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Minipress (Prazosin)

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Minipress is an effective strong preparation which is taken in treatment of hypertension diseases. Minipress is also helpful in treatment of male prostate enlargement symptoms, congestive heart failure, Raynaud's disease. Minipress acts as anti-hypertension remedy.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Lisinopril, Amlodipine, Norvasc, Benicar, Metoprolol, Hydrochlorothiazide, Avapro, Losartan


Also known as:  Prazosin.


Minipress is created by pharmacy specialists to combat hypertension disease. Target of Minipress is to control level of blood pressure.

Minipress acts as anti-hypertension remedy. Minipress operates by reducing blood pressure.

Minipress is also known as Prazosin, Prazopress, Vasoflex, Hypovase.

Minipress is alpha blocker.

Generic name of Minipress is Prazosin (oral).

Brand name of Minipress is Minipress.


You should take it by mouth with water.

It is better to take Minipress 2-3 times a day at the same time with meals or milk.

It is better to start the first Minipress dose when are going to bed.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Minipress suddenly.


If you overdose Minipress and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Minipress overdosage: feeling lightheaded, rash, weakness, troublesome breathing, pruritus, swelling.


Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children in a container that small children cannot open.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Minipress are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Minipress if you are allergic to Minipress components.

Be careful with Minipress if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Be careful with Minipress if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement.

Be careful with Minipress if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances.

Be careful with Minipress if you have liver or kidney disease, heart failure, low blood pressure, narcolepsy, prostate cancer.

Be careful with Minipress if you take muscle relaxants as carisoprodol; anti-anxiety drugs as diazepam; anti-seizure drugs as carbamazepine; tranquilizers; sleep medicines as sedatives; antihistamines as diphenhydramine; verapamil; psychiatric medicines as tricyclic antidepressants (amitriptyline), phenothiazines (chlorpromazine); sexual function problems drugs as vardenafil, sildenafil, tadalafil; narcotic pain relievers as codeine; beta blockers as metoprolol, propranolol, atenolol.

Avoid machine driving.

Use Minipress with great care in case you want to undergo an operation (dental or any other).

Avoid alcohol.

Minipress can be not safety for elderly people.

Try to be careful with sunbeams. Minipress makes skin sensitive to sunlight. Protect skin from the sun.

Do not stop taking Minipress suddenly.

minipress user reviews

Pharmacological inhibition of the potassium channel Kv1.3 has been shown to selectively kill B cells from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL). Here we aimed to biophysically characterize and compare Kv1.3 channel activity in B cells isolated either from healthy subjects or patients and investigated the mechanism accounting for the increased protein expression in B-CLL cells.

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Heart rate increasingly is being recognized either as an independent risk factor for a wide variety of cardiovascular disorders or as a surrogate marker for them. We analyzed the changes in heart rate associated with antihypertensive therapy with six drugs and placebo from the VA Cooperative Study on Single-Drug Therapy. These results were published previously (American Journal of Hypertension 1998;11:597-601). This paper provides a summary of the earlier publication with the addition of three figures not previously published. Atenolol had the greatest effect on heart rate reduction, followed by clonidine and diltiazem-SR. Hydrochlorothiazide and captopril were associated with small reductions in heart rate over time, whereas prazosin increased heart rate. Patients whose blood pressure was controlled by placebo had a 3.1 beats/min reduction of heart rate at 2 years. When the baseline heart rate was 65 beats/min or less, all drugs increased the heart rate except for atenolol, which further reduced it. Although it is clear that each of the six drugs used in our study had a different effect on heart rate, we cannot state that drug-induced reduction in heart rate per se confers a decrease in cardiovascular risk.

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To examine the influence of the autonomic nervous system on ultradian and circadian rhythms of blood pressure, heart rate and baroreflex sensitivity of heart rate (BRS) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR).

