Diabetes is a metabolic disorder associated with either improper functioning of the beta-cells or wherein cells fail to use insulin properly. Insulin, the principal hormone regulates uptake of glucose from the blood into most of the cells except central nervous system. Therefore, deficiency of insulin or the insensitivity of its receptors plays a key role in all forms of diabetes. In the present work, attempt has been made to find out plant sources which show anti hyperglycaemic activity (AhG) (i.e. compounds that bring down the blood glucose level in the body). Ayurvedic plants showing AhG activity formed the basis of our study by using the platform of Computer Aided Drug Designing (CADD). Among 600 plants showing AhG activity, 500 compounds were selected and screened, out of which 243 compounds showed drug likeness property that can be used as therapeutic ligand/drug. Initial screening of such compounds was done based on their drug likeness or biochemical properties. Dynamic interaction of these molecules was captured through Protein-Ligand study. It also gave an insight of the binding pockets involved. Bench marking of all the parameters were done using the diabetic inhibitor drug, Glipizide. Pharmacokinetic studies of the compounds such as Aloins, Capparisine, Funiculosin and Rhein exhibited less toxicity on various levels of the body. As a conclusion these ligands can lay a foundation for a better anti-diabetic therapy.
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The data from three clinical trials are presented, comparing the efficacy of different sulfonylureas in the treatment of type II diabetes. In a multicenter study, gliclazide improved control in 49% of patients who had failed on other drugs. When five groups of type II diabetic patients were treated concurrently with five randomly allocated different sulfonylureas over 1 year, the percentage of patients achieving normal HbA1 levels was best with gliclazide (80%) and glibenclamide (74%), when compared with chlorpropamide (17%), glipizide (40%), and gliquidone (40%). Secondary failure rate over 5 years was assessed in 248 type II diabetic patients randomly allocated to three different sulfonylureas and found to be lowest with gliclazide (7%) compared with glibenclamide (17.9%): p < 0.1) and glipizide (25.6%: p < 0.005). The incidence of hypoglycemia was significantly higher with glibenclamide than with gliclazide (p < 0.05). The differences in efficacy and secondary failure rate between sulfonylureas may be related to the mechanism of insulin release from the beta-cell and the more physiological action of gliclazide could partly explain this. These trials suggest that gliclazide is a potent sulfonylurea with a low rate of secondary failure and a low incidence of side effects and may be a better choice in long-term sulfonylurea therapy.
Arginine 352 (R352) in the sixth transmembrane domain of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) previously was reported to form an anion/cation selectivity filter and to provide positive charge in the intracellular vestibule. However, mutations at this site have nonspecific effects, such as inducing susceptibility of endogenous cysteines to chemical modification. We hypothesized that R352 stabilizes channel structure and that charge-destroying mutations at this site disrupt pore architecture, with multiple consequences. We tested the effects of mutations at R352 on conductance, anion selectivity and block by the sulfonylurea drug glipizide, using recordings of wild-type and mutant channels. Charge-altering mutations at R352 destabilized the open state and altered both selectivity and block. In contrast, R352K-CFTR was similar to wild-type. Full conductance state amplitude was similar to that of wild-type CFTR in all mutants except R352E, suggesting that R352 does not itself form an anion coordination site. In an attempt to identify an acidic residue that may interact with R352, we found that permeation properties were similarly affected by charge-reversing mutations at D993. Wild-type-like properties were rescued in R352E/D993R-CFTR, suggesting that R352 and D993 in the wild-type channel may interact to stabilize pore architecture. Finally, R352A-CFTR was sensitive to modification by externally applied MTSEA+, while wild-type and R352E/D993R-CFTR were not. These data suggest that R352 plays an important structural role in CFTR, perhaps reflecting its involvement in forming a salt bridge with residue D993.
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All three drugs were equally effective on the total prandial insulin secretion (area under the curve [AUC] -15 to 240 min). However, clear differences were noted in the early insulin secretion (AUC -15 to 30 min); both repaglinide and glipizide increased secretion in nondiabetic subjects by approximately 61 and 34%, respectively, compared with placebo. In the diabetic patients, the difference versus placebo was 37 and 47%, respectively. The difference between glipizide and glibenclamide reached significance in both groups of subjects, whereas repaglinide was more effective than glibenclamide only in the healthy nondiabetic subject group. All three drugs were effective in decreasing total glucose AUC in the nondiabetic and diabetic population. In the nondiabetic subjects, however, repaglinide was significantly more effective than glibenclamide. The differences disappeared in the diabetic subjects, probably as a result of increased prevalence of insulin resistance in this group.
