomenon in the presence of a transmembrane pH gradient (pHin > pHout). Evidence for an electrogenic cefadroxil/H+-symport in the presence of an inwardly directed proton gradient is provided by the demonstration of: 1) reduced uptake in the presence of a protonophore; 2) reduced uptake under voltage clamp conditions; and 3) increased uptake in the presence of a valinomycin-induced inside negative K+-diffusion potential. pH-gradient dependent uptake of [3H]cefadroxil as a function of substrate concentration revealed the presence of multiple carrier systems. By kinetic analysis, a high-affinity carrier system (Km, 8.8 +/- 1.3 microM) and a low-affinity system (Km, 2.62 +/- 0.80 mM) could be resolved. The high-affinity transport system was found to be very specific for substrates (cephalosporins and di- and tripeptides) carrying an alpha-amino group. By use of a potential sensitive fluorescent dye 3,3'-dipropylthiadicarbocyanine iodide, the low-affinity transport system was characterized with respect to its driving force and its kinetic features. This transporter was found also to be electrogenic in nature, representing a second cefadroxil/H+-symport system. In summary, our studies demonstrate for the first time uphill transport of cefadroxil in kidney BBMV mediated by multiple carrier systems. Transport is rheogenic, energized by the proton motive force and shared by other aminocephalosporins as buy duricef online well as di- and tripeptides.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

buy duricef online 2016-12-17

There are only slight differences between the geometrical means of minimum inhibitory concentrations of (6R,7R)-7-[(R)-2-amino-2-2(p-hydroxyphenyl)-acetamido]-3-methyl-8-oxo-5-thia-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid (cefadroxil, Bidocef) and cefalexin against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria freshly isolated from clinical material. Enterococci are more susceptible to cefadroxil. Considering the different break point, cefadroxil is on the whole more effective than cefalexin, in particular so against Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacter, Citrobacter and Escherichia coli. With the buy duricef online aid of the described regression analysis a meaningful interpretation of the results of the cefadroxil agar diffusion test is possible.

duricef cough medicine 2016-06-19

The Authors buy duricef online evaluated the cefatrizine clinical effects on 50 patients with infectious diseases. The statistical analysis of results show a high efficacy and safety with no relevant side effects.

duricef dose 2016-07-27

A preliminary study revealed that similarly to the antibiotics amoxillin, thiamphenicol, erythromycin and doxycycline, the oral cephalosporin cefadroxil (CAS 66592-87-8) can be administered simultaneously with the mucolytic n-acetylcysteine (CAS 616-91-1). In the present study 12 healthy male volunteers received in a randomised cross-over design a single oral dose of 1000 mg cefadroxil or a single oral dose of 1000 mg cefadroxil (Bidocef) plus 200 mg n-acetylcysteine. The two study days were separated by a wash-out period of one week. To determine buy duricef online the pharmacokinetic profile of cefadroxil, plasma and sputum were analysed by HPLC at defined intervals. Regarding the bioavailability of cefadroxil, the free combination is bioequivalent to the individual component. After administration of cefadroxil plus n-acetylcysteine, a higher cefadroxil concentration was found in the sputum compared to an administration of cefadroxil alone. However, the difference was not statistically significant. According to the results, simultaneous administration of the oral cephalosporin cefadroxil and the mucolytic n-acetylcysteine is possible without changes in the bioavailability of cefadroxil being observed.

duricef drug class 2016-06-07

The average rates of antimicrobial resistance were low and did not increase between 2003 and 2012 in E. coli urinary isolates among Swedish nursing home residents. Antibiotic treatment during the previous month and hospitalisation during the previous six months predicted Naprosyn 750 Dosage higher resistance rates.

duricef oral suspension 2017-03-13

A selective and sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method (LC-MS/MS) was developed and validated for the determination of cefdinir in rat plasma and urine. Following a simple protein precipitation using methanol, chromatographic separation was achieved with a run time of 10 min using a Synergi 4 µ polar-RP 80A column (150 × 2.0 mm, 4 µm) with a Mobic Medication Interactions mobile phase consisting of 0.1% formic acid in water and methanol (65:35, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. The protonated precursor and product ion transitions for cefdinir (m/z 396.1 → 227.2) and cefadroxil, an internal standard (m/z 364.2 → 208.0) were monitored in the multiple reaction monitoring in positive ion mode. The calibration curves for plasma and urine were linear over the concentration range 10-10,000 ng/mL. The lower limit of quantification was 10 ng/mL. All accuracy values were between 95.1 and 113.0% and the intra- and inter-day precisions were <13.0% relative standard deviation. The stability under various conditions in rat plasma and urine was also found to be acceptable at three concentrations. The developed method was applied successfully to the pharmacokinetic study of cefdinir after oral and intravenous administration.

duricef storage 2016-01-16

The thermal decomposition of cephalexine, Indocin Gout Dose cefadroxil and cefoperazone under non-isothermal conditions using the TG, respectively DSC methods, was studied. In case of TG, a hyphenated technique, including EGA, was used.

duricef sulfa drug 2016-06-05

Concurrently with administering a newly developed cephem derivative antibiotic (CEP), cefpodoxime proxetil (CPDX-PR, CS-807) dry syrup, to children with skin and soft tissue infections, activities of 7 drugs against a group of microorganisms were tested. The drugs tested included 4 drugs of the cephem group, R-3746, a Na-salt form of CPDX, cefaclor (CCL), cephalexin (CEX) and cefadroxil (CDX), and 3 drugs of the penicillin group, ampicillin (ABPC), methicillin (DMPPC) and cloxacillin (MCIPC). The bacterial strains tested were 71 strains of Staphylococcus aureus and 1 strain of Streptococcus pyogenes, all isolated from the above cases of pediatric infections. Inoculum sizes used in these tests were 10(6) and 10(8) cfu/ml. Ages of children in those cases to which the drug was administered ranged from 2 months to 15 years. A total of 66 cases were treated, including 60 cases of impetigo, 5 cases of subcutaneous abscess and 1 case of phlegmon. The drug was administered for an average of 6 days with a daily average dose level of 9.4 mg/kg divided into 3 doses except 1 case where a twice daily dose regimen was used. Clinical and bacteriological effects were examined, and the occurrence of adverse reactions and abnormal laboratory test results were recorded. The results of these tests are summarized below. 1. The activity test for R-3746 (Na-salt of CPDX) against 71 strains of S. aureus performed at an inoculum level of 10(8) cfu/ml showed 2 peaks of MIC values, one in a range of 1.56 to 6.25 micrograms/ml and the other higher than 100 micrograms/ml. The most prevalent MIC value was Tofranil 300 Mg 3.13 micrograms/ml with MIC against 51 strains or 71.8% of the strains tested showing this value, and MIC values of 25 micrograms/ml or higher were obtained for 13 strains or 18.3% of the strains tested. The MIC80 was 6.25 micrograms/ml. Thus, R-3746 showed an antibacterial activity slightly weaker than MCIPC and DMPPC but similar to CCL, CEX and CDX. MIC values obtained at an inoculum level of 10(6) cfu/ml also had 2 peaks, one in a range of 1.56 to 3.13 micrograms/ml and the other higher than 25 micrograms/ml. Strains against which R-3746 had the MIC value of 3.13 micrograms/ml were the most numerous with 47 strains or 66.2%, and strains against which the MIC value of higher than 25 micrograms/ml was obtained were next with 13 strains or 18.3%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

duricef 500mg capsules 2016-09-12

Various in-vitro and in-vivo methods for evaluation of the duration of antibacterial activity were compared using a controlled-release polyurethane matrix developed for the prevention of surface bacterial adhesion and growth. Cefadroxil was incorporated into this polyurethane matrix by a solvent casting method before the matrix was coated with polyurethane in tetrahydrofuran solution. The release of cefadroxil from the matrix into distilled water at 37 degrees C was measured by HPLC. The morphological change of matrices before and after release studies was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The duration of antimicrobial activity of the matrix against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was evaluated by measuring the diameters of the inhibition zone and the optical density of the broth. The matrices were also implanted subcutaneously in rats and the duration of the antibacterial activity was determined by measuring the inhibition zone. The results showed that duration of antibacterial activity of the polyurethane matrix was successfully determined in-vitro by these methods, and the results differed from the conventional in-vitro release study. It was also Calan Overdose possible to determine the duration of action of the matrix in-vivo by implanting the matrix in rats, and then measuring the antibacterial activity of the matrix at predetermined time intervals. While a good correlation was observed between the in-vitro and in-vivo methods used in this study to evaluate the duration of the antibacterial activity of the polymeric matrix, the conventional in-vitro release study did not coincide with these results.

duricef pediatric dosing 2016-06-29

The effects of penicillin, macrolides (spiramycin and erythromycin), cephalosporins (cefaclor and cefadroxil), cycline (doxycycline) and quinolones (pefloxacin, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin) on extracellular and cell-associated interleukin-1 activity from human monocytes were investigated in vitro. When cells were treated with 10 micrograms/ml of quinolones, cephalosporins or penicillin, no effect on IL-1 production could be detected. Using 100 micrograms/ml, extracellular Suprax Tab 400mg IL-1 activity was found to be decreased by quinolones (about 35% of the control without antibiotic) without modification of the cell-associated IL-1 activity. Extra and intracellular IL-1 was only slightly decreased by cephalosporins, while penicillin did not alter the IL-1 activities. Spiramycin and doxycycline using 100 micrograms/ml increased extracellular IL-1 while cell-associated was decreased. A toxic effect may have been exerted by these antimicrobial agents.

duricef liquid dosage 2015-11-22

Data are presented on the effect of ethanol on the intestinal absorption and Famvir 250mg Tablets excretion in rats of two beta-lactam antibiotics, cephalexin (CFX) and cefadroxil (CFD). A recirculating perfusion technique within an antibiotic concentration range of 0.5 to 50 mM was used. Ethanol was administered either in an acute form into the intestine or in a chronic form as a 15% drinking solution for 2 months. The results are normalized in relation to the metabolic body weight, intestinal length, and osmotic conditions. Acute ethanol treatment decreases the antibiotic absorption; biliary excretion of CFD is increased, while urinary excretion of CFX is lowered. Chronic treatment shows slight negative effects on the absorption of CFX and CFD. Results are interpreted on the basis of the effect of ethanol on biological membranes. Enhanced urinary excretion after acute ethanol treatment, as well as differences between transport mechanisms, are invoked to explain these effects.