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Indocin (Indomethacin)

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Indocin is an effective medication which helps to fight with pain or inflammation caused by many conditions such as gout, ankylosing spondylitis, arthritis, bursitis, or tendinitis. Indocin acts by reducing hormones that cause inflammation and pain in the body. It is nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug.

Other names for this medication:

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Also known as:  Indomethacin.


Indocin is a perfect remedy, which helps to fight against pain or inflammation caused by many conditions such as gout, ankylosing spondylitis, arthritis, bursitis, or tendinitis.

Indocin acts by reducing hormones that cause inflammation and pain in the body.

Indocin is also known as Indometacin, Indocid, Inmecin, Indochron E-R, Indocin-SR, Flexin Continus, Indolar, Indomax, Indomod, Pardelprin, Rheumacin, Rimacid, Slo-Indo.

It is nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug.


Shake the liquid form of Indocin before using.

Take Indocin tablets and liquid form orally with water.

Take Indocin once or twice a day at the same time.

Do not crush or chew it.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Indocin suddenly.


If you overdose Indocin and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Indocin overdosage: vomiting, migraine, lightheadedness, confusion, extreme tiredness, feeling of numbness, pricking, burning, creeping on the skin, convulsions, dyspepsia.


Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Indocin are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Indocin if you are allergic to Indocin components.

Do not take Indocin if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Be careful with Indocin if you are taking angiotensin ii receptor antagonists such as candesartan (atacand), eprosartan (teveten), irbesartan (avapro), losartan (cozaar), olmesartan (benicar), telmisartan (micardis), and valsartan (diovan); beta blockers such as atenolol (tenormin), labetalol (normodyne), metoprolol (lopressor, toprol xl), nadolol (corgard), and propranolol (inderal); cyclosporine (neoral, sandimmune); digoxin (lanoxin); diuretics ('water pills') such as triamterene (dyrenium, in dyazide); lithium (eskalith, lithobid); methotrexate (rheumatrex); phenytoin (dilantin); and probenecid (benemid), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ace) inhibitors such as benazepril (lotensin), captopril (capoten), enalapril (vasotec), fosinopril (monopril), lisinopril (prinivil, zestril), moexipril (univasc), perindopril (aceon), quinapril (accupril), ramipril (altace), and trandolapril (mavik).

It can be dangerous to use Indocin if you suffer from or have a history of seizures, parkinson's disease, depression or mental illness, or liver or kidney disease.

Be careful with Indocin if you are planning to use indomethacin suppositories.

Be careful with Indocin if you had proctitis (inflammation of the rectum) or have recently had rectal bleeding, asthma, frequent stuffed or runny nose or nasal polyps (swelling of the lining of the nose).

Avoid alcohol.

Be careful with Indocin if you are going to have a surgery.

Avoid driving machine.

Do not stop take it suddenly.

indocin pill

We investigated the effect of argirein on acute inflammation edema and examined that aquaporin 4 (AQP4), p66Shc and activating transcription factor (ATF-6) might be involved in carrageenan-induced rat paw inflammation and be reversed by argirein, rhein and indometacin, but not L-arginine.

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A prospective, investigator-masked, randomized study was performed in 64 patients scheduled to undergo vitrectomy. The patients were randomized 1:1:1:1 to receive indomethacin 0.5%, bromfenac 0.09%, nepafenac 0.1%, or placebo three times a day. NSAIDs and PGE2 levels were evaluated in vitreous samples collected at the beginning of surgery.

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Current work was conducted to evaluate the vasorelaxant effect of dihydrospinochalcone-A (1) and isocordoin (2), compounds type chalcone isolated from Lonchocarpus xuul, an endemic tree of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Compounds 1 and 2 were found to induce significant relaxant effect in a concentration-dependent manner on aortic rat rings pre-contracted with noradrenaline (NA, 0.1 μM). Compound 1 was the most active and its effect was endothelium-dependent (Emax=79.67% and EC50=21.46 μM with endothelium and Emax=23.58% and EC50=91.8 μM without endothelium, respectively). The functional mechanism of action for 1 was elucidated. Pre-incubation with L-NAME (unspecific nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), indomethacin (unspecific COX inhibitor), ODQ (soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor), atropine (cholinergic receptor antagonist), TEA (unspecific potassium channel blocker) reduced relaxations induced by 1. Oral administration of 50 mg/kg of compound 1 exhibited significant decrease in diastolic and systolic blood pressure in SHR rats. The heart rate was not modified. Compound 1 was docked with a crystal structure of eNOS. Dihydrospinochalcone-A showed calculated affinity with eNOS in the C1 binding pockets, near the catalytic site; Trp449, Trp447 and His373 through aromatic and π-π interactions, also His463 and Arg367 are the residues that make hydrogen bonds with the carbonyl and hydroxyl groups. In conclusion, dihydrospinochalcone-A induces a significant antihypertensive effect due to its direct vasorelaxant action on rat aorta rings, through NO/sCG/PKG pathway and potassium channel opening.