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Alzheimer disease features amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide deposition in brain and blood vessels and is associated with hypertension. Aβ peptide can cause vasoconstriction and endothelial dysfunction. We observed that Aβ peptides exert a chronotropic effect in neonatal cardiomyocytes, similar to α1-adrenergic receptor autoantibodies that we described earlier. Recently, it was shown that α1-adrenergic receptor could impair blood-brain flow. We hypothesized that Aβ peptides might elicit a signal transduction pathway in vascular cells, induced by α1-adrenergic receptor activation. Aβ (25-35) and Aβ (10-35) induced a positive chronotropic effect in the cardiac contraction assay (28.75±1.15 and 29.40±0.98 bpm), which was attenuated by α1-adrenergic receptor blockers (urapidil, 1.53±1.17 bpm; prazosin, 0.30±0.96 bpm). Both Aβ peptides induced an intracellular calcium release in vascular smooth muscle cells. Chronotropic activity and calcium response elicited by Aβ (25-35) were blocked with peptides corresponding to the first extracellular loop of the α1-adrenergic receptor. We observed an induction of extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation by Aβ (25-35) in Chinese hamster ovary cells overexpressing α1-adrenergic receptor, vascular smooth muscle cells, and cardiomyocytes. We generated an activation-state-sensitive α1-adrenergic receptor antibody and visualized activation of the α1-adrenergic receptor by Aβ peptide. Aβ (25-35) induced vasoconstriction of mouse aortic rings and in coronary arteries in Langendorff-perfused rat hearts that resulted in decreased coronary flow. Both effects could be reversed by α1-adrenergic receptor blockade. Our data are relevant to the association between Alzheimer disease and hypertension. They may explain impairment of vascular responses by Aβ and could have therapeutic implications.

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The alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonist UK14,304 caused low-maximum constriction that was inhibited by rauwolscine (3 x 10(-8) M) but not by the selective alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin (10(-7) M). Concentration-effect curves to phenylephrine, cirazoline or noradrenaline were unaffected by rauwolscine but were inhibited by prazosin, which was more effective at high compared with low levels of constriction. In the presence of prazosin, rauwolscine inhibited the curves and was more effective at low compared with high levels of constriction. Although rauwolscine alone did not affect concentration-effect curves to phenylephrine, noradrenaline or cirazoline, it caused marked transient dilation when administered during constriction to these agonists. Dilation was mimicked by another alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist (RX821002, 3 x 10(-8) M), was dependent on agonist selectivity, and did not occur during adrenoceptor-independent constriction (U46619). During constriction to UK14,304 plus U46619, rauwolscine or rapid removal of UK14,304 caused transient dilation that virtually abolished the combined constriction. Endothelial denudation reduced these dilator responses.

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The present study investigated NE involvement in the discriminative-stimulus effects of methamphetamine.

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Significant reductions in BMI, HbA(1c), FPG and PPG compared with baseline were observed after 6 months in both groups (p < 0.05). A significant decrease in FPI was obtained after 6 months (p < 0.05) in the doxazosin group compared with baseline, and this difference was also significant (p < 0.05) compared with the placebo group. Similarly, a significant decrease in HOMA-index was observed at 6 months (p < 0.05) compared with baseline in the doxazosin group, and this difference was also significant (p < 0.05) compared with the placebo group. Significant decreases in TC, LDL-C, HDL-C and TG (p < 0.05) were observed in the doxazosin group after 6 months compared with baseline values. Significant decreases in SBP and DBP were also observed at 3 months in the doxazosin group compared with baseline (p < 0.05), and these differences were significant (p < 0.05) compared with placebo. Furthermore, significant decreases in SBP and DBP were observed at 6 months (p < 0.01) in the doxazosin group compared with baseline, and these differences were also significant (p < 0.01) compared with placebo. All patients who completed an OGTT at 6 months (96 patients) were restored to normal glucose tolerance status.

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Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a phenomenon that is often associated with decreased intracellular drug accumulation in the tumor cells of a patient, resulting from enhanced drug efflux. It is often related to the overexpression of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) on the surface of tumor cells, thereby reducing drug cytotoxicity. In this study, curcumin was tested for its potential ability to modulate the expression and function of Pgp in the multidrug-resistant human cervical carcinoma cell line KB-V1. Western blot analysis and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed that treatment with 1, 5, and 10 microM curcumin for up to 72hr was able to significantly lower Pgp expression in KB-V1 cells. Curcumin (1-10 microM) decreased Pgp expression in a concentration-dependent manner and was also found to have the same effect on MDR1 mRNA levels. The effect of curcumin on Pgp function was demonstrated by rhodamine 123 (Rh123) accumulation and efflux in Pgp-expressing KB-V1 cells. Curcumin increased Rh123 accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner (1-55 microM) and inhibited the efflux of Rh123 from these cells, but did not affect the efflux of Rh123 from the wild-type drug-sensitive KB-3-1 cells. Treatment of drug-resistant KB-V1 cells with curcumin increased their sensitivity to vinblastine, which was consistent with an increased intracellular accumulation of Rh123. In addition, curcumin inhibited verapamil-stimulated ATPase activity and the photoaffinity labeling of Pgp with the prazosin analog [125I]iodoarylazidoprazosin in a concentration-dependent manner, demonstrating that curcumin interacts directly with the transporter. Thus, curcumin seems to be able to modulate the in vitro expression and function of Pgp in multidrug-resistant human KB-V1 cells. In summary, this study describes the duel modulation of MDR1 expression and Pgp function by the phytochemical curcumin, which may be an attractive new agent for the chemosensitization of cancer cells.

