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From March 2008 to September 2009, the Combining Medications to Enhance Depression Outcomes study, a single-blind, 7-month randomized trial, enrolled outpatients with nonpsychotic chronic and/or recurrent major depressive disorder (DSM-IV-TR criteria) in primary and psychiatric care (N = 665). Participants received escitalopram plus placebo, bupropion sustained release (SR) plus escitalopram, or venlafaxine extended release (XR) plus mirtazapine. The primary outcome measure for this report is presence of suicidal ideation assessed by the Concise Health Risk Tracking Self-Report, which measures suicidal ideation and behaviors over the last 24 hours. Sociodemographic and clinical features were compared in those with versus without baseline ideation. At 4, 12, and 28 weeks, treatment effects on suicidality were assessed, and unadjusted and adjusted outcomes were compared among those with and without baseline ideation using linear, logistic, ordinal logistic, and negative binomial regression models.
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Selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), including fluoxetine, sertraline, paroxetine, fluvoxamine, and citalopram, represent an important advance in the pharmacotherapy of mood and other disorders. They are chemically unrelated to tricyclic, heterocyclic, and other first-generation antidepressants. SSRIs are the treatment of choice for many indications, including major depression, dysthymia, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, eating disorders, and premenstrual dysphoric disorder, because of their efficacy, good side-effect profile, tolerability, and safety in overdose, as well as patient compliance. A review of the literature was conducted using Medline and the terms "SSRIs," "fluoxetine," "sertraline," "paroxetine," "fluvoxamine," and "citalopram." Articles were limited to those published in English within the last 15 years. The search revealed that indications for antidepressants include unipolar depression, dysthymia, bipolar depression, treatment-resistant depression, depression in the medically ill, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, eating disorders, social phobia, and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. One SSRI, fluoxetine, has demonstrated safety in pregnancy. Side effects of SSRIs include gastrointestinal disturbances, headache, sedation, insomnia, activation, weight gain, impaired memory, excessive perspiration, paresthesia, and sexual dysfunction.
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Performing multicenter and prospective studies is warranted to assess the real clinical as well as economic impacts of DDIs on HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral agents in our population and also to develop efficient preventive strategies.
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Escitalopram (ESC) is considered one of the most effective selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) for the treatment of major depression disorder. However, little is known on its potential risk of inducing major malformations (MM) and/or perinatal complications (PC). Aim of the present study is to provide a review of the available literature on the safety profile of ESC during pregnancy and breastfeeding and to compare data with the maternal and neonatal outcomes of 8 cases of the DEGRA Center.
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In total, 37,598 patients presented 392,524 prescriptions during 1992-1997. The 1-year prevalence rose from 2.1% to 4.1% in 1997 and the incidence was 1.3% in 1997. The 1-year prevalence increased with age up to 16.5% in 1997 for patients aged 90 years or older. Citalopram was the most-used AD, but there were still a considerable number of patients commencing treatment with TCAs in 1997. Median duration of treatment courses was 196 days for TCAs versus 120 days for SSRIs (P < 0.0001). Duration of treatment courses increased with age. The proportion of users presenting only one prescription was 22% for the SSRIs versus 33% for tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs).
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The present analysis evaluates the prevalence and medication use in inpatients with depression during childhood and adolescence at the KinderAGATE hospitals in 2010. Also discussed are age and sex distribution.
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Depressed patients with DM and depressed patients without DM appear to have similar rates of MDD remission, indicating that a diagnosis of DM per se has no impact on MDD remission. The findings of fewer side effects and psychiatric serious adverse events in participants with DM imply that depressed patients with DM may be excellent candidates for more aggressive SSRI dosing. This lower prevalence of side effects reported by depressed participants with DM warrants further exploration.
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Raw data from placebo-controlled studies (conducted from 2002 through the end of 2004) of escitalopram in patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for MDD and anxiety disorders (generalized anxiety disorder [GAD], social anxiety disorder [SAD], panic disorder) were used. Potential predictors examined were type of disorder, location of study, dosing regimen, number of treatment arms, gender of patients, and duration and severity of disorder.