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Preterm infants born at <37 weeks' gestational age were prospectively enrolled within 24 hours of birth. Plasma BNP levels were measured on days 1, 4, and 7. Significant PDA was diagnosed by large ductal flow with left to right shunt on color Doppler echocardiography, along with clinical features of PDA. Following that, hsPDA was treated with indomethacin.

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It was concluded that the extract might act by non-selective inhibition of cyclooxygenase 1 and 2 to decrease plasma PGE(2) concentration.

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ACh is a neurotransmitter in cat esophageal circular muscle, as atropine nearly abolishes contraction of in vitro circular muscle strips in response to electric field stimulation (EFS) (5, 12). Experimental esophagitis reduced EFS- but not ACh-induced contraction of esophageal circular muscle, suggesting that esophagitis impairs neurotransmitter release. Because IL-1beta and IL-6 are produced in esophagitis and reproduce these changes in normal esophageal muscle (12), we examined the role of IL-1beta and IL-6 in this motor dysfunction. IL-1beta, IL-6 (12), H2O2, PGE2, and platelet-activating factor (PAF) were elevated in esophagitis specimens. Normal muscle incubated (2 h) in IL-1beta and IL-6 had increases in H2O2, PGE2, and PAF levels. H2O2 contributed to increased PGE2 and PAF, as the increase was partially (60-80%) reversed by the H2O2 scavenger catalase. EFS-induced [3H]ACh release from muscle strips significantly (42%) decreased in esophagitis and after 2 h incubation in PGE2 and in PAF C-16. Similarly, EFS-induced but not ACh-induced muscle contraction decreased in esophagitis and after incubation in PGE2 and PAF C-16. Finally, in normal muscle strips treated with IL-1beta electrical field stimulation (EFS)-induced contraction was partially restored by indomethacin or by the PAF antagonist CV3988 and was completely restored by the combination of CV3988 and indomethacin, whereas in strips treated with IL-6, EFS-induced contraction was partially restored by the PAF antagonist CV3988 and not affected by indomethacin. We conclude that IL-1beta-induced production of H2O2 causes formation of PGE2 and PAF that inhibit ACh release from esophageal cholinergic neurons without affecting ACh-induced contraction of esophageal circular muscle. IL-6 causes production of H2O2, PAF, and other unidentified inflammatory mediators.

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During the first 6 days of healing, the LI of the non-parietal epithelial cells increases exponentially in the ulcer margin; this is enhanced by gastrin. The unexpected finding in the ulcer rats of decreased LI in undamaged oxyntic and antral epithelium may be caused by a block of the G1 restriction point in the cell cycle. The reason for this remains obscure.

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The two groups were not different with respect to age, gender, ASA class or duration of surgery. When indomethacin was used preoperatively, intraoperative blood loss was 623 +/- 243 mL (mean +/- SD) and postoperative blood loss 410 +/- 340 mL. After meloxicam, these values were 524 +/- 304 mL and 358 +/- 272 mL, respectively. Total perioperative blood loss after meloxicam was 17% (P < 0.05) less than that observed after indomethacin.

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Endothelial injuries induced by different stimuli lead to proliferation of intimal vascular smooth muscle cells with formation of neointima. In this functional study, we evaluated the reactivity to contracting and vasorelaxing agents in Wistar rat carotid artery at different times (1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days) after endothelial denudation with angioplastic balloon technique. Injured (IC) and uninjured carotid artery rings (UC) were placed in an isolated organ bath for isometric force displacement. IC collected at 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days showed a reduction in contraction to phenylephrine (0.3 microM), angiotensin II (0.1 microM), U46619 (0.1 microM), KCl (60 mM) and A23187 (1microM) at any experimental time compared to rings obtained from UC. The evaluation of endothelial-derived relaxing or hyperpolarizing factor (EDRF or EDHF), induced by acetylcholine (0.001-1 microM) in presence of indomethacin (10 microM) or indomethacin and Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) (10 and 100 microM, respectively), was carried out at 14, 21 and 28 days. The EDRF-induced relaxation was significantly (P < 0.0001) reduced at 14 days and it improved through out the observation time, indeed at 28 days it was indistinguishable from UC relaxation curve. In contrast, the EDHF-induced relaxation was significantly (P < 0.0001) reduced at all experimental time. A significant reduction in nitric oxide-induced relaxation, sodium nitroprusside (0.001-10 microM), was observed at 7, 14 and 21 days, but not at 28 days. The relaxation induced by diazoxide (3-300 microM), an opener of KATP channels, was significantly reduced only at 7 days but not at 14, 21 and 28 days. Western blot analysis of myosin heavy chain revealed that up to 28 days the re-differentiation (maturity state) of smooth muscle cells was not yet reached. In conclusion, our data showed that hyporeactivity to contracting and relaxing agents in endothelial denuded carotid of rats could be linked to a multifactorial condition in which reduction of receptors and alterations in post-receptor transductions in neointima may produce modification of protein expression and/or variation in ion flux where calcium could have a pivotal role.

