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Concept of Saviryta Avadhi (shelf-life) of Ayurvedic dosage forms is well-defined in classics of Ayurveda. Information on this is scattered in initial classics of Ayurveda like Charaka Samhita, but focused well after 13(th) Century AD in texts such as Vangasena Samhita, Sharangadhara Samhita and Yogaratnakara. Though the concepts have a strong background; considering the pharmaceutical development, a need is felt to re-evaluate the age old concepts by following current norms.
Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia), a medicinal plant used in ayurveda, is well documented for its immunomodulatory properties. Since the crossbred periparturient cow is highly susceptible to various diseases that effectively reduces its reproductive performance postpartum we explored the possibility of enhancing the reproductive performance of crossbred cows by guduchi supplementation peripartum. A total of 15 pregnant Karan Fries cows were selected and divided into two groups: treatment group of 8 cows which were supplemented with guduchi at 60 g/day for 45 days prepartum and 120 g/day for 45 days postpartum and unsupplemented control group of 7 cows. Jugular blood samples were collected from all cows during the periparturient period for analysis of endocrine (progesterone, total estrogens and PGFM), immunological and hematological parameters. Incidence of retention of fetal membranes, endometritis, pyometra and calf mortality were higher in control group of cows in comparison to those recorded in treated group. The guduchi supplemented cows exhibited faster uterine involution (28 days vs. 42 days) and early commencement of cyclicity (37 days vs. 58 days; based on plasma progesterone profiles) in comparison to untreated control group of cows. Mean birth weight of calves from treatment group of cows was significantly higher than those from control group however no significant difference was observed in average daily body weight gain of calves in both the groups. A higher total leukocyte, lymphocyte, neutrophil count along with increased neutrophil lymphocyte ratio was recorded in guduchi supplemented cows in comparison to untreated cows although plasma total antioxidant activity was similar between the two groups. Prepartum plasma progesterone concentration was significantly lowered in the treated group however there was no significant change in peripartum plasma total estrogens and PGFM levels due to guduchi supplementation.
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T. cordifolia extract significantly (p<0.05) increased the response time and decreased the number of writhes in hot plate method and abdominal writhing method respectively, on comparison with the control group.
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For studying the effect of dietary supplementation of guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia) peripartum on lactation an investigation was conducted on 15 pregnant Karan Fries crossbred cows which were divided into two groups: treatment group of eight cows which were supplemented with guduchi at 60 g/day for 45 days prepartum and 120 g/day for 45 days postpartum; control group of seven pregnant cows which were not supplemented with guduchi. Jugular blood samples were collected from all cows during the periparturient period for analysis of various blood cell and plasma parameters. A significantly higher total leukocyte count, lymphocyte count, neutrophil count and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio was recorded in the guduchi supplemented treatment group in comparison to untreated control cows throughout the experimental period. The increase of milk production over 305 days of lactation due to guduchi supplementation was significant (p < 0.05). A significant (p < 0.05) reduction in somatic cell count was also observed during the experimental period. Milk composition (fat, protein, lactose and SNF) was similar (p > 0.05) for both the groups. Plasma non esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations were significantly higher (p < 0.01) in cows supplemented with guduchi throughout the course of study. Plasma concentration of growth hormone in the treated cows was also significantly higher beginning on the day of parturition up to 3 weeks postpartum (p < 0.05) in comparison to unsupplemented group.
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Results of an exploratory trial suggested activity trends of Zingiber officinale-Tinopsora cordifolia (platform combination)-based formulations in the treatment of Osteoarthritis (OA) Knees. These formulations were "platform combination+Withania somnifera+Tribulus terrestris" (formulation B) and "platform combination+Emblica officinale" (formulation C). This paper reports safety of these formulations when used in higher doses (1.5-2 times) along with Sallaki Guggul and Bhallataka Parpati (a Semecarpus anacardium preparation).