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There were 97 patients with abnormal bleeding and 137 matched controls; 10 bleeders (cases) were on SAds (7 citalopram, 3 paroxetine) while only 1 nonbleeder (control group) was on a SAd (low-dose sertraline, 25 mg/day). SAds were significantly associated with increased bleeding risk (10.3% versus 0.7%, Fisher's Exact p = 0.001). Moreover, after adjusting for confounding factors (age, type of biopsy, size of biopsy, needle caliber, pathology result and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, multivariate logistic regression confirmed that SAds were associated with elevated bleeding risk (16.2, 95% confidence interval 1.87-140.1, p = 0.01).
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The study was carried out to quantify the excretion of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor paroxetine in breast milk.
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It is well documented that N-methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) releases brain serotonin (5-HT; 5-hydroxytryptamine), noradrenaline (NE; norepinephrine), and dopamine, but the consequent effect on brain functioning remains elusive. In this study, we characterized the effects of MDMA on electrically evoked responses in the ventral CA1 region of a rat hippocampal slice preparation. Superfusion with MDMA (10 microM, 30 min) increased the population spike amplitude (PSA) by 48.9+/-31.2% and decreased population spike latency (PSL) by 103+/-139 mus (both: mean+/-SD, n=123; p<0.0001, Wilcoxon test), without affecting field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP). This effect persisted for at least 1 h after MDMA washout; we have called this EPSP-spike potentiation (ESP) by MDMA, ESP MDMA. Antagonism of GABAergic transmission did not prevent ESP MDMA, suggesting that an increase in excitability of pyramidal cells underlies this MDMA action. Block of serotonin transporter (SERT) with citalopram or 5-HT depletion with (+/-)-p-chlorophenylalanine pretreatment partially inhibited the ESP MDMA. Block of both SERT and NE transporter prevented ESP MDMA, indicating its dependence on release of both 5-HT and NE. ESP MDMA is produced by simultaneous activation of 5-HT4 and beta1 receptors, with a predominant role of 5-HT4 receptors. Block of both 5-HT4 and beta1 receptors revealed an inhibitory component of the MDMA action mediated by 5-HT1A receptor. The concentration range of MDMA which produced ESP MDMA (1-30 microM) corresponds to that commonly reached in human plasma following the ingestion of psychoactive MDMA doses, suggesting that release of both 5-HT and NE, and consequent ESP MDMA may underlie some of the psychoactive effects of MDMA in humans.
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This study's limitations include its short observational period and definition of switching for non-medical reasons.
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Twelve healthy male volunteers received a 10-day regimen of rasagiline 1mg daily, followed by concomitant rasagiline 1mg and escitalopram 10mg daily for 7 days.
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Simultaneous relief of the pain from body and brain remains an ongoing challenge. The aim of the present study was to clarify whether plant-derived isoflavone puerarin could ameliorate comorbid depression and pain. We investigated the effects of puerarin on depressive-like behaviors and neuropathic pain in C57BL/6 N mice with spared nerve injury (SNI). After SNI surgery, mice were allowed to recover spontaneously for 7 days and subsequently treated with puerarin, anti-depressant citalopram, and analgesic ibuprofen, alone or in combination, for 8 or 14 days. Forced swim test and tail suspension test were used to assess depressive-like behaviors, whereas von Frey filament test was used to estimate the sensitivity to the mechanical stimulation. Our results suggested that puerarin effectively ameliorated depression and pain in SNI mice although citalopram exhibited anti-depressant activity. In contrast, ibuprofen showed lesser activities against SNI-induced depression and pain. Further mechanistic studies revealed the uniqueness of puerarin as follows: (1) puerarin did not recover SNI-induced depletion of reduced glutathione and loss of superoxide dismutase (SOD), whereas citalopram and ibuprofen showed somewhat antioxidant activities; (2) puerarin markedly promoted the activation of CREB pathway although puerarin and citalopram activated ERK pathway to the same extent; (3) puerarin rapidly and persistently induced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression whereas citalopram only induced BDNF expression after a prolonged stimulation. Collectively, these results suggest that puerarin may ameliorate the SNI-induced depression and pain via activating ERK, CREB, and BDNF pathways. Puerarin may serve as new lead compound for the development of novel therapeutics for depression and pain comorbidity.