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Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced enteropathy is clinically very important, but the pathological mechanisms remain unclear. Mast cells have been reported to play an important role in the pathogenesis of indomethacin-induced small intestinal injury. In this study, we investigated the role of mast cells in indomethacin-induced small intestinal injury using mast cell deficiency (Ws/Ws) rat.

indocin and alcohol

Forty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to a control group, an untreated alloxan-induced diabetic group and three diabetic groups treated with different doses of GA. Six weeks after induction of diabetes and GA treatment, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations, and the vasodilatory response to histamine of the MVB (measured as changes in perfusion pressure) were determined.

indocin renal dosing

Increased gastrointestinal (GI) permeability is an important hallmark of many conditions, potentially leading to antigen exposure and sepsis. Current permeability tests are hampered by analytical limitations. This study aims to compare the accuracy of our multi-sugar (MS) and the classical dual sugar (DS) test for detection of increased GI permeability.

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The cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2) are membrane-associated, heme-containing homodimers that generate prostaglandin H(2) from arachidonic acid (AA) in the committed step of prostaglandin biogenesis and are the targets for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). N-(2-cyclohexyloxy-4-nitrophenyl) methanesulfonamide (NS-398) was the first in a series of isoform-selective drugs designed to preferentially inhibit COX-2, with the aim of ameliorating many of the toxic gastrointestinal side effects caused by conventional NSAID inhibition. We determined the X-ray crystal structure of murine COX-2 in complex with NS-398 utilizing synchrotron radiation to 3.0A resolution. NS-398 binds in the cyclooxygenase channel in a conformation that is different than that observed for other COX-2-selective inhibitors, such as celecoxib, with no discernible penetration into the side pocket formed in COX-2 by the isoform-specific substitutions of I434V, H513R, and I523V. Instead, the methanesulfonamide moiety of NS-398 interacts with the side chain of Arg-120 at the opening of the cyclooxygenase channel, similar to that observed for acidic, nonselective NSAIDs such as indomethacin and flurbiprofen. Our structure validates inhibitor studies that identified Arg-120 as a molecular determinant for time-dependent inhibition of COX-2 by NS-398.

indocin sr dosage

The lack of effective screening methods and systemic understanding of interaction mechanisms complicates the stabilizer selection process for nanocrystallization. This study focuses on the efficiency of stabilizers with various molecular compositions and structures to stabilize drug nanocrystals.

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In the third month of treatment, joint pain, morning stiffness and sleep disturbance improved. After 8 months, in addition to complete improvement of skin dryness, sleep disturbance and joint pain, range of motion in cervical and lumbar spine were increased. In cervical rotation, distance from the chin to acromion decreased from 24 to 15 cm in right rotation and 20 to 13 cm in left rotation. Additionally, in cervical flexion distance from the chin to sternal notch decreased from 16 to 8 cm after treatment. In the lumbar spine, an increased Schober's index was seen.

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Indomethacin prophylaxis or expectant treatment are common strategies for the prevention or management of symptomatic patent ductus arteriosus (sPDA).

indocin dose

Previously, SAR models for carcinogenesis used descriptors that are essentially chemical descriptors. Herein we report the development of models with the cat-SAR expert system using biological descriptors (i.e., ligand-receptor interactions) rat mammary carcinogens. These new descriptors are derived from the virtual screening for ligand-receptor interactions of carcinogens, non-carcinogens, and mammary carcinogens to a set of 5494 target proteins. Leave-one-out validations of the ligand mammary carcinogen-non-carcinogen model had a concordance between experimental and predicted results of 71%, and the mammary carcinogen-non-mammary carcinogen model was 72% concordant. The development of a hybrid fragment-ligand model improved the concordances to 85 and 83%, respectively. In a separate external validation exercise, hybrid fragment-ligand models had concordances of 81 and 76%. Analyses of example rat mammary carcinogens including the food mutagen and oestrogenic compound PhIP, the herbicide atrazine, and the drug indomethacin; the ligand model identified a number of proteins associated with each compound that had previously been referenced in Medline in conjunction with the test chemical and separately with association to breast cancer. This new modelling approach can enhance model predictivity and help bridge the gap between chemical structure and carcinogenic activity by descriptors that are related to biological targets.

