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This is the first extensive study of rosacea and its impact on healthcare utilization and costs in an insured population. Although rosacea is a common illness that does not have much financial impact on its sufferers, rosacea patients incurred slightly higher direct total healthcare costs than matched controls.
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The entity of glutaraldehyde-induced colitis should be recognized and special attention should be given during instrument cleansing to minimize the risk of its development.
After chronic dosing of S. boulardii, patients with low stool concentrations had a higher likelihood of recurrence of CDD. Stool concentrations were also lower during periods of diarrhoea. These results show the importance of characterizing the dynamics of a therapeutic microorganism in patients with disease, as kinetic studies in healthy volunteers may not give a true reflection of the disturbed microecology in the disease state.
Independent risk factors for infection with VRE were the mean number of antibiotic days (P<.001), renal insufficiency (P<.001), mean days of vancomycin use (P = .005), and neutropenia (P = .013). A trend toward a significant association between metronidazole use and VRE also was noted (P = .068). Mortality was attributable to the bacteremia in 96 patients (37%). Severity of illness (P<.001) and age (P = .020) were independent risk factors for mortality. Vancomycin resistance was not, however, an independent predictor of mortality.
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To evaluate the role of oral corticosteroids as an anti-inflammatory adjunct in the treatment of orbital cellulitis.
The streptokinase group drained more pleural fluid both during the days of streptokinase/control treatment (mean (SD) 391 (200) ml versus 124 (44) ml; difference 267 ml, 95% confidence interval (CI) 144 to 390; p < .001) and overall (2564 (1663) ml, 95% CI 465 to 2545; p < 0.01). They showed greater improvement on the chest radiograph at discharge, measured as the fall in the maximum dimension of the pleural collection (6.0 (2.7) cm versus 3.4 (2.7) cm; difference 2.9 cm, 95% CI 0.3 to 4.4; p < 0.05) and the overall reduction in pleural fluid collection size (p < 0.05, two-tailed Fisher's exact test). Systemic fibrinolysis and bleeding complications did not occur. Surgery was required by three control patients but none in the streptokinase group.
In 1995, a Rosacea Awareness Program (RAP) was initiated in Canada to make available educational resources for physicians and rosacea patients. Material is in French or English, and is accessible though physician offices and by toll-free telephone. Information was communicated to the public via noncommercial, editorial media. The RAP created a database of rosacea patients in Canada.
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H. pylori isolates were collected from gastric biopsies from patients referred for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy at Tooba Medical Center, Sari, Iran, from 2007 to 2010. None of them had been using antibiotics for at least 8 months. H. pylori was identified based on morphological shape and positive biochemical tests for catalase, oxidase, and urease activity. Antibiotic resistance for metronidazole, clarithromycin, amoxicillin, and tetracycline was investigated by using epsilometer test. Resistance was defined by minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) > 0.5 mg/L for amoxicillin (AMX), >4 mg/L for tetracycline (TET), >8 mg/L for metronidazole (MTZ), and >1 mg/L for clarithromycin (CLR).
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The aim of this study was to determine, whether interactions between a drug and hydrophobic polymer matrix are present, and if so, how they affect the drug release. In addition, the most important formulation parameters, for example porosity or structure of the tablet, which have the greatest impact on drug release, were defined. Six different drug compounds, that is allopurinol, acyclovir, metronidazole, paracetamol, salicylamide and theophylline, were used in different formulations with hydrophobic starch acetate (DS 2.7) as a matrix forming polymer. Results indicate that the formulation parameters describing directly or indirectly the structure of the matrix, such as porosity, compaction force and the particle size fraction of the filler-binder, have the strongest impact on drug release. The contribution of drug property based variables is not as high as formulation parameters, but they cannot be overlooked. The contribution of water solubility and dissolution rate of the compound are obvious, but there are other significant parameters, which describe the hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions of the molecule, that also affect the drug release. This can be seen especially with the salicylamide: compound which appears to have a strong and sufficiently high hydrophobic region that interacts with starch acetate and impairs the drug release.