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N-[5-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2yl)-2-hydroxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro naphthalen-1-yl] methanesulfonamide hydrobromide (A-61603) is a novel and potent alpha-adrenoceptor agonist. In radioligand binding assays, the compound is at least 35-fold more potent at alpha 1A/a receptors than at alpha 1b or alpha 1d sites. In fibroblast cells transfected with alpha 1a receptors, A-61603 more potently stimulates phosphoinositide hydrolysis than norepinephrine, and is antagonized by prazosin. A-61603 is less potent in cells transfected with alpha 1b or alpha 1d receptors. A-61603 is a potent agonist at alpha 1A receptors in rat vas deferens (200- to 300-fold more potent than norepinephrine or phenylephrine, respectively) and in isolated canine prostate strips (130- to 165-fold more potent than norepinephrine or phenylephrine, respectively). In contrast, A-61603 is only 40-fold more potent than phenylephrine at alpha 1B sites in rat spleen and 35-fold less potent at rat aortic, alpha 1D sites. In an in vivo dog model, A-61603 raises intraurethral prostatic tone to a greater extent than mean arterial blood pressure. A-61603 induces a pressor response in conscious rats at doses 50- to 100-fold lower than phenylephrine, and the response is not attenuated by pretreatment with CEC, whereas YM-617 causes a 100-fold shift in the response. These results indicate that A-61603 is a potent adrenergic agonist, selective for alpha 1A/a receptors, and may prove a useful probe for studies of adrenergic function and alpha 1 adrenoceptor regulation of physiological functions.

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Changes in alpha1-adrenoceptor (alpha1AR) gene expression in the rat liver during different phases of sepsis were studied. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Septic rats exhibit two metabolically distinct phases: an initial hyperglycemic phase (9 h after CLP, early sepsis) followed by a hypoglycemic phase (18 h after CLP; late sepsis). The [3H]prazosin binding studies show that the density of alpha1AR was increased by 30% during the early phase while it was decreased by 24% during the late phase of sepsis. Western blot analyses reveal that alpha1AR protein level was elevated by 48% during early sepsis but was decreased by 55% during late sepsis. Northern blot analyses depict that the steady-state level of alpha1bAR mRNA was enhanced by 21% during the early phase but was declined by 29% during the late phase of sepsis. Nuclear run-off assays show that the transcription rate of alpha1bAR gene transcript was increased by 76% during early sepsis while it was decreased by 29% during late sepsis. The actinomycin D pulse-chase studies indicate that the half-life of alpha1bAR mRNA remained unaffected during the early and the late phases of sepsis. These findings demonstrate that during the early phase of sepsis, the increase in the rate of transcription of alpha1bAR gene paralleled with the elevations in the alpha1bAR mRNA abundance and alpha1AR protein level, while during the late phase of sepsis, the decrease in the rate of transcription of alpha1bAR gene coincided with the declines in the alpha1bAR mRNA abundance and the alpha1AR protein level in the rat liver. These observations indicate that the altered expression of alpha1AR genes in the rat liver during the progression of sepsis was regulated transcriptionally.

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The forced swimming test (FST) model of depression, plasma ghrelin measurement, and in vivo and in vitro measurements of GI motility were used.

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A role for phospholipase C hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2] as a mechanism of alpha 2-adrenergic signal transduction in rabbit tracheal epithelial cells (tracheocytes) was investigated in isolated cells grown in in vitro culture and prelabeled with myo-[3H]inositol (3 microCi/ml) for 72 h. Breakdown of polyphosphoinositides was measured by using thin-layer chromatography to detect phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate [PtdIns(4)P], and PtdIns(4,5)P2. Inositol phosphates were separated by ion-exchange column chromatography. The endogenous catecholamine l-epinephrine and alpha 2-adrenergic agonists clonidine and 1-(2,6-dichlorobenzylideneamino)guanidine (guanabenz) produced a rapid transient accumulation of inositol trisphosphate and inositol 4,5-bisphosphate and breakdown of [PtdIns(4)P] and PtdIns(4,5)P2. The alpha 2-adrenergic effects were not blocked by the beta-adrenergic antagonist DL-propranolol or by the alpha 1-adrenergic antagonists prazosin and methylurapidil but were inhibited by pertussis toxin and blocked by yohimbine, an alpha 2-adrenergic antagonist. The 50% effective concentration for guanabenz-stimulated inositol trisphosphate generation was right shifted from 0.3 to 0.9 microM by yohimbine. The results provide the first demonstration of alpha 2A-adrenergic activation of pertussis toxin-sensitive PtdIns(4,5)P2-dependent phospholipase C in mammalian tracheocytes. The findings are consistent with previous observations on alpha 2A-adrenergic-mediated activation of NaCl cotransport in these cells.