After 12 weeks, mean (+/-SE) HbA1c and fasting blood glucose levels decreased with active therapy (glipizide GITS) vs placebo (7.5% 0.1% vs 9.3%+/-0.1% and 7.0+/-0.1 mmol/L [126+/-2 mg/dL] vs 9.3+/-0.2 mmol/L [168+/-4 mg/ dL], respectively; P<.001). Quality-of-life treatment differences (SD units) for symptom distress (+0.59; P<.001), general perceived health (+0.36; P= .004), cognitive functioning (+0.34; P=.005), and the overall visual analog scale (VAS) (+0.24; P=.04) were significantly more favorable for active therapy. Subscales of acuity (+0.38; P=.002), VAS emotional health (+0.35; P=.003), general health (+0.27; P=.01), sleep (+0.26; P=.04), depression (+0.25; P=.05), disorientation and detachment (+0.23; P= .05), and vitality (+0.22; P=.04) were most affected. Favorable health economic outcomes for glipizide GITS included higher retained employment (97% vs 85%; P<.001), greater productive capacity (99% vs 87%; P<.001), less absenteeism (losses = $24 vs $115 per worker per month; P<.001), fewer bed-days (losses = $1539 vs $1843 per 1000 person-days; P=.05), and fewer restricted-activity days (losses = $2660 vs $4275 per 1000 person-days; P=.01).
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Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, lipoproteins, and glycosylated hemoglobin concentrations. Twenty-four-hour profiles of glucose, insulin, and triglyceride levels.
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Long-term trial extensions suggested that effects were maintained over time. Data on canagliflozin are currently available from only one paper. Costs of the drugs are not known so cost-effectiveness cannot be assessed. More data on safety are needed, with the Food and Drug Administration having concerns about breast and bladder cancers.
Many patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) with inadequate long-term blood glucose control with sulfonylurea or metformin monotherapy require additional treatment. The synergistic effects of combining glipizide with metformin on glucose control may be realized by treating the primary effects of type 2 DM, impaired insulin secretion, and insulin resistance.
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Six well controlled Type 2 diabetics who had received glipizide therapy ranging from 5 mg to 30 mg daily for at least the previous 2 months were studied. On Days 1 and 15 nifedipine 20 mg or placebo respectively were given in a random crossover design after an overnight fast and with the morning dose of glipizide. Nifedipine did not influence the disposition of glipizide since there was no significant alteration in the maximum concentration, time to peak plasma concentration, elimination half-life or area under the curve. Neither did it have a major effect on plasma glucose or insulin although there was an early preprandial decrease in insulin level which reached significance at 1 h only (22.66 v 18.50 mIU/l).
A MEDLINE search (1966-February 2006) was conducted for English-language articles using the terms dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor, incretin, MK-0431, and sitagliptin. Abstracts from the American Diabetes Association annual meetings in 2004 and 2005 were included as sources of data.
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Almost 20% of patients were exposed to a potential drug-drug interaction with a CYP2C9 inhibitor during sulphonylurea treatment. More than 75% of the potential interactions occurred with trimethoprim, metronidazole and fluconazole. When all sulphonylureas were pooled and adjusted for age, gender, ward and sulphonylurea dose, mean and maximum fasting plasma glucose concentrations as well as maximum values of glycosylated haemoglobin were significantly lower during the interaction periods compared with control periods, whereas mean and minimum activities of alanine amino transferase and gamma-glutamyl transferase were higher. The minimum fasting plasma glucose values were more often below the target range in patients with potential interactions. The sulphonylurea dose did not differ significantly between patients who were or were not concomitantly treated with a potentially interacting drug.
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No statistically significant difference in overall mortality risk was observed among the different combinations of sulfonylureas and metformin: glimepiride and metformin vs. glipizide and metformin (HR 1.03; 95% CI 0.89-1.20), glimepiride and metformin vs. glyburide (glibenclamide) and metformin (HR 1.08; 95% CI 0.90-1.30), or with glipizide and metformin vs. glyburide (glibenclamide) and metformin (HR 1.05; 95% CI 0.95-1.15).
