Of 120,613 older people dispensed a thiazide diuretic, 32,372 (26.8%) were dispensed a low dose. Patients 85 years of age or older, relative to the youngest group, were 30% more likely to be dispensed low-dose therapy (OR=1.31; 95% CI, 1.27 to 1.36; P < .001). Women were 8% more likely than men to be dispensed a low-dose thiazide diuretic (OR=1.08; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.11; P < .001). Of 10,991 myocardial infarction survivors dispensed atenolol, metoprolol, propranolol, or timolol, 9458 (86.1%) were dispensed a lower-than-evaluated dose. Patients 85 years of age or older, relative to those in the youngest group, were more than twice as likely to be dispensed a lower-than-evaluated beta-blocker therapy dose (OR=2.28; 95% CI, 1.74 to 3.04; P < .001). No difference was noted in the use of beta-blocker therapy dose by sex (OR=1.0; 95% CI, .89 to 1.15; P = .95).
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The aim of study was to propose an approach to the control of dynamics of autonomic dysfunction in cardiovascular system (CVS) under antihypertensive treatment (AT) in patients with arterial hypertension (AH), based on individual features of synchronization of 0.1-Hz rhythms in heart rate (HR) and photoplethysmogram (PPG) and spectral indices of heart rate variability (HRV).
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Interstitial fluid resorption was obtained by lowering intracapillary hydrostatic pressure, by preserving normal colloid osmotic pressure, and by maintaining a normovolemic (normal albumin/serum and hemoglobin/serum), not overtransfused patient. Intracapillary pressure was reduced by the combination of precapillary vasoconstriction (low-dose thiopental, dihydroergotamine) and reduction of mean arterial pressure, the latter attained with a beta1-antagonist (metoprolol 0.2 to 0.3 mg/kg/24 hrs iv) and an alpha2-agonist (clonidine 0.4 to 0.8 microg/kg x 4 to 6 iv). Clonidine, in combination with normovolemia, also improves microcirculation by reducing catecholamines in plasma. Intracranial blood volume was reduced by arterial (low-dose thiopental sodium and dihydroergotamine) and large-vein (dihydroergotamine) vasoconstriction. The start dose of dihydroergotamine (maximum 0.9 microg/kg/hr) was successively reduced toward discontinuation within 4 to 5 days.
To attain goal blood pressure (BP), many hypertensive patients require combination antihypertensive therapy. Thiazide diuretic/beta-blocker regimens lower BP, and clinical studies indicate that they reduce the risk for cardiovascular consequences of hypertension. Fixed-dose combination tablets can simplify multidrug treatment regimens.
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To examine characteristics of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of enalapril and metoprolol in hypertensive patients with gastrointestinal diseases to make relevant corrections in the treatment.
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Studies have demonstrated an influence of dosage release formulations on drug interactions and enantiomeric plasma concentrations. Metoprolol is a commonly used beta-adrenergic antagonist metabolized by CYP2D6. The CYP2D6 inhibitor paroxetine has previously been shown to interact with metoprolol tartrate. This open-label, randomized, 4-phase crossover study assessed the potential differential effects of paroxetine on stereoselective pharmacokinetics of immediate-release (IR) tartrate and extended-release (ER) succinate metoprolol formulations. Ten healthy participants received metoprolol IR (50 mg) and ER (100 mg) with and without paroxetine coadministration. Blood samples were collected over 24 hours for determination of metoprolol plasma enantiomer concentrations. Paroxetine coadministration significantly increased S and R metoprolol area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 to the 24-hour blood draw (AUC(0-24h)) by 4- and 5-fold, respectively for IR, and 3- and 4-fold, respectively, for ER. S/R AUC ratios significantly decreased. These results demonstrate a pharmacokinetic interaction between paroxetine and both formulations of metoprolol. The interaction is greater with R metoprolol, and stereoselective metabolism is lost. This could theoretically result in greater beta-blockade and lost cardioselectivity. The magnitude of the interaction was similar between metoprolol formulations, which may be attributable to low doses/drug input rates employed.