The radiosensitizing activity of dichloromethane extract of guduchi [Tinospora cordifolia (WILLD.) MIERS ex HOOK. F. & THOMS. Family: Menispermaceae (TCE)] in the mice transplanted with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) was investigated. The EAC mice received 0, 25, 30, 40, 50 or 100 mg/kg b.wt. TCE 1 h before exposure to 6 Gy hemi-body gamma-radiation and then once daily for another eight consecutive days after irradiation. The EAC mice receiving TCE for the above regimen showed a dose-dependent elevation in tumor-free survival; the highest radiosensitizing activity was observed at 30 mg/kg b. wt. TCE. Treatment of animals with 30 mg/kg b. wt. TCE, 1 h before exposure to 6 Gy of hemi-body gamma irradiation and subsequently once daily for another six consecutive days post-irradiation increased the life span of EAC mice. This is evident by more number of long-term survivors (LTS) as well as survivors beyond 120 days when compared to the group of animals that received TCE after irradiation for six consecutive days. Treatment modality was also altered to assess the radiosensitizing effect of TCE before and after irradiation. Evaluation of glutathione (GSH), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidation (LPx) in mice treated with TCE 1 h before irradiation and subsequently once daily for another six days showed a significant decline in GSH up to 14 h and GST up to 24 h accompanied by a significant elevation in LPx at 12 h post-irradiation. The radiosensitization of TCE may be due to depletion of glutathione and glutathione-S-transferase, accompanied by elevated levels of lipid peroxidation and DNA damage of tumor cells. Since Tinospora cordifolia is being used in India for treatment of various ailments, it may offer an alternative treatment strategy for cancer in combination with gamma radiation.
Traditionally, a number of medicinal plants are used to treat various types of hepatic disorders but few of them were pharmacologically evaluated for their safety and efficacy. The combination of Andrographis paniculata (Kalmegha), Tinospora cordifolia (Guduchi), and Solanum nigrum (Kakmachi) was traditionally used in Indian System of Medicine (Ayurveda) for the treatment of various liver-related disorders.
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Natural products with medicinal value are gradually gaining importance in clinical research due to their well-known property of no side effects as compared to drugs. Tinospora cordifolia commonly named as "Guduchi" is known for its immense application in the treatment of various diseases in the traditional ayurvedic literature. Recently the discovery of active components from the plant and their biological function in disease control has led to active interest in the plant across the globe. Our present study in this review encompasses (i) the genetic diversity of the plant and (ii) active components isolated from the plant and their biological role in disease targeting. The future scope of the review remains in exploiting the biochemical and signaling pathways affected by the compounds isolated from Tinospora so as to enable new and effective formulation in disease eradication.
This signifies that, Bhavana not only incorporates additional therapeutic attributes, but also helpful in increasing shelf-life.
Gamma-irradiation confirms hygienic quality and improves shelf life of food and other products. However, there is a lack of international consensus over considering this as a general application and different regulations are being enforced. EPR is one of the most promising techniques to identify irradiated foodstuffs for regulatory requirements but it has many limitations. Improved approaches based on the EPR technique explained in this study may be useful to identify irradiated products and become beneficial to food regulators and food irradiation enterprises to enhance confidence in irradiation technology.
AIDS is one of the serious global health concerns caused by Human Immuno Deficiency(HIV) virus and is predominantly a sexually transmitted disease. Currently there is no vaccine or cure for AIDS still Anti Retroviral Therapy (ART) is successful. It reduces both the mortality and the morbidity of HIV infection, but is expensive and inaccessible in many countries. However intense the therapy may be, HIV virus is rarely eliminated, and drug resistance is a major setback during long-term therapy. The development of new drugs and strategies and exploring alternative systems of medicine for antiviral herbs or drugs is the need of the age to improve treatment outcomes. Ayurveda describes many diseases which incorporate HIV like illness e.g. Rajayakshma, Ojo Kshaya, Sannipata jwara etc. HIV infection affects multisystems, chiefly the Immune System which can be correlated to Ojo Kshaya. Rasayana Chikitsa is the frontline therapy employed to treat Ojus disorders. Therefore Shilajatu (Mineral pitch), Centella asiatica (Mandukaparni), Tinospora cordifolia (Guduchi) and Emblica officinalis (Amalaki), well known for their Immuno-modulator and antioxidant properties were selected to evaluate their role on immune system. The study was carried on 20 patients from OPD and IPD of Kayachikitsa, S.S.Hospital, IMS, BHU and was randomly allocated into Treated group (Shilajatu+ART) and Control group (ART). Treated Group responded better to ART both clinically and biochemically. The results show that Shilajatu decreases the recurrent resistance of HIV virus to ART and improves the outcome of the therapy.