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Local infiltration analgesia (LIA)--using a combination of local anesthetics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and epinephrine, injected periarticularly during surgery-has become popular in postoperative pain management after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We compared intrathecal morphine with LIA after TKA.

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IN SLNs (0.1% w/v) and NLCs (0.8% w/v) were prepared, characterized and evaluated. Their in vitro release and flux profiles across the cornea and sclera-choroid-RPE (trans-SCR) tissues and in vivo ocular tissue distribution were assessed. Furthermore, chitosan chloride (CS) (mol. wt.<200kDa), a cationic and water-soluble penetration enhancer, was used to modify the surface of the SLNs, and its effect was investigated through in vitro transmembrane penetration and in vivo distribution tissue studies.

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Male Spague-Dawley rats, maintained under conventional conditions, were used. Enteritis was induced by systemic indomethacin administration. During the acute phase of inflammation, animals were euthanized and ileal and ceco-colonic changes evaluated. Inflammation was assessed through disease activity parameters (clinical signs, macroscopic/microscopic scores and tissue levels of inflammatory markers). Microbiota (ileal and ceco-colonic) was characterized using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and analysis of 16s rDNA polymorphism. Host-bacterial interactions were assessed evaluating the ratio of bacterial adherence to the intestinal wall (FISH) and expression of TLRs 2 and 4 (RT-PCR).

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Stable mixed hematopoietic chimerism has been consistently established in dogs who were mildly immunosuppressed by 200 cGy of total body irradiation (TBI) before undergoing dog leukocyte antigen (DLA)-identical bone marrow (BM) transplantation and who received a brief course of immunosuppression with mycophenolate mofetil (28 days) and cyclosporine (35 days) after transplantation. However, when TBI was reduced from 200 to 100 cGy, grafts were nearly uniformly rejected within 3-12 weeks. Here, we asked whether stable engraftment could be accomplished after a suboptimal dose of 100 cGy TBI with host immunosuppression enhanced by donor-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) given after transplantation. MSCs were cultured from BM cells and evaluated in vitro for antigen expression. They showed profound immunosuppressive properties in mixed lymphocyte reactions (MLRs) in a cell dose-dependent manner not restricted by DLA. MSC and lymphocyte contact was not required, indicating that immunosuppression was mediated by soluble factors. Prostaglandin E2 was increased in culture supernatant when MSCs were cocultured in MLRs. The addition of indomethacin restored lymphocyte proliferation in cultures containing MSCs. MSCs expressed CD10, CD13, CD29, CD44, CD73/SH-3, CD90/Thy-1, and CD106/VCAM-1. For in vivo studies, MSCs were injected on the day of BM grafting and on day 35, the day of discontinuation of posttransplantation cyclosporine. MSCs derived from the respective BM donors failed to avert BM graft rejection in 4 dogs who received DLA-identical grafts after nonmyeloablative conditioning with 100 cGy TBI in a time course not significantly different from that of control dogs not given MSCs. Although the MSCs displayed in vitro characteristics similar to those reported for MSCs from other species, their immunosuppressive qualities failed to sustain stable BM engraftment in vivo in this canine model.

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indocin alcohol 2016-05-17

The prophylactic use buy indocin online of diclofenac suppositories reduced perineal pain more than the use of indomethacin suppositories, although the difference was not significant. Overall additional analgesia requirement was correspondingly lower in the diclofenac group. There were no significant differences in overall patient satisfaction between the two groups.

indocin purchase 2015-12-04

These data suggest that the Ca-activated, K-channel-mediated, ghrelin-evoked decrease in MAP may be significant in states of endothelial dysfunction associated with reduced buy indocin online nitric oxide availability.

indocin 25 mg 2016-06-28

The assay is simple, reproducible and facilitates rapid screening of inhibitors of PGHS-1. Aspirin (100 microM, 1 mM) caused significant inhibition of spin-adduct formation (72 +/- 11 and 100 +/- 16% inhibition of control respectively; P < 0.05). Indomethacin (100 microM) also abolished the signal (114 +/- 10% inhibition of control; P < 0.01). SA and the PGHS-2-selective inhibitor, NS398, failed to significantly inhibit spin-adduct generation buy indocin online (P > 0.05).