The aim of this paper was to report the case of type 2 diabetes and significant insulin resistance that improved dramatically after removal of a pheochromocytoma in a liver transplant recipient , and to provide a review of the relevant literature. We describe the clinical presentation, diagnostic results and management of the patient. In addition, we performed a PubMed search for related English language articles, to provide an overview of the pertinent literature. A 53 year old woman with a history of an orthotopic liver transplantation and insulin-requiring type 2 diabetes was admitted to the hospital with fever, diaphoresis, tachycardia and hypertension. A pheochromocytoma was diagnosed and removed. The patient subsequently developed hypoglycemia and required no further insulin therapy. Pheochromocytomas have been described to lead to hyperglycemia and diabetes, due to the suppression of insulin release and increased insulin resistance. Furthermore, a review of the literature revealed only 3 other reported cases of pheochromocytomas in organ transplant recipients. None of these pheochromocytomas were believed to have occurred de novo after transplantation. This is the first report of a pheochromocytoma in a liver transplant recipient and possibly the first case of a de novo pheochromocytoma in any organ transplant recipient. Moreover, this case showcases pheochromocytomas as a rare cause of diabetes mellitus.
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A system that can deliver multi-drugs at a prolonged rate is very important to the treatment of various chronic diseases such as diabetes, asthma, and heart disease. Two controlled-release systems, which exhibited similar release profiles of metformin and glipizide, i.e., elementary osmotic pump tablets (EOP) and bilayer hydrophilic matrix tablet (BT), were designed. The effects of pH and hydrodynamic conditions on drug release from two formulations were investigated. It was found that both drug releases from EOP were not sensitive to dissolution media pH and hydrodynamics change, while the release of glipizide from BT was influenced by the stirring rate. Moreover, in vivo evaluation was performed, relative to the equivalent dose of conventional metformin tablet and glipizide tablet, by a three-crossover study in six Beagle dogs. Cumulative percent input in vivo was compared to in vitro release profiles. The linear correlations of metformin and glipizide between fraction absorbed in vivo and fraction dissolved in vitro were established for EOP-a true zero-order release formula, whereas only nonlinear correlations were obtained for BT. In conclusion, drug release from EOP was both independent of in vitro and in vivo conditions, where the best sustained release effect was achieved, whereas the in vitro dissolution test employed for BT needed to be further optimized to be biorelevant.
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Oral hypoglycaemic agents and insulin therapy treated patients achieved adequate glycemic control and the effects on circulating and muscle inflammatory biomarkers were similar, but only oral hypoglycaemic agents improved insulin sensitivity, vascular function and carotid intimal media thickness. These findings in a small sample suggest that the use of oral hypoglycaemic agents provides additional benefits to patients with T2DM.
A 49-year-old man with a 1-month history of episodic, severe abdominal pain sought medical attention. The patient's history was remarkable for type II diabetes, for which glipizide therapy had been initiated 2 months earlier. No other medications were being taken at the time the paroxysms of pain began. During the episodes of pain, both examination of the abdomen and abdominal roentgenograms revealed normal findings. Initial assessment, including ultrasonography and computed tomographic scanning of the abdomen, upper gastrointestinal and colon roentgenograms, and esophagogastroduodenoscopy, revealed no cause of the pain. Empiric trials of famotidine, sucralfate, and antacids failed to relieve the pain. Both urine and fecal specimens collected after an attack demonstrated substantially increased coproporphyrins. The glipizide regimen was discontinued; 2 months later, the stool coproporphyrins had decreased to normal levels. At follow-up more than 1 year later, the patient had had no recurrence of abdominal pain. Although other orally administered hypoglycemic agents and other sulfa compounds have been reported to precipitate acute attacks of porphyria, to our knowledge this is the first such case associated with glipizide. We suggest that glipizide be added to the list of medications to be avoided in patients with porphyria.
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A selective stability-indicating HPLC-UV method for simultaneous determination of glipizide and four impurities (DPs I-IV) formed under hydrolytic conditions was developed and validated. The drug and impurities were resolved on an XTerra C18 column (250 x 4.5 mm id) in a single gradient run using buffer (0.005 M KH2PO4; pH 3.0)-methanol (60 + 40, v/v; mobile phase A) and (20 + 80, v/v; mobile phase B) at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min with 230 nm detection wavelength. The method was linear across concentration ranges of 0.2-100, 0.1-100, 0.5-100, 0.2-100, and 0.1-50 microg/mL for glipizide and DPs I-IV, respectively. The RSD for intraday and interday precision for the drug and impurities was < 1 and < 1.2%, respectively. Satisfactory recoveries (96.58-99.97%) of each of the three concentrations selected across the linearity range of each analyte were obtained, proving the method was sufficiently accurate. The LOD was 0.07, 0.05, 0.16, 0.08, and 0.05 microg/mL and the LOQ was 0.20, 0.14, 0.50, 0.23, and 0.14 microg/mL for the drug and DPs I-IV, respectively. Each peak was resolved with resolution of > 2 from the nearest peak. Insignificant changes in retention time (< 4%) and calculated amount (< 1.65%) of drug and each impurity upon small but deliberate changes in various chromatographic parameters were observed, suggesting the method was robust. The method was applied successfully to stability testing of glipizide tablets.