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Tinospora cordifolia (Thunb.) Miers, Menispermaceae, is a dioecious creeper, commonly known as "Giloe" or "Guduchi" with significant medicinal importance in the traditional systems of medicine. It is designated as Rasayana drug in Ayurveda and recommended for a number of diseases and also as adaptogen and immunomodulator. The safety and efficacy of herbal medicines are closely correlated with the quality of the source materials. The aim of this study is to see the effect of seasons on phytoconstituents and how these vary in male and female stem samples of T. cordifolia. The study revealed that total phenolics and total sugar concentration obtained highest values in summer season while starch and tannin content were found maximum in winter season in both the genders. However, biomarkers, tinosporaside and berberine, reached to their highest concentration in monsoon season. Further, antioxidant potential revealed the highest inhibition percentage in winter season as well as in late summer season. The results of this study suggest that the female plant is best for its therapeutic phytoconstituents and the best harvesting seasons may be either winter or late summer for antioxidant potential and immunomodulator activities and monsoon for antidiabetic activity of T. cordifolia.
Herbal medicines and traditionally used medicinal plants present an untapped potential for novel molecular target discovery using systems science and OMICS biotechnology driven strategies. Since up to 40% of the world's poor people have no access to government health services, traditional and folk medicines are often the only therapeutics available to them. In this vein, North East (NE) India is recognized for its rich bioresources. As part of the Indo-Burma hotspot, it is regarded as an epicenter of biodiversity for several plants having myriad traditional uses, including medicinal use. However, the improvement of these valuable bioresources through molecular breeding strategies, for example, using genic microsatellites or Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) or Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs)-derived SSRs has not been fully utilized in large scale to date. In this study, we identified a total of 47,700 microsatellites from 109,609 ESTs of 11 medicinal plants (pineapple, papaya, noyontara, bitter orange, bermuda brass, ratalu, barbados nut, mango, mulberry, lotus, and guduchi) having proven antidiabetic properties. A total of 58,159 primer pairs were designed for the non-redundant 8060 SSR-positive ESTs and putative functions were assigned to 4483 unique contigs. Among the identified microsatellites, excluding mononucleotide repeats, di-/trinucleotides are predominant, among which repeat motifs of AG/CT and AAG/CTT were most abundant. Similarity search of SSR containing ESTs and antidiabetic gene sequences revealed 11 microsatellites linked to antidiabetic genes in five plants. GO term enrichment analysis revealed a total of 80 enriched GO terms widely distributed in 53 biological processes, 17 molecular functions, and 10 cellular components associated with the 11 markers. The present study therefore provides concrete insights into the frequency and distribution of SSRs in important medicinal resources. The microsatellite markers reported here markedly add to the genetic stock for cross transferability in these plants and the literature on biomarkers and novel drug discovery for common chronic diseases such as diabetes.
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Guduchi has been widely used in the traditional medicine as an immunomodulator. Description of guduchi in Ayurvedic literature resemble with T. sinensis rather than with commonly available T. cordifolia and hence this may be used as substitutes for T. sinensis. T. cordifolia growing on Azadirachta indica commonly called Neem-guduchi has more immunomodulatory potential. Thus, immunomodulatory activity of three Tinospora spp. was assessed by checking humoral and cell mediated immune responses to the antigenic challenges with sheep RBCs and by neutrophil adhesion tests on albino Wistar rats using Guduchi-Satwa, a well known dosage form. Results revealed that Neem-guduchi possesses higher immunomodulatory potential at the dose of 300 mg/kg, po and validated the traditional claim. Hence, Neem-Guduchi can be employed in immunomodulatory formulation prepared using guduchi.