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To assess the effect of treatment of vaginal infections on vaginal shedding of cell-free human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and HIV-1-infected cells, HIV-1-seropositive women were examined before and after treatment of Candida vulvovaginitis, Trichomonas vaginitis, and bacterial vaginosis. For Candida (n=98), vaginal HIV-1 RNA decreased from 3.36 to 2.86 log(10) copies/swab (P<.001), as did the prevalence of HIV-1 DNA (36% to 17%; odds ratio [OR], 2.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-6.5). For Trichomonas vaginitis (n=55), HIV-1 RNA decreased from 3.67 to 3.05 log(10) copies/swab (P<.001), but the prevalence of HIV-1 DNA remained unchanged (22%-25%; OR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.3-2.2). For bacterial vaginosis (n=73), neither the shedding of HIV-1 RNA (from 3.11 to 2.90 log(10) copies/swab; P=.14) nor the prevalence of DNA (from 21% to 23%; OR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.3-2.0) changed. Vaginal HIV-1 decreased 3.2- and 4.2-fold after treating Candida and Trichomonas, respectively. These data suggest that HIV-1 transmission intervention strategies that incorporate diagnosis and treatment of these prevalent infections warrant evaluation.
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Retrospective analysis of patients treated with an 8 week course of combined azithromycin and metronidazole. Patients were included if they had active CD defined as pediatric CD activity index (PCDAI) ≥ 10, and were not receiving any other medication for inducing remission in active disease. PCDAI score and CRP were recorded at baseline and 8 weeks thereafter.
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Surgical infections are mostly polymicrobial, involving both aerobes and anaerobes. One hundred seventeen cases comprised of abscesses (n=51), secondary peritonitis (n=25), necrotizing fascitis (n=22) and wounds with devitalized tissues (n=19) were studied. The number of microorganisms isolated per lesion was highest in secondary peritonitis (2.32). The aerobe/ anaerobe ratio was 0.81 in secondary peritonitis and 1.8 in necrotizing fascitis. Most secondary peritonitis (80%), necrotizing fascitis (75%) and wounds with devitalized tissues (66.7%) were polymicrobial. Common microorganisms isolated in our study were E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacteroides fragilis and Peptostreptococcus spp. The most effective antibiotics for S. aureus were clindamycin (79.1%) and cefuroxime (70.8%). For Gram-negatives (Klebsiella spp., E. coli and Proteus spp.), the most effective antibiotics were cefotaxime, ceftizoxime, amikacin and ciprofloxacin. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was maximally sensitive to amikacin (35.2%) and ciprofloxacin (35.2%). The greatest degree of multidrug resistance to all the drugs was found in P. aeruginosa (52.9%), followed by Klebsiella spp. (33.3%), Proteus spp. (33.3%), E. coli (22.2%), and S. aureus (12.5%). All the anaerobes that we isolated were 100% sensitive to metronidazole and chloramphenicol, followed by clindamycin (95% to 100%). Apart from antibiotic therapy, non-antimicrobial methods, such as hyperbaric oxygen therapy and debridement also play an important role in the treatment of surgical infections.
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Tubo-ovarian abscess (TOA), a serious complication of pelvic inflammatory disease, unites the fallopian tube and ovary and, is rarely observed in sexually inactive adolescent girls. A pelvic mass, supposedly originating from the ovary, was detected in a 13-year-old sexually inactive girl suffering from abdominal pain and menstrual disorder. Pelvic ultrasonography pointed out a semisolid, hyperechogenic mass of 57x73 mm in the left adnexal area. Laparotomy revealed an unilateral TOA adhering to the bowel and omentum. Abscess drainage and adhesiolysis were performed and postoperative antibiotherapy was administered. TOA should be considered in the differential diagnosis of females with abdominal pain and adnexal mass whether sexual activity is present or not.
