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At baseline, the mean Kupperman index was 23.7+/-1.8 in RLX group, 22.9+/-1.9 in RLX+E2 group and 22.6+/-1.9 in the placebo group (NS). After 3 months, there was a significant reduction in Kupperman index mean values in both groups, but no statistical difference was observed between groups. However, RLX+E2 and placebo were significantly superior to RLX in reducing hot flush severity (p<0.05). Endometrial thickness did not change in both groups. The association of percutaneous low-dose 17beta-estradiol to raloxifene was not associated with proliferation of endometrium neither in hysteroscopies nor in endometrial biopsies at the third month of treatment. No vaginal bleeding was reported during the study.
Anti-resorptive and anabolic agents are often prescribed for the treatment of osteoporosis continuously or sequentially for many years. However their impact on cortical bone quality and bone strength is not clear.
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Three case reports are presented: in each case the woman selected had participated in large, double-blind, randomized controlled trials exploring hormone modulation. Case study 1 presents a premenopausal woman with schizophrenia, who received an 8 week trial of daily adjunctive 200 microg transdermal oestradiol. Case study 2 presents a postmenopausal woman with schizophrenia on a 12 week trial of adjunctive raloxifene hydrochloride 120 mg per day. Case study 3 presents a woman with schizoaffective disorder, in the manic phase, who received tamoxifen 40 mg per day for 28 days.
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It is important to consider drug interaction in patients with multiple diseases, as it may develop complications that can be avoided if detected on time.
The content of the information provided and its wording have a great influence on the patients' decision.
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The study was double blinded, with a placebo run-in period of 28-50 days.
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The rats in the LPS-raloxifene-HCl group had a lower [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose uptake compared with the rats in the placebo group (4.67+/-1.33 vs 9.01+/-1.58, respectively, P<0.01). The rats in the LPS-raloxifene-HCl group also had a lower histological lung injury score (8.20+/-1.23 vs 12.6+/-0.97, respectively, P<0.01) and W/D weight ratio (5.335+/-0.198 vs 5.886+/-0.257, respectively, P<0.01) compared to the placebo group. The rats in this group also showed better pulmonary gas exchange and more stable mean arterial pressure (MAP) compared to the placebo group.
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Bazedoxifene appears to be a cost-effective strategy compared to raloxifene for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporotic women in Europe, particularly in patients at high fracture risk.
Ten premenopausal women who underwent gynecological surgery with ovariectomy were divided into two groups. Five participants used raloxifene (60 mg/d) for 7 days staring 1 week after the surgery, and the other five participants did not use raloxifene. We examined the changes in flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery using ultrasonography. Vasodilation in response to nitroglycerin was also studied. We also measured the brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity to examine the change in arterial stiffness in these participants before and after surgical menopause.
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All biopsies were sent for histological examination for endometriosis, and surgical and histological findings were compared.
Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are small molecules that, depending on the end point measured, may either function as estrogen receptor (ER) agonists or antagonize estrogens' agonist activity. A key feature of SERMs is the inhibition of ER agonist action on the uterus and mammary gland, but the degree of antagonism varies among compounds and end points. Bazedoxifene is a SERM that is being clinically evaluated both as a monotherapy for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis and in combination with conjugated estrogens (CEs) for the treatment of menopausal symptoms and prevention of osteoporosis. The studies reported here compare the relative ER agonist and antagonist effects of three pharmacologically distinct SERMs (bazedoxifene, raloxifene, and lasofoxifene) on the ovariectomized mouse when administered alone or as a tissue-selective estrogen complex, a term used to describe the partnering of a SERM and one or more estrogens. At the minimum dose required to maximally reduce CE-stimulated uterine wet weight increase for each SERM, the degree of inhibition varied among the SERMs, with a rank order of bazedoxifene approximately raloxifene > lasofoxifene, in which only bazedoxifene was statistically similar to vehicle. In the mammary gland, in which amphiregulin mRNA and morphological effects were measured, bazedoxifene generally exhibited less agonist activity and was a more effective antagonist of CE than raloxifene or lasofoxifene. In summary, in an animal model evaluating estrogen-modulated uterine effects and mammary gland development, bazedoxifene exhibited less ER agonist activity than raloxifene or lasofoxifene, and, as a tissue-selective estrogen complex, bazedoxifene/CE demonstrated less mammary gland stimulation than raloxifene/CE and lasofoxifene/CE.