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Because of the enormous gap between premarketing studies in physically healthy subjects and clinical practice in patients, the present study reconsidered interindividual variability factors affecting risperidone concentrations under routine therapeutic drug monitoring conditions. The study included 92 patients, 27% of whom were 70 years or older. The patients received risperidone orally (dose range, 0.5-11 mg per day) and had concentrations of risperidone and the active metabolite 9-hydroxyrisperidone measured at steady state by a new, rapid, and sensitive method of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). After normalization to a dose of 4 mg/day, median concentrations were 2.9 ng/ml (80% range, 0.9-27.9 ng/ml) for the parent compound and 24.1 ng/ml (80% range, 12.0-57.6 ng/ml) for the metabolite. When considering linear regression models, age was identified as a major source of interindividual variability, with expected increases of 340% and 220% for concentrations of parent compound and metabolite, with age increasing from 20 to 80 years. Body weight provided an additional significant contribution to the variability of 9-hydroxyrisperidone concentration, a 20-kg higher body weight associated with a concentration decrease of 23%. Serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) comedication (fluoxetine, two patients; citalopram, two patients; paroxetine, one patient; fluvoxamine, one patient) was significantly associated with 4.6-fold higher concentrations of parent compound, in keeping with an inhibitory action on CYP2D6 enzyme. Significantly higher concentrations of 9-hydroxy-risperidone (+ 29%) were also observed in the 17 patients with biperiden comedication. Therapeutic drug monitoring data, collected in patients representative of the population for which the drug was intended, allowed us to quantify the dose reduction needed in elderly patients and thus provided valuable information in addition to the one collected during premarketing studies performed with strict inclusion and exclusion criteria.
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Thirteen patients dropped-out, thus 19 patients received citalopram and 20 remained in the control group. After 3 months of treatment, the citalopram group showed a decrease on BDI and SCL-90 Depression subscale and an improvement of baseline obsessive compulsive features on SCL-90, EDI-2 impulsiveness and Trait-anger on STAXI. Weight gain was similar in the two groups.
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It remains unclear regarding the contribution of each individual symptom in predicting the outcome in major depressive disorder (MDD). The objective of this analysis was to evaluate trajectories of individual symptoms over time to identify which specific depressive item(s) could predict subsequent clinical response.
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Eighteen studies (n=2152, duration=9.83 weeks) in patients with unipolar depression (studies=4, n=187; monotherapy vs lithium=1, augmentation of antidepressants vs placebo=3) or bipolar depression (studies=14, n=1965; monotherapy vs placebo=5, monotherapy vs lithium or olanzapine+fluoxetine=2, augmentation of antidepressants vs placebo=1, augmentation of mood stabilizers vs placebo=3, augmentation of mood stabilizers vs trancylpromine, citalopram, or inositol=3) were meta-analyzed. Lamotrigine's efficacy for depressive symptoms did not differ significantly in monotherapy vs augmentation studies (vs. placebo: p=0.98, I2=0%; vs active agents: p=0.48, I2=0%) or in unipolar vs bipolar patients (vs placebo: p=0.60, I2=0%), allowing pooling of each placebo-controlled and active-controlled trials. Lamotrigine outperformed placebo regarding depressive symptoms (studies=11, n=713 vs n=696; SMD=-0.15, 95% CI=-0.27, -0.02, p=0.02, heterogeneity: p=0.24) and response (after removing one extreme outlier; RR=1.42, 95% CI=1.13-1.78; p=0.003, heterogeneity: p=0.08). Conversely, lamotrigine did not differ regarding efficacy on depressive symptoms, response, or remission from lithium, olanzapine+fluoxetine, citalopram, or inositol (studies=6, n=306 vs n=318, p-values=0.85-0.92). Adverse effects and all-cause/specific-cause discontinuation were similar across all comparisons.