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Global rate of resistance was 49.3% (38/77): 40% of strains were resistant to metronidazole, 19.5% to clarithromycin, and 10.4% to amoxicillin. All of the tested H pylori strains were susceptible to furazolidone and tetracycline. Multiple resistance were detected in 18.2% (14/77 patients) of the strains: 6 of 14 (43%) simultaneously resistant to clarithromycin and metronidazole; 5 of 14 (36%) to amoxicillin and metronidazole; 2 of 14 (14%) to amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and metronidazole; and 1 of 14 (7%) to clarithromycin and amoxicillin.
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It is important for physicians who treat acolonic patients to be aware of C. difficile enteritis of the small bowel so that it can be suspected, diagnosed, and treated.
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Metronidazole resistance is a key factor associated with Helicobacter pylori treatment failure. Although this resistance is mainly associated with mutations in the rdxA and frxA genes, the question of whether metronidazole resistance is caused by the inactivation of frxA alone is still debated. Furthermore, it is unclear whether there are other mutations involved in addition to the two genes that are associated with resistance. A metronidazole-resistant strain was cultured from the metronidazole-susceptible H. pylori strain 26695-1 by exposure to low concentrations of metronidazole. The genome sequences of both susceptible and resistant H. pylori strains were determined by Illumina next-generation sequencing, from which putative candidate resistance mutations were identified. Natural transformation was used to introduce PCR products containing candidate mutations into the susceptible parent strain 26695-1, and the metronidazole MIC was determined for each strain. Mutations in frxA (hp0642), rdxA (hp0954), and rpsU (hp0562) were confirmed by the Sanger method. The mutated sequence in rdxA was successfully transformed into strain 26695-1, and the transformants showed resistance to metronidazole. The transformants containing a single mutation in rdxA showed a low MIC (16 mg/liter), while those containing mutations in both rdxA and frxA showed a higher MIC (48 mg/liter). No transformants containing a single mutation in frxA or rpsU were obtained. Next-generation sequencing was used to identify mutations related to drug resistance. We confirmed that the mutations in rdxA are mainly associated with metronidazole resistance, and mutations in frxA are able to enhance H. pylori resistance only in the presence of rdxA mutations. Moreover, mutations in rpsU may play a role in metronidazole resistance.
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OUTCOMES evaluated include the efficacy of antibiotic treatment, cure rates for simple and complicated infections, and the implications of these conditions in pregnancy.
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From 372 pediatric patients with IBD, we identified 29 patients who experienced a total of 40 cases of CDAD. The annualized incidence rate of CDAD was 7.2%. Initial treatment was successful in 17 cases (43%). Eventual success was documented with metronidazole in 15 cases (41%), with vancomycin in 16 cases (43%), and with other agents or a combination of agents in 6 cases (16%). Age, sex, and IBD type were not associated with initial treatment outcome or recurrence. The choice of initial antimicrobial treatment was not associated with treatment outcome. The type of IBD therapy medication was not associated with the likelihood of CDAD recurrence, although the use of anti-inflammatory therapy was positively associated with initial antimicrobial treatment success.
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The objective of the study was to compare the efficacy of azithromycin, alone or with metronidazole, versus two standard multidrug regimens for the treatment of acute pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Patients with PID were treated with once-daily intravenous (i.v.) azithromycin 500 mg for 1 day or 2 days followed by once-daily azithromycin 250 mg orally for a total of 7 days, alone or with three-times-daily metronidazole 400 mg or 500 mg i.v. then orally for a total of 12-14 days. The comparators were either metronidazole + doxycycline + cefoxitin + probenecid or doxycycline + amoxycillin/clavulanate given at standard recommended doses for up to 21 days. In total, 309 patients were treated for PID. The diagnosis was confirmed laparoscopically in 74.8% of patients. Rates of clinical success for azithromycin, alone (97.1%) or with metronidazole (98.1%), were comparable to those for the comparator regimens (94.6%). Eradication rates for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma hominis and anaerobes were also comparable for each of the treatment groups. Both azithromycin regimens were well tolerated. In conclusion, azithromycin, alone or with metronidazole, provides a shorter, simpler treatment option for the successful management of acute PID.