indocin medication 2016-08-21

We recently demonstrated that activation of the pulmonary sensory neurons plays a critical role in prevention of endotoxin-induced shock by releasing calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in rats. CGRP increased the endothelial production of prostacyclin (PGI(2)) in the lungs, thereby preventing endotoxin-induced shock response by inhibiting tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF buy indocin online -alpha) production. Since antithrombin (AT) enhances sensory neuron activation, we hypothesized that AT might reduce endotoxin-induced hypotension by enhancing the activation of pulmonary sensory neurons in rats. We examined this possibility using a rat model of endotoxin shock. AT-induced effects including reduction of hypotension (n = 5) and inhibition of induction of iNOS (n = 4 or 5) and TNF- alpha (n = 5) in the lungs of endotoxin-treated animals were completely reversed by pretreatment with capsazepine (CPZ) (n = 4 or 5), a vanilloid receptor antagonist, or CGRP(8-37), a CGRP receptor antagonist (n = 4 or 5). AT enhanced endotoxin-induced increases in lung tissue levels of CGRP (n = 4), but this effect of AT was not seen in animals pretreated with CPZ (n = 4). CGRP produced therapeutic effects (n = 5) similar to those induced by AT, and such therapeutic effects were completely abrogated by pretreatment with indomethacin (n = 4). AT increased CGRP release from cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons only in the presence of anandamide (n = 5), and AT-induced increase in CGRP release was not observed in the presence KT5720, an inhibitor of protein kinase A (n = 5). AT markedly increased intracellular levels of cAMP in the presence of anandamide (n = 5). These results strongly suggested that AT might reduce endotoxin-induced hypotension in rats by enhancing activation of sensory neurons via activation of protein kinase A.

indocin cost 2016-03-20

This study identifies a possible ADR to indomethacin occurring in postpartum patients. Whether the vulnerability to these neuropsychiatric reactions is randomly distributed or if parturients buy indocin online are at increased risk is yet to be determined. Proposed mechanisms of these side effects include a postpartum dopamine supersensitivity exacerbated by prostaglandin inhibition as well as a structural similarity between serotonin and indomethacin. The severity of the reactions to indomethacin in parturients and the potential for these disturbing psychiatric side effects to compromise the safety of both mother and infant have led to the use of alternative analgesics including different classes of NSAIDs for this population at our institution.

indocin suppository dosage 2015-01-18

The protective effects of telmisartan, the angiotensin II-receptor antagonist, were investigated in rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus exposed to acute gastric ulceration. Following successful induction of diabetes, telmisartan treatment (1 mg/kg/day, orally) was started and continued for 8 weeks, after which acute gastric ulceration was induced by indomethacin. Telmisartan significantly attenuated the hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia in diabetic rats. Also, telmisartan significantly reduced the elevations of total gastric acid output, pepsin activity, gastric ulcer index and gastric mucosal tumor necrosis factor-alpha, nitric oxide, malondialdehyde and caspase-3 activity, and restored the depleted antioxidant buy indocin online defenses (reduced glutathione level, and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities) caused by indomethacin administration in diabetic rats. Histopathological gastric tissue damage induced by indomethacin in diabetic rats was ameliorated by telmisartan treatment. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that telmisartan markedly attenuated the reduction in insulin content of pancreatic islet beta-cells, and prevented the indomethacin-induced overexpression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and nuclear factor-kappaB in gastric mucosa of diabetic rats. It was concluded that telmisartan represents a potential therapeutic option to reduce the risk of gastric ulceration induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in type 2 diabetic patients.

indocin 75 mg 2015-01-03

(1) To determine the current use of treatment options for preterm labour and (2) to review the relative safety and efficacy of each buy indocin online class of tocolytic agent.

indocin dosage chart 2015-08-06

Valerian extracts and valepotriates inhibited uterine contractility in a concentration-dependent manner buy indocin online . Pretreatment with either atenolol or indometacin did not affect the uterine responses to valerian extracts. Valerian extract reduced the maximal contractile response induced by acetylcholine, phenylephrine and histamine independent of the stimulus.

indocin 15 mg 2016-02-11

This study investigated the analgesic and buy indocin online anti-inflammatory properties of three compound derivatives from podophyllotoxin.