Since beta-adrenoceptor blocking drugs were originally discovered and shown to be important therapeutic agents in the management of both angina pectoris and hypertension, many other similar drugs have become available. These share the common property of beta-adrenoceptor antagonism, though they may vary in terms of potency. However, they differ from one another in terms of their additional pharmacological properties--cardioselectivity, partial agonist activity, and membrane stabilizing activity. Cardioselectivity refers to the ability of some drugs, notably atenolol and metoprolol, to block beta 1 receptors without blocking beta 2 receptors. This has been considered to be of potential importance in patients with obstructive airways disease, patients with peripheral vascular disease, and patients with insulin-dependent diabetes during hypoglycemic crisis. Partial agonist activity is the intrinsic activity that some drugs have to stimulate the beta adrenoceptor while they are competitively antagonizing catecholamines. In consequence, they may have less effect on resting heart rate, cardiac output, peripheral vascular blood flow, and resting respiratory function. However, there is no good evidence that major adverse effects of beta-adrenoceptor blocking drugs such as congestive heart failure, bronchospasm, or symptoms of peripheral vascular disease are prevented by drugs with partial agonist activity: bradycardia may be improved, but its importance has probably been overemphasized. Membrane-stabilizing activity appears to be unimportant. As far as pharmacokinetic differences between drugs are concerned, lipid solubility is seen to be of increasing importance. The more water-soluble drugs have longer elimination half-lives, produce less interindividual variation in steady-state plasma concentrations, and penetrate the central nervous system less readily.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a beta-blocker (atenolol and metoprolol) on exercise heart rate (HR) and rate pressure product (RPP) during a morning and afternoon maximal exercise test (maxET) in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Twenty-one CHD patients (59.9 +/- 8.9 years of age) treated with either atenolol or metoprolol participated in this study. All subjects underwent a morning and afternoon symptom-limited maximal exercise test (maxET) 2-3 h and 8-10 h after medication intake. No significant differences in exercise capacity (atenolol: 8.3 +/- 1.9 vs. 8.3 +/- 2.1 metabolic equivalents (METs); metoprolol: 8.8 +/- 2.0 vs. 8.7 +/- 2.0 METs) or rate of perceived exertion (atenolol: 7.4 +/- 1.9 vs. 7.4 +/- 1.7 METs; metoprolol: 7.2 +/- 1.5 vs. 6.8 +/- 0.9 METs) were observed between the 2 maxETs in either group. However, there was a discrepancy in cardiovascular and ischemic responses between morning and afternoon maxET. Subjects treated with atenolol demonstrated better overall control of HR and RPP during the afternoon maxET. The difference between morning and afternoon HRmax (11 +/- 8 vs. 19 +/- 9 beats.min-1; p = 0.05) was significantly higher in the metoprolol group, but did not attain significance for RPP (31 +/- 30 vs. 54 +/- 28 mmHg.beats.min-1.10-2; p = 0.09). Also, nearly one quarter of our subjects who had a normal morning maxET demonstrated an abnormal electrocardiogram response and (or) ischemia when exercise testing was done in the late afternoon. These changes were more prevalent in subjects taking metoprolol. The results of this study suggest that there is considerable time-of-day variation in the cardiovascular response to a maxET in CHD patients treated with a beta-blocker.
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Why are a few drugs with properties beyond the rule of 5 (bRo5) absorbed across the intestinal mucosa while most other bRo5 compounds are not? Are such exceptional bRo5 compounds exclusively taken up by carrier-mediated transport or are they able to permeate the lipid bilayer (passive lipoidal diffusion)? Our experimental data with liposomes indicate that tetracycline, which violates one rule of the Ro5, and rifampicin, violating three of the rules, significantly permeate a phospholipid bilayer with kinetics similar to labetalol and metoprolol, respectively. Published data from experimental work and molecular dynamics simulations suggest that the formation of intramolecular H-bonds and the possibility to adopt an elongated shape besides the presence of a significant fraction of net neutral species facilitate lipid bilayer permeation. As an alternative to lipid bilayer permeation, carrier proteins can be targeted to improve absorption, with the potential drawbacks of drug-drug interactions and non-linear pharmacokinetics.
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By unidirectionally affecting the vasomotor function of the endothelium, ivabradine in combination with perindopril versus metoprolol has a more favorable effect on circulatory resistance and blood flow velocity in the brachiocephalic arteries of patients with CHD and AH.