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A total of 52 patients, 32 females and 20 males with a mean age of 49+/-12 years, were included in the study. Eradication was achieved in 15 (28%) out of 52 patients in total. There was a significant difference between RbA and RbTM groups (p=0.01). In fact, H. pylori was eradicated in 3 (12%) out of 25 patients in the RbA group, whereas it was eradicated in 12 (44.4%) out of 27 patients in the RbTM group. Symptom scores significantly improved in both groups after the treatment, though there was not a significant difference between the groups (p=0.705).
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Intra-specific diversity of Helicobacter pylori infecting stomachs of different individuals was investigated by numerical analysis of amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP), to determine the existence of clones within the strain population and the effect that antibiotic treatment, particularly with metronidazole (Mtz), had on the balance of types/subtypes present before and after treatment.
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This prospective pilot study was performed to evaluate the efficacy, safety and tolerability of a single dose of cefodizime as infection prophylaxis in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery. One hundred forty-nine patients received 2g cefodizime, a third-generation cephalosporin, 30 min before abdominal surgery. The mean operation time was 116 +/- 66 min. Eighteen patients received metronidazole additionally. In 8/149 patients (5.4%) the final outcome was considered to be a treatment failure. 94.6% of the patients had no signs of infection. The long half-life of cefodizime allows a single-dose perioperative prophylaxis even in abdominal surgery lasting 3 to 4 h. Cefodizime can be regarded as a safe antibiotic prophylaxis with few side effects.
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Recent findings indicate that bacteria play an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the exact role of bacteria in ulcerative colitis (UC) has still to be elucidated. The objective of the study was to investigate the potential differences in the intestinal microbiota between patients with UC and control subjects, using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of the mucosa-associated microbiota from UC patients and non-IBD controls.
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The radiochemical purity of the (99m)TcO-MNXT complex was over 90%. It had good in vitro stability and its distribution coefficient indicated that it was a hydrophilic complex. When (99m)Tc and Re complexes were coinjected in HPLC, both radioactivity (for (99m)Tc complex) and UV detectors (for Re complex) showed nearly identical HPLC profiles, suggesting their structures are similar. The tumor cell experiment and the biodistribution in mice bearing S 180 tumor showed that the (99m)TcO-MNXT complex had a good hypoxic selectivity and accumulated in the tumor with high uptake and good retention. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) image studies showed that the tumor detection was observable.
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Current antibiotics for treating Clostridium difficile infections (CDI), that is, metronidazole, vancomycin and more recently fidaxomicin, are mostly effective but treatment failure and disease relapse remain as significant clinical problems. The shortcomings of these agents are attributed to their low selectivity for C. difficile over normal gut microflora and their ineffectiveness against C. difficile spores. This Letter reports that certain diarylacylhydrazones identified during a high-throughput screening/counter-screening campaign show selective activity against two Clostridium species (C. difficile and Clostridium perfringens) over common gut commensals. Representative examples are shown to possess activity similar to vancomycin against clinical C. difficile strains and to kill stationary-phase C. difficile cells, which are responsible for spore production. Structure-activity relationships with additional synthesised analogues suggested a protonophoric mechanism may play a role in the observed activity/selectivity and this was supported by the well-known protonophore carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP) showing selective anti-Clostridium effects and activity similar to diarylacylhydrazones against stationary-phase C. difficile cells. Two diarylacylhydrazones were shown to be non-toxic towards human FaDu and Hep G2 cells indicating that further studies with the class are warranted towards new drugs for CDI.