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Doxazosin GITS and doxazosin were effective in reducing clinic and ambulatory blood pressure. The GITS formulation reduced the need for dose titration. Both doxazosin formulations were well tolerated.

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NBF-LFME (1.0 x 10(-5) to 3.0mg/ml) was found to be the most potent to concentration-dependently relax the endothelium-intact phenyephrine (PE, 1 microM)- and high K(+) (80 mM)-precontracted rat aortic rings. Removal of the endothelium completely abolished the vascular relaxing properties of NBF-LFME. Pretreatment with atropine (1 microM), L-NAME (10 microM), indomethacin (10 microM) and methylene blue (10 microM) significantly blocked NBF-LFME-mediated relaxation. Endothelium-dependent and -independent relaxations induced by acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP), respectively, were significantly enhanced in aortic rings pretreated with NBF-LFME when compared to those observed in control aortic rings. On the contrary, glibenclamide (10 microM), propranolol (1 microM) and prazosin (0.01 microM) did not alter NBF-LFME-induced relaxation.

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In this study, the stereoselective pharmacokinetics of doxazosin enantiomers and their pharmacokinetic interaction were studied in rats. Enantiomer concentrations in plasma were measured using chiral high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection after oral or intravenous administration of (-)-(R)-doxazosin 3.0 mg/kg, (+)-(S)-doxazosin 3.0 mg/kg, and rac-doxazosin 6.0 mg/kg. AUC values of (+)-(S)-doxazosin were always larger than those of (-)-(R)-doxazosin, regardless of oral or intravenous administration. The maximum plasma concentration (Cmax ) value of (-)-(R)-doxazosin after oral administration was significantly higher when given alone (110.5 ± 46.4 ng/mL) versus in racemate (53.2 ± 19.7 ng/mL), whereas the Cmax value of (+)-(S)-doxazosin did not change significantly. The area under the curve (AUC) and Cmax values for (+)-(S)-doxazosin after intravenous administration were significantly lower, and its Cl value significantly higher, when given alone versus in racemate. We speculate that (-)-(R)-doxazosin increases (+)-(S)-doxazosin exposure probably by inhibiting the elimination of (+)-(S)-doxazosin, and the enantiomers may be competitively absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. In conclusion, doxazosin pharmacokinetics are substantially stereospecific and enantiomer-enantiomer interaction occurs after rac-administration.

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Mechanisms of the positive inotropic response to alpha(1)-adrenergic stimulation in the heart remain poorly understood, but recent evidence in rat papillary muscle suggests an important role of regulatory myosin light chain (MLC2) phosphorylation. This study investigated alpha(1)-adrenergic contractile effects and the role of MLC kinase (MLCK)-dependent phosphorylation of MLC2 in human atrial muscle strips.

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Even though the erythroleukemia cell lines K562 and HEL do not express α1-adrenoceptors, some α1-adrenergic drugs influence both survival and differentiation of these cell lines. Since Ca2+ is closely related to cellular homeostasis, we examined the capacity of α1-adrenergic drugs to modulate the intracellular Ca2+ content in K562 cells. Because of morphological alterations of mitochondria following α1-adrenergic agonist treatment, we also scrutinized mitochondrial functions. In order to visualize the non-adrenoceptor binding site(s) of α1-adrenergic drugs in erythroleukemia cells, we evaluated the application of the fluorescent α1-adrenergic antagonist BODIPY® FL-Prazosin. We discovered that the α1-adrenergic agonists naphazoline, oxymetazoline and also the α1-adrenergic antagonist benoxathian are able to raise the intracellular Ca2+-content in K562 cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that naphazoline treatment induces ROS-formation as well as an increase in Δψm in K562 cells. Using BODIPY® FL-Prazosin we were able to visualize the non-adrenoceptor binding site(s) of α1-adrenergic drugs in erythroleukemia cells. Interestingly, the SERCA-inhibitor thapsigargin appears to interfere with the binding of BODIPY® FL-Prazosin. Our data suggest that the effects of α1-adrenergic drugs on erythroleukemia cells are mediated by a thapsigargin sensitive binding site, which controls the fate of erythroleukemia cells towards differentiation, senescence and cell death through modulation of intracellular Ca2+.