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The prophylactic effect of flunarizine and metoprolol was studied in a multi-center randomized, double-blind trial of 149 patients with migraine with or without aura. After a 4-week placebo run-in period, patients were randomly allocated to treatment with flunarizine 10 mg daily or metoprolol 200 mg daily for 16 weeks (parallel group design). Both drugs reduced the number of migraine days per month by 37% (95% confidence interval 21-53%) compared with the placebo run-in period. All efficacy parameters were significantly reduced by both drugs and no significant difference was found between the two drugs at any time of the treatment period. However, calculation of the 95% confidence limits showed that each drug may have a superiority of more than 100% on a single main effect parameter. The most common adverse experiences were day-time sedation (both drugs) and weight gain (flunarizine). Depression was the most serious side-effect occurring in 8% on flunarizine and 3% on metoprolol. We conclude that both drugs are effective in the prevention of migraine attacks but a higher number of dropouts occurred on flunarizine because of depression or weight gain.
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Atrial fibrillation (AFIB) is the most common complication following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Despite three decades of recognition, efforts to reduce the high incidence reported (15%-30%) have been largely unsuccessful. Reasons for postoperative AFIB are likely multifactorial. As a result, we defined a multidrug prophylaxis based on agents known to be individually effective. This method was applied prospectively to a series of consecutive CABG patients with the goal of reducing the incidence of new-onset postoperative AFIB.
Antihypertensive drugs may have differential, pressure-independent effects on hypertension-associated alterations of arterial function. We compared the effects of a 12-week therapy with the AT(1)-receptor antagonist valsartan (Val) versus the beta-blocker metoprolol (Met) on arterial stiffness and endothelial function in mildly hypertensive patients at rest and during generalized sympathetic stimulation.
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There were positive effects on left ventricular function in the metoprolol group as well as in the captopril group. Metoprolol reduced left ventricular filling pressure at rest and increased stroke volume both at rest and during exercise significantly more than captopril.
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Many hypotensive episodes in the ICU are drug related and require treatment. A substantial portion of these episodes result from errors and are therefore preventable. This presents opportunities to improve prescribing including optimizing drug dosing to avoid possible patient harm from drug-induced hypotension.
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The Glycemic Effect in Diabetes Mellitus: Carvedilol-Metoprolol Comparison in Hypertensives (GEMINI) trial compared the metabolic effects of two beta-blockers in people with type 2 diabetes and hypertension treated with renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade and found differences in metabolic outcomes. In this paper, we report the results of a prespecified secondary analysis of GEMINI that sought to determine the effect of these two beta-blockers on commonly reported symptoms.
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Thirty-three conscious, chronically instrumented dogs with pacing-induced (240 min(-1) for 4 weeks) dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) were randomized to carvedilol (25 mg twice daily, Coreg, Glaxo Smith Kline, Research Triangle, North Carolina) or metoprolol succinate (100 mg qd, Toprol XL, Astra Zeneca, Wilmington, Delaware). Left ventricular and systemic hemodynamics, myocardial substrate uptake, and norepinephrine spillover were measured before and after three days of treatment. Regional (renal, hepatic, skeletal muscle) blood flows were measured using neutron-activated microspheres.
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Aortic valve regurgitation (AR) imposes a severe volume overload to the left ventricle (LV), which results in dilation, eccentric hypertrophy, and eventually loss of function. Little is known about the impact of AR on LV gene expression. We, therefore, conducted a gene expression profiling study in the LV of rats with acute and severe AR. We identified 64 genes that were specifically upregulated and 29 that were downregulated out of 21,910 genes after 2 wk. Of the upregulated genes, a good proportion was related to the extracellular matrix. We subsequently studied a subset of 19 genes by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) to see if the modulation seen in the LV after 2 wk persisted in the chronic phase (after 6 and 12 mo) and found that it did persist. Knowing that the adrenergic and renin-angiotensin systems are overactivated in our animal model, we were interested to see if blocking those systems using metoprolol (25 mg.kg(-1).day(-1)) and captopril (100 mg.kg(-1).day(-1)) would alter the expression of some upregulated LV genes in AR rats after 6 mo. By qRT-PCR, we observed that upregulations of LV mRNA levels encoding for procollagens type I and III, fibronectin, atrial natriuretic peptide, transforming growth factor-beta(2), and connective tissue growth factor were totally or partially reversed by this treatment. These observations provide a molecular rationale for a medical strategy aiming these systems in the medical treatment of AR and expand the paradigm in the study of this form of LV volume overload.