indocin reviews 2017-09-29

Most often case-control studies, based on serious GI complications reported in hospitalization statistics are available to compare the gastro-intestinal (GI) safety and tolerability of the various NSAIDs currently on the market. Based on pooled data regarding 5 medicinal products among the most widely used and best documented (ibuprofen, diclofenac, naproxen, indomethacin and piroxicam), the relative result consistency of these studies is striking, thus these 5 NSAIDs may be legitimately classified from the least gastro-toxic (ibuprofen) to the most gastrotoxic (piroxicam). MISSING DATA: But epidemiological survey results may be questioned. Indeed, the volume of prescriptions written, individual dosages and the route of administration are not well documented. Above all, the disease justifying the prescription of an NSAID is buy indocin online never specified. Yet, it is likely that some major anti-inflammatory agents are prescribed more often, at higher doses in patients more seriously and chronically affected, and thus more likely to develop serious gastro-intestinal adverse effects. Data for recently marketed NSAIDs are less comprehensive, with the number of subjects exposed to these new NSAIDs being low, and the validity of the results reported, limited. Regarding currently marketed specific cyclo-oxygenase 2 inhibitors, recent cohort studies demonstrating that the relative risk of ulcer is about half compared to subjects treated with traditional NSAIDs are available.

indocin medication dosage 2016-08-10

Surgical stress causes changes in the composition of white blood cells (WBCs). Ketorolac is believed to have analgesic effects and to reduce the stress response and may therefore improve postoperative outcomes. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of preoperative ketorolac on the WBC subsets in patients who had laparoscopic surgery for endometriosis. Fifty patients who had laparoscopic surgery for endometriosis were randomly assigned to one of two groups: the ketorolac group (n = 25) received ketorolac 0.5 mg/kg before the induction of anesthesia, and the control group (n = 25) received saline. White cell count, differential, and pathology studies were done immediately after surgery, on postoperative day 1, and on postoperative day 3. We compared the baseline values within and between the two groups. We also assessed postoperative pain and side effects. The time that elapsed before the first patient request for analgesia, total meperidine dose and VAS (Visual Analog Scale) for postoperative pain were significantly lower in the ketorolac group than in the control group. Compared to the pre- surgical values, there was an increase in total WBC buy indocin online count and percentage of neutrophils, but a decrease in percentages of lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, and leucocytes. Total WBC count, neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils and leucocytes showed significant differences between the two groups. The incidences of postoperative side effects, such as nausea, dizziness, headache, and shoulder pain were not different between the groups. Preoperative ketorolac reduced postoperative pain and influenced the WBC response in laparoscopic surgery for endometriosis.

indocin er dosage 2017-01-03

In view of the results, the copper and zinc buy indocin online complexes of indomethacin may be used as better substitutes of the parent indomethacin owing to their minimal side effects with additional pharmacological effects.

indocin max dose 2015-12-15

Trefoil factor family peptides are expressed in gastrointestinal epithelial cells and buy indocin online play a critical role in maintaining mucosal integrity. Although non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are important causative agents of gastric mucosal lesions, few data are available about the effect of NSAIDs on trefoil family peptides in gastric mucosa.

indocin drug class 2015-02-07

The effect of arachidonic acid (AA) on intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in human osteoblasts MG63 was studied. AA caused a concentration-dependent increase in [Ca(2+)]i, mainly due to inward Ca(2+) transport from extracellular environment. Moreover, AA in Ca(2+) -free medium produced a small, transient increase of [Ca(2+)]i, indicating that AA may also trigger Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores. Because the [Ca(2+)]i response to AA was inhibited by the cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor indomethacin, we tested the effect of prostaglandins (PGs), products of COX pathway. PGs E1 and E2 caused an increase in [Ca(2+)]i, which, however, was far lower than that obtained with AA. The [Ca(2+)]i response to AA was not inhibited by nifedipine, suggesting that AA did not activate a voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channel. Our results indicate that AA could modulate [Ca(2+)] buy indocin online i in MG63 human osteoblasts, where it may influence Ca(2+) transport across both plasma and endoplasmic membranes. Furthermore, they suggest that osteoblast activity may be modulated by AA.

indocin and alcohol 2016-04-20

Retrospective observational case series. Eighty-two patients underwent evisceration or enucleation surgery by one surgeon over a 2-year period. Fentanyl by intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV-PCA) at 20 µg/kg with 12 mg/kg ondansetron or Lamictal Xr Reviews intravenous ketorolac at 2 mg/kg/day was administered to patients at postoperative days 0, 1, and 2. The pain score was measured using an 11-point visual analog scale (VAS). The incidence of severe nausea requiring anti-emetics and the incidence of vomiting were reviewed.

indocin 25mg suspension 2017-04-18

We performed a retrospective multi-centre double cohort study in preterm infants <32 weeks of gestational age. Thirty-two infants treated with furosemide (1 mg/kg i.v.) before each indomethacin dose (furosemide group) were matched with Zanaflex 6 Mg 32 infants with indomethacin treatment alone (control-group). Renal effects (urine output, weight gain, serum creatinine, sodium concentration) were registered.