Rats were treated chronically (22 days) or subchronically (9 days) with the SSRI citalopram (10 mg/kg/day) before extinction training. The results were compared with those after chronic and subchronic treatment with tianeptine (10 mg/kg/day), an antidepressant with a different method of action. The expression of the NR2B subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor in the amygdala was examined after behavioral testing.
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Fifty-five patients were included in this analysis. For patients with high citalopram serum concentrations (>50 ng/mL), the mean duration of hospitalization was 49 ± 20 days, and it was 72 ± 37 days (P = 0.03) in the group with low drug concentrations (<50 ng/mL). Considering daily costs for hospitalization of 250€,;, the potential savings amounted to 5750€,; per patient for the 23 days. Assuming that 11% of the variation of duration of hospitalization per patient were attributed to the serum concentration of the drug, the resulting savings were 633€,; per patient. Considering the officially listed price of 21€,; per TDM assay, total costs for weekly measurements over a period of 10 weeks of hospitalization were 210€,;. In the groups with high and low serum concentrations, daily costs for citalopram medication were 3.00 ± 0.80€,; and 2.42 ± 0.70€,;, respectively (P = 0.002), and the mean number of comedications was nearly identical, that is, 1.87 ± 1.74 and 1.81 ± 1.86 drugs, respectively (P = 0.919).
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1. The effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) uptake inhibitors, agonists and antagonists have been evaluated on mouse marble-burying behaviour, a putative test for anxiolytic agents. The high levels of locomotor activity occurring on first exposure to a circular runway (runway were used as a separate test of non-specific drug effects. 2. Fluvoxamine, zimeldine, indalpine and citalopram dose-dependently inhibited burying without affecting runway activity. 5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP, with carbidopa), 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine, 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin (8-OHDPAT), buspirione, gepirone and ipsapirone reduced burying only at doses reducing runway activity. RU 24969 increased runway activity at all effective doses. 1-(2,5-Dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI), 1,-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl) piperazine (TFMPP) and 1-(3-chlorophenyl)-piperazine (mCPP) potently and differentially reduced burying at doses below those affecting runway activity. 3. 5-HT antagonists only reduced burying at high doses which also reduced runway activity. Burying inhibition by DOI was antagonized by ritanserin, ICI 169,369 and cyproheptadine but not by pindolol or a low (0.25 mg kg-1) dose of metergoline. Burying inhibition by mCPP was not altered by any of these agents except that it was potentiated by pindolol 5 mg kg-1. 4. Zimeldine burying inhibition was potentiated by ritanserine, ICI 169,369, ICS 205-930, cyproheptadine and pindolol. Runway activity was not affected by these drug combinations. 5. Zimeldine was administered in drinking water at a dose of 10 mg kg-1 daily for 21 days. Burying inhibition had disappeared by day 14 and did not recur 24 or 48h after withdrawal at which times responses to DOI were at control levels.6. Selective inhibition of marble burying was not found to be a property of 5-HT-related putative and actual anxiolytics such as buspirone, gepirone, ipsapirone, ritanserin and ondansetron. Nevertheless it was a general property of both 5-HT uptake inhibitors and 5-HT releasing agents; this generality suggests that elevated synaptic 5-HT could be responsible for the effects of these latter agents. The action of DOI may be attributable to effects at the 5-HT2 receptor but those of the 5-HT agonist and releasing agent mCPP, and the uptake inhibitor zimeldine, could not be attributed to effects at any one 5-HT receptor subtype. This, together with the potentiating effect of several 5-HT antagonists on the response to zimeldine, raises the possibility of multiple interactions between 5-HT receptor subtypes.