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Deviation from the intended exposure and proportion of intended exposure achieved by the patient are valid adherence measures for immediate-release metoprolol and are associated with health care utilization. The potential utility of these measures for other beta-adrenergic antagonists and perhaps other cardiovascular drugs should be investigated.
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It was developed a pellets formulation that release in vitro the metoprolol tartrate in an extended mode, with Korsmeyer-Peppas kinetic-type.
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Thirty-eight studies were selected. Eighteen were excluded. Eleven preventive drugs were compared with placebo in a total of 15 studies. Drug-drug comparisons were made in just six studies. For only four drugs (L-5-hydroxytryptophan [L-5HTP], flunarizine, clonidine, and propranolol) were two or more studies selected. For only six drugs (trazodone, L-5HTP, propranolol, flunarizine, papaverine, and nimodipine) were data reported for effect on frequency. For no individual drug were comparable data reported in more than one study, thus meta-analysis was not possible. Two placebo-controlled studies showed a beneficial effect on the primary outcome measure, headache frequency. They were for the drugs propranolol and flunarizine. The propranolol study reported a dichotomous outcome (proportion of children responding), and it was possible to calculate a number-needed-to-treat to produce a two-thirds reduction in headache frequency (NNT = 1.5, 95%CI 1.15 to 2.1). The flunarizine study produced a SMD of 1.51 (95% confidence interval, -2.21 to -0.82), which was statistically significant in favour of flunarizine (p < 0.001). Nimodipine, timolol, papaverine, pizotifen, trazodone, L-5HTP, clonidine, metoclopramide, and domperidone showed no efficacy in reduction of frequency of attacks. The available studies on cyproheptadine, phenobarbitone, phenytoin, amitriptyline, carbamazepine, metoprolol, and piracetam were excluded for various reasons.
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of evaluating cardiac function by real time three-dimensional (RT3D) echocardiography in isoflurane-anesthetized male cynomolgus monkeys. Additionally differences between inhibitory effects of beta-blockers and a Ca channel blocker on left ventricular (LV) function were examined.
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At the end of COMET, the Steering Committee recommended that study medication was stopped without unblinding, and patients were commenced on open-label beta-blockade at a dose equivalent to half the dose of blinded therapy, with subsequent titration to target or maximum tolerated dose. Patients were followed for 30 days.
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Apart from the treatment of migraine attacks, prophylaxis may be required when certain criteria of frequency, duration, or severity are met. In a series of placebo-controlled, double-blind studies, the effectiveness of the cerebral calcium antagonist flunarizine (Sibelium) in migraine prophylaxis was shown. In further investigations, the effectiveness of flunarizine was similar to that of propranolol, metoprolol, pizotifene, and methysergide. The side effects described for treatment with flunarizine were somnolence, weight gain, and, in rare cases, depressive mood and extrapyramidal motor disorders. Considering the benefit/risk relation, flunarizine and the beta-adrenergic agents propranolol and metoprolol are now regarded as the drugs of choice. The mechanism of action of flunarizine in migraine prophylaxis is largely unexplained, but the antihypoxic effect of flunarizine is discussed in this context. The search for predicting factors for a successful treatment with flunarizine and the investigation of an injectable solution for the treatment of acute migraine attacks must be left to future research.
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ER metoprolol succinate therapy provides substantial mortality and morbidity benefits in patients with New York Heart Association class II and III heart failure who are stabilized on angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and diuretics. ER metoprolol succinate is administered once daily, is well tolerated, and provides consistent beta(1)-blockade over the 24-hour dosing interval.
Metoprolol can improve haemodynamics in chronic heart failure, but survival benefit has not been proven. We investigated whether metoprolol controlled release/extended release (CR/XL) once daily, in addition to standard therapy, would lower mortality in patients with decreased ejection fraction and symptoms of heart failure.