indocin buy online 2015-05-18

A retrospective analysis of 1000 hips in 838 patients was conducted to Nolvadex Cheap Uk determine the efficacy of alterations made throughout the series to the prophylactic protocol used to minimize the incidence of heterotopic ossification (HO) after hip resurfacing.

indocin generic table 2015-06-18

The Avodart Drug Interactions synthesis of amorphous materials containing drugs, obtained by sol-gel methods, helps to devise new strategies for controlled drug delivery system design.

indocin gel 2017-12-08

To assess vessel function of mouse aorta, isometric Flagyl Drinking Alcohol force measurements were performed in a Mulvany myograph after cold storage at 4°C for various intervals. Morphologic changes were judged by histologic analysis of aortic cross-sections. To characterize cold storage-induced alterations on RNA levels, microarray analysis with subsequent polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed.

indocin max dosage 2016-08-27

Melatonin is a neurohormone involved in the regulation of both acute and chronic pain whose mechanism is still not completely understood. We have recently demonstrated that selective MT2 melatonin receptor partial agonists have antiallodynic properties in animal models of chronic neuropathic pain by modulating ON/OFF cells of the descending antinociceptive system. Here, we examined the antinociceptive properties of the selective MT2 melatonin receptor partial agonists N-{2-[(3-methoxyphenyl)phenylamino]ethyl}acetamide (UCM765) and N-{2-[(3-bromophenyl)-(4-fluorophenyl)amino]ethyl}acetamide (UCM924) in two animal models of acute and inflammatory pain: the hot-plate and formalin tests. UCM765 and UCM924 (5-40 mg/kg, s.c.) dose-dependently increased the temperature of the first hind paw lick in the hot-plate test, and decreased the total time spent licking the injected hind paw in the formalin test. Antinociceptive effects of UCM765 and UCM924 were maximal at the dose of 20mg/kg. At this dose, the effects of UCM765 and UCM924 were similar to those produced by 200 mg/kg acetaminophen in the hot-plate test, and by 3 mg/kg ketorolac or 150 mg/kg MLT in the formalin test. Notably, antinociceptive effects of the two MT2 partial agonists were blocked by the pre Asacol Reviews -treatment with the MT2 antagonist 4-phenyl-2-propionamidotetralin (4P-PDOT, 10 mg/kg) in both paradigms. These results demonstrate the antinociceptive properties of UCM765 and UCM924 in acute and inflammatory pain models and corroborate the concept that MT2 melatonin receptor may be a novel target for analgesic drug development.

indocin generic name 2017-08-19

Male Wistar rats Chloromycetin Syrup were used.

indocin suspension 2016-11-20

Mannitol is a pharmaceutical excipient that is receiving increased popularity in solid dosage forms. The aim of this study was to provide comparative evaluation on the effect of mannitol concentration on the physicochemical, mechanical, and pharmaceutical properties of lyophilised mannitol. The results showed that the physicochemical, mechanical and pharmaceutical properties of lyophilised mannitol powders are strong functions of mannitol concentration. By decreasing mannitol concentration, the true density, bulk density, cohesivity, flowability, netcharge-to-mass ratio, and relative degree of crystallinity of LM were decreased, whereas the breakability, size distribution, and size homogeneity of lyophilised mannitol particles were increased. The mechanical properties of lyophilised mannitol tablets improved with decreasing mannitol concentration. The use of lyophilised mannitol has profoundly improved the dissolution rate of indomethacin from tablets in comparison to commercial mannitol. This improvement exhibited an increasing trend with decreasing mannitol concentration. In conclusion, mannitols lyophilised from lower concentrations are more desirable in tableting than mannitols from higher concentrations due to their better mechanical and dissolution properties.

indocin pain medication 2016-04-02

Modified Simiaowan (MSW) is frequently prescribed in traditional Chinese medicine and is famous for its efficiency in treating gouty diseases. We investigated the effectiveness of MSW as an anti-gouty inflammation medicine and its mechanism of action in monosodium urate (MSU) crystal-induced gouty rat in vivo and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro.

indocin gout dosage 2015-10-09

Lipopolysaccharide was injected into the vitreous of rabbit eyes to induce inflammation. Treated eyes were injected with 3 mg of ketorolac or 0.3 mg of diclofenac. Twenty-four hours later, total leucocyte concentrations and prostaglandin E2 concentrations were determined. For intraocular pharmacokinetics, 0.1 ml of ketorolac (3 mg) and 0.1 ml of diclofenac (0.3 mg) were injected into rabbit eyes. Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography was used to analyse drug levels within the retina/choroid at 0.25 (15 min), 1, 2, 4, 24, and 48 h after injection.