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The anticonvulsant (AC drug)- or ethanol (EtOH)-modified effects of cardiovascular (CV) drugs against cocaine (COCA)-induced toxicity were examined in male ICR mice. Nontoxic doses of the CV drugs nimodipine (NIMO), prazosin (PRA), phentolamine (PHEN), propranolol (PRO), and enalapril (ENA) were used with or without the AC drugs diazepam (DZP), phenobarbital (PHB), phenytoin (PHY), and EtOH. Each CV drug combined with or without each AC drug was administered intraperitoneally (IP) 5 min before an IP injection of COCA 75 mg/kg. Of the CV drugs examined, PRA 5 mg/kg and PHEN 5 mg/kg protected against COCA-induced seizures, but only the alpha1-adrenergic blocking agent PRA protected against COCA-induced deaths. Of the AC drugs examined, DZP 5 mg/kg and PHB 50 mg/kg, as well as EtOH 3 g/kg, attenuated the severity of the COCA-induced seizures, but only PHB protected against COCA-induced deaths. The total mortality rate was significantly, often synergistically, decreased compared to the COCA-only group when the appropriate CV drugs were combined with the AC drugs: PRA 5 mg/kg in the EtOH-cotreated groups, PRA 5 mg/kg, PHEN 5 mg/kg or ENA 10 mg/kg in the DZP-cotreated groups, and NIMO 5 mg/kg, PRA 5 mg/kg, PHEN 5 mg/kg, or PRO 10 mg/kg in the PHB-cotreated groups. The decrease in the COCA concentration in the blood and/or brain was not always accompanied by an attenuation of the mortality rate. However, the attenuation of severe seizures by a single PRA, PHEN, DZP, or PHB cotreatment was accompanied by a decrease in the brain COCA concentration.

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Male albino mice were pretreated with monoaminergic or cholinergic receptor antagonists, L-arginine or N(G)-nitro-L-arginine (nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) (at doses reported to block the in vivo effect of the agonists), 15 min before oral administration of CF (100 mg/kg), 1 h later, the forced swim test (FST) in mice was carried out.

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During a 7-week study period, 530 prescriptions were collected. All except 14 patients received antihypertensive drugs with 262 (50.8%) on monotherapy and 254 (49.2%) on combination therapy. Calcium channel blocking agents and beta-adrenoceptor blocking agents were the two most popular antihypertensive drugs used in both monotherapy (38% and 31%, respectively) and combination therapy (27% and 33%, respectively). Forty-nine patients (19%) received three antihypertensive drugs or more. The number of antihypertensive drugs showed a significant positive correlation with the duration of attendance at the clinic (r=0.88, P < 0.001). Of the total 530 prescriptions, 5.6% and 10% contained antidiabetic drugs and lipid-lowering agents, respectively. Calcium channel blocking agents, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and lipid lowering agents, accounted for 82% (HK$211,654; pounds sterling 1 approximately HK$12) of the total drug expenditure (HK$258,115). Seventy-nine percent of the lipid lowering agents prescribed were hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase inhibitors. Amlodipine accounted for 26% of usage but contributed to 41% of the overall costs of calcium channel blocking agents. Alpha1-adrenoceptor blocking agents were only used infrequently and were the most expensive class of drugs, due to the preferred use of doxazosin rather than prazosin which is far cheaper than the former.

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We investigated the fluctuations which underly the spontaneous variability of blood pressure and heart rate in conscious rats. Intrafemoral blood pressure was computed to generate evenly spaced signals (systolic, diastolic, mean blood pressure, heart rate) at 200 ms intervals. This equidistant sampling allowed a direct spectral analysis using a Fast Fourier Transform algorithm. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate exhibited low-frequency oscillations (Mayer waves, 20-605 mHz) and a high- frequency oscillation related to respiration (1855 mHz). The respiratory fluctuations in heart rate were almost abolished by vagal blockade (atropine). Heart rate fluctuations in the low-frequency regime were diminished by vagal blockade or cardiac sympathetic blockade (atenolol). The respiratory frequency fluctuations in systolic blood pressure were markedly increased by alpha-sympathetic blockade (prazosin). In contrast, the low-frequency oscillations in systolic blood pressure were reduced by alpha-sympathetic blockade. These data indicate that in conscious rats: (1) the heart rate oscillation with respiration is vagally mediated; (2) the heart rate fluctuation in the low-frequency range is jointly mediated by beta-sympathetic and parasympathetic activities; (3