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Our results did not identify an increased mortality risk among the different combinations of sulfonylureas and metformin, suggesting that overall mortality is not substantially influenced by the choice of sulfonylurea.
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Two cross-over studies were carried out in 23 patients with Type 2 diabetes, to examine whether glipizide, a potent sulphonylurea with fast and complete absorption and rapid elimination (t1/2 less than 5 h), can be given once-daily without loss of therapeutic effect. In both studies, patients were randomly assigned to an initial dose of 7.5 mg once daily or 2.5 mg three-times daily, which was increased to 15 mg o.d. or 5 mg t.i.d. if the fasting plasma glucose remained over 10 mmol/l on the lower dosage. In Study 1 (n = 11), administration once a day before breakfast was compared with intake before breakfast, lunch and early dinner (5 p.m.) and in Study 2 (n = 12) the comparison was between intake once-daily before breakfast and dosing before breakfast, lunch, and at bedtime (10 p.m.). Neither the 24-hour urinary glucose excretion nor HbA1, fasting plasma glucose, insulin or C-peptide levels differed between the once and three times daily administration with the third dose given before early dinner. The nadir plasma levels of glipizide were not significantly different and were often too low to be detected. Postponing the third dose until 10 p.m. did not produce any improvement in HbA1 or in fasting plasma glucose, insulin or C-peptide. The mean nadir glipizide levels following this schedule were twice as high as those after once-daily administration. As expected, the plasma glipizide after breakfast was higher when the whole dose was taken before breakfast than when it was divided. The corresponding plasma level of insulin was higher and that of plasma glucose was lower.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Thirty-four adults with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus were randomly assigned to receive either oral glyburide or oral glipizide in a multicenter comparative trial. Fasting blood glucose and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) were assessed at the beginning of the titration phase, the beginning of maintenance therapy, and the end of maintenance therapy. Maintenance therapy lasted approximately 3 months. The initial mean total dose of glyburide (5.4 mg) was significantly lower than that of glipizide (10.6 mg) (P = 0.04) and remained significantly lower at the beginning of maintenance therapy (7.8 mg versus 15.3 mg; P < 0.01) and at the end of the trial (10 mg versus 16.8 mg; P = 0.05). Although significant differences were not detected for fasting blood glucose or HbA1c, patients received higher total doses of glipizide compared with glyburide at the middle and final evaluations to maintain the fasting blood glucose between 3.9 and 10 mmol/L and HbA1c at < 9%. No serious adverse reactions were observed in any patient. These results indicate that doses of glipizide required to maintain blood glucose between 3.9 and 10 mmol/L and HbA1c at < 9% increased over time. Seventy-five percent of patients receiving glyburide were controlled with once-daily dosing compared with 29.4% of those treated with glipizide. Both glyburide and glipizide provide safe and effective treatment for patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, but more patients will benefit from once-daily therapy with glyburide.
A total of 672 patients were randomized. The mean age was 61 years, hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) 7.2%, body mass index 29.5 kg/m(2), and median duration of diabetes 4.8 years. At baseline, approximately half of the participants were receiving oral antidiabetic monotherapy (53.9%) with 27.5% receiving dual combination therapy and 17.9% treated with diet and exercise alone. Approximately two thirds of the participants (68%) had dyslipidemia, 79.9% hypertension, and 24% prior myocardial infarction.
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Using positive controls (acarbose, orlistat, guar gum, atorvastatin, glipizide and metformin) as appropriate, crude aqueous extracts (AEs) of A. capillus-veneris aerial parts were tested via a combination of in vitro enzymatic (0.24-100 mg/mL), acute in vivo carbohydrate tolerance tests (125, 250 or 500 mg/kg body weight [b.wt]) and chronic in vivo studies (500 mg/kg b.wt) in high cholesterol diet (HCD) fed Wistar rats.
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Sulfonylureas like glimepiride, gliquidone and glipizide increased the transcriptional activity of PPARγ. Also, glimepiride was able to reduce the effect of rosiglitazone on PPARγ agonistic activity and glucose uptake. However, the competitive effect does not seem to occur at clinically feasible concentrations.
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CRLA increased the plasma concentration of LA over time in healthy subjects, and CRLA was safe, well tolerated, and effective in reducing plasma fructosamine in patients with type 2 diabetes.