indocin tablets dosage 2015-11-29

Nucleotide binding to purinergic P2Y receptors contributes to the regulation of a variety of physiological functions in renal epithelial cells. Here, we investigate the regulatory mechanism of the P2Y1 receptor agonist 2-methylthioadenosine diphosphate (2-MeSADP) on Cl- transport in A6 cells, a commonly used model of the distal section of the Xenopus laevis nephron. Protein and mRNA expression analysis together with functional measurements demonstrated the basolateral location of the Xenopus P2Y1 receptor. 2-MeSADP increased intracellular [Ca2+] and cAMP and Cl- efflux, responses that were all inhibited by the specific P2Y1 receptor antagonist MRS 2179. Cl- efflux was also inhibited by the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) blocker glibenclamide. Inhibition of either protein kinase A (PKA) or the binding between A-kinase-anchoring proteins (AKAPs) and the regulatory PKA RII subunit blocked the 2-MeSADP-induced activation of CFTR, suggesting that PKA mediates P2Y1 receptor regulation of CFTR through one or more AKAPs. Further, the truncation of the PDZ1 domain of the scaffolding protein Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor-2 (NHERF-2) inhibited 2-MeSADP-dependent stimulation of Cl- efflux, suggesting the involvement of this scaffolding protein. Activation or inhibition of PKC had no effect per se on basal Cl- efflux but potentiated or reduced the 2-MeSADP-dependent stimulation of Cl- efflux, respectively. These data suggest that the X laevis P2Y1 receptor in A6 cells can increase both cAMP/PKA and Ca2+/PKC intracellular levels and that the PKC pathway is involved in CFTR activation via potentiation of the PKA pathway.

indocin overdose 2017-06-25

The pD(2) values for compounds were as follows: 5.88 for capsaicinoids, 5.40 for atropine , 2.23 for cimetidine, 3.33 for ranitidine, 3.77 for famotidine and 3.97 for omeprazole. α - value results for compounds were: 0.76 for capsaicinoids, and 1.00 for atropine, cimetidine, ranitidine, famotidine and omeprazole all equal to 1.00 on gastric acid basal secretion. The pD(2) values on indomethacin-induced gastric mucosal microbleeding were found as follows: 6.00 for capsaicinoids, 5.50 for atropine, and 3.50 for cimetidine, meanwhile α-values resulted 0.76 for capsaicinoids, 1.00 for atropine and cimetidine.

indocin tablets 2015-07-31

80 ASA I patients, scheduled for major gynecological surgery, were randomly assigned to 2 groups: group A patients were connected after surgical incision with a 24h analgesic infusor (2 ml/h) containing morphine (0.02 mg/kg/h) and Ketorolac (90 mg). Group B patients were connected after surgical incision with a 24h analgesic infusor (2 ml/h) containing morphine (0.02 mg/kg/h) at first and Ketorolac was then given in bolus after surgical incision and then every 8 hours for the first 24 hours. Post-operative pain scores were assessed using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) every 8 hours for 24 h. For a VAS value greater than 6, patients received Tramadol 100 mg.

indocin 50mg capsules 2017-10-06

Taking into consideration that mechanisms involved in the vasodilatator actions of angiotensin II have not yet been completely elucidated, the present study was undertaken in order to examine the mechanisms underlying the angiotensin II-induced relaxation of rat renal artery (RRA). Angiotensin II produced concentration-dependent and endothelium-independent relaxation of isolated RRA. Angiotensin II-induced relaxation was partially reduced by inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase and guanylyl cyclase. The remaining dilatation was inhibited by a potassium channel blocker, charybdotoxin. Precontraction of RRA with high concentration of K(+) partially reduced angiotensin II-evoked relaxation, while indomethacin, glibenclamide, apamin and barium did not alter the angiotensin II concentration-response curve. Losartan had no effect on angiotensin II effect. Oppositely, HOE 140 and PD123319, separately or in combination, partially antagonized vasorelaxation induced by angiotensin II. Complete blockade of RRA response was obtained after simultaneous incubation of all three receptor antagonists HOE-140, PD123319, and losartan; L-NOARG plus HOE-140; or PD123319 plus charybdotoxin. These results indicate that angiotensin II produces endothelium-independent relaxation of RRA, which is most probably mediated by the interaction of the NO-cGMP pathway and K(+) channels. Moreover, we can assume that AT(1), AT(2), and B(2) receptors are involved in the vasorelaxant effect of angiotensin II.