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An oligodendrocyte-enriched culture was incubated with the antidepressant drugs, amitriptyline, desipramine, mianserin and citalopram, in a concentration of 3 X 10(-6) M for 24 h and 14 days. The activity of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), pyruvate carboxylase (PC) and the incorporation of [3H]thymidine was measured. An increase in both the incorporation of [3H]thymidine into DNA and the activities of G3PDH and PC was observed. However, LDH activity decreased after a 2-week incubation. The above results indicate that the antidepressant drugs change the metabolism of glial cells.
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A 35-year-old caucasian woman who suffered from major depression with marked psychomotor symptoms was treated with a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI), citalopram. After 16 months successful treatment, the medication was gradually discontinued. One week after stopping citalopram, she experienced lowered mood and unnatural slowness in her movements. These symptoms were associated with low striatal dopamine (DA) activity as measured with baseline and follow-up [(18)F]DOPA PET scans. We suggest that stimulation of serotonergic system in the brain increases dopaminergic activity in the striatum. After cessation of this stimulation, striatal dopaminergic activity may decrease considerably in vulnerable patients and cause transient emotional and psychomotor discontinuation symptoms that disappear spontaneously in a few weeks.
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In this population of children and adolescents, treatment with citalopram reduced depressive symptoms to a significantly greater extent than placebo treatment and was well tolerated.
The effect of aging on steady-state plasma concentrations of citalopram (CIT) and desmethylcitalopram (DCIT) was investigated in 128 depressive patients treated with 10-80 mg/day CIT. They were separated into three groups, with age up to 64 years (mean age+/-S.D.: 47+/-12 years; n=48), between 65 and 79 years (72+/-1 years; n=57), and from 80 years or older (84+/-1 years; n=23). Body mass index (BMI), renal and hepatic functions were similar in the three groups. A large interindividual variability of plasma levels of CIT (16-fold) and DCIT (12-fold) was measured for a given dose. The mean plasma levels of CIT corrected for a 20 mg daily dose were 55% higher in the very elderly (>=80 years) patients (65+/-30 ng/ml; p<0.001) and 38% higher in the elderly (65-79 years) patients (58+/-24 ng/ml; p<0.001) when compared to the adult patients (42+/-17 ng/ml). DCIT mean plasma level was 38% higher (p<0.05) in the group of very elderly patients (22+/-10 ng/ml) when compared to the adult patients (16+/-9 ng/ml). As a consequence, the mean plasma concentration of CIT+DCIT was 48% higher in the very elderly patients (86+/-36 ng/ml; p<0.001) and 33% higher in the elderly patients (77+/-28 ng/ml; p<0.001) when compared to the adult patients (58+/-21 ng/ml). Age correlated significantly with CIT (r=0.43, p<0.001), DCIT (r=0.28, p<0.01), and CIT+DCIT plasma levels (r=0.44, p<0.001), and thus accounts for 18% of the variability of CIT plasma levels, with no influence of gender. The recommended dose reduction of CIT in elderly patients seems therefore justified.
Lycanthropy is an unusual belief or delusion that one has been transformed into an animal, or behaviors or feelings suggestive of such a belief. We report a case of lycanthropic delusions of becoming a snake in a 47-year-old woman who suffered from a major depressive disorder with psychotic features. We also present a literature review of articles published on the subject in English or French since 1975 identified via a MedLine search using the terms "lycanthropy" or "werewolf." Many case reports have described lycanthropy as a delusional disorder occurring acutely in patients who think they suffer from a demonic possession as a punishment for their acts. In these cases, symptoms are generally rapidly reversible. Lycanthropy seems to be a nonspecific manifestation of many psychiatric diseases, most commonly major depressive disorder with psychotic features. It is largely influenced by the cultural environment of the patient so that the animal species frequently represents the patient's delusional representation of evil. Lycanthropy could be considered a culture-bound syndrome that occurs in association with Axis I, DSM-IV psychiatric pathology.
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[¹²³I] mZIENT demonstrates good test-retest reproducibility; and initial displacement studies suggest that this compound is highly selective for SERT. Overall, this radioligand has favorable characteristics for use in drug development studies and/or longitudinal studies interrogating SERT.