Significant earlier recovery of weakness was observed with Livwin as compared to placebo at 2, 4 and 8 weeks. Serum bilirubin and ALT was observed in normal range in significantly more number of patients with Livwin treatment as compared to placebo at 2, 4 and 8 weeks. AST was observed in normal range in significantly more number of patients with Livwin treatment as compared to placebo at 2 and 4 weeks.
Both the samples are bitter and astringent with characteristic odor. RC is creamish brown in colour, while BRC is dark blackish brown. These Organoleptic characters were unchanged till the 6(th) month of study. On comparision, BRC is found to be more stable than RC.
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To evaluate the analgesic activity of commercially available extract of Guduchi (T. cordifolia).
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Both samples were evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity using carrageenan induced paw edema model in rats. Animals were divided in three groups, having six animals in each. Group A received test drug, Group B received market sample at a dose of 50 mg/kg orally, while Group C (control group) received tap water.
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This study was undertaken to investigate the impact of formulation factors and adjuvants on the expression of biological activity of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers. The adaptogenic effect of three samples of Guduchi ghrita, prepared using plain ghee (clarified butter) obtained from three different sources was studied in albino rats and compared with expressed juice of stem of Guduchi. The test preparations were evaluated against forced-swimming induced hypothermia, gastric ulceration and changes in the hematological parameters. The test drug given in the form of 'ghrita' produced better effect in comparison to the expressed juice. Among the three 'ghrita' preparations evaluated, only the 'Solapur Guduchi ghrita' (SGG) was found to produce significant inhibition of stress hypothermia and gastric ulceration. The other two preparations 'Nanded Guduchi ghrita' (NGG), and 'Wardha Guduchi ghrita' (WGG) could produce only a marginal effect. In hematological parameters 'Guduchi' juice produced better reversal of the stress-induced changes in comparison to the test 'ghrita' preparations. The present study provides evidence highlighting the importance of formulation factors for the expression of biological activity.
Ashwagandha and Guduchi may be helpful in preventing the oxidative stress and premature aging.
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None of the patients reported serious AE or withdrew due to any drug-related toxicity. Mild gut-related (mostly epigastric burning) AE was reported. A mild increase in liver enzymes [serum glutamic pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT)] without any other hepatic abnormality was reported in 2 patients (group IV). Other laboratory parameters remained normal. The mean improvement in active pain visual analog scale (1.4, CI 0.5-2.22), WOMAC (functional activity questionnaire) pain score (1.37, CI 0.22-2.5), and urinary C-TAX (cartilage collagen breakdown product) assay was maximum (NS) in group IV. Lower dose group I showed numerically superior improvement compared with higher dose group II.
The present study evaluated the gastroprotective effect of epoxy clerodane diterpene (ECD), isolated from Tinospora cordifolia on indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Administration of indomethacin exhibits extreme levels of ulcer index (UI) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Indomethacin down regulated PGE2, anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-10) and pro-angiogenic factors (VEGF and EGF). The ECD pretreatment considerably increased the levels of PGE2, anti-inflammatory cytokines and pro-angiogenic factors. The ulcer-healing activity of ECD was inhibited by pre-administration of the specific COX-1 inhibitor (SC560) and nonspecific NOS inhibitor (L-NAME), which indicates the involvement of PGE2 and NOS in ECD induced ulcer healing activity. These findings suggest that ECD exerts its antiulcer activity by reinforcement of defensive elements and diminishing the offensive elements.
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The objective of the present review is to extend the current knowledge, importance and beneficial pharmacological applications of Guduchi in humans for safeguarding various health issues.
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The information presented would be beneficial for researchers, medical professionals and pharmaceutical companies to design and develop effective medicines, drugs and healthical products exploiting the multiple as well as specific modes of actions of T. cordifolia, and also help in promoting and popularizing this rich herb having promising potentials to prevent and treat various ailments.