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This study provides Class I evidence that for women with AD, raloxifene does not have a significant cognitive effect. The study lacked the precision to exclude a small effect.
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Data from a large health insurer were used to identify 58,109 osteoporosis patients who initiated drug therapy for osteoporosis. Multivariate statistical models were developed for duration of therapy, compliance at 1 year, time to discontinuation or a change in therapy, health care costs and risk of fracture over 1 year.
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Prevention of osteopenia/osteoporosis in postmenopausal patients can reduce fracture risk. In this view, the use of Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators (SERMs) appear to be important in managing this condition. Bazedoxifene Acetate (BZA) is a third-generation SERM that showed to protect bone mass in postmenopausal women with osteopenia, and to reduce vertebral fracture risk in osteoporotic postmenopausal women; moreover, BZA decreased the non-vertebral fracture risk in a subgroup of patients at high-risk for fracture in comparison to placebo. BZA showed no stimulating effects on endometrium and breast. BZA can be a valid option in management of osteopenia/osteoporosis in postmenopause.
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We measured urodynamic parameters in anaesthetized, surviving rats. Following ovariectomy animals were divided into three groups and fed either an estradiol-, raloxifene-, or unsupplemented soy-free formula for ten weeks. Via a transurethral catheter the intravesical pressure was recorded during a stretch period (the urinary bladder was filled), and a one-minute isometric accommodation period immediately after the filling period. Upon termination of the experiment upper and lower halves of the bladder were processed histologically.
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 17beta-estradiol, raloxifene, and 1-alpha,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol or calcitriol on bone and lipid metabolism in chronic kidney disease and estrogen insufficiency.
We investigated the 12-week effects of 3 doses of HMR 3339, a novel selective estrogen receptor modulator, in comparison with raloxifene and placebo, on plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein in 96 healthy postmenopausal women. A dose-dependent reduction in C-reactive protein was observed, the largest reduction with HMR 3339 50 mg.
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The aim of the study was to assess adding vs. switching to teriparatide 20 microg/d in patients on alendronate or raloxifene.
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A total of 7705 women aged 31 to 80 years in 25 countries who had been postmenopausal for at least 2 years and who met World Health Organization criteria for having osteoporosis. The study began in 1994 and had up to 36 months of follow-up for primary efficacy measurements and nonserious adverse events and up to 40 months of follow-up for serious adverse events.
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While the majority of women who used tamoxifen for primary prevention of breast cancer were likely to benefit, substantial discontinuation of tamoxifen before five years and use by women at risk of serious side effects may attenuate benefits for breast cancer prevention.
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Tamoxifen has not only proved to be a valuable treatment for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer, but is also a pioneering medicine for chemoprevention in high-risk pre- and postmenopausal women. Insights into the pharmacology and toxicology of tamoxifen have led to the recognition of selective ER modulators (SERMs) with estrogen-like actions in maintaining bone density and in lowering circulating cholesterol, but antiestrogenic actions in the breast. Raloxifene, a related SERM, is now available to treat osteoporosis and is also being tested as a preventive for breast cancer and coronary heart disease. Emerging knowledge about the action of SERMs will provide clues for the design of mechanism-based medicines.
Compared with E(2) 0.1 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1) treatment alone, the pairing of raloxifene 10 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1) with E(2) significantly decreased the extent of mammary gland branches and ducts (5.53%±1.23% vs 15.4%±2.17%, P<0.01), as well as the uterine weight (2.16±0.35 g vs 4.91±0.75 g, P<0.01). However, E(2)/raloxifene or E(2) alone treatment significantly stimulated platelet aggregation relative to vehicle group. Addition of aspirin 5 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1) reduced platelet aggregation to almost the same level as the vehicle group. E(2) treatment exerted a positive effect on serum lipids and MCP-1, and a regression in aortic intimal plaque size compared to the vehicle. Raloxifene reinforced the positive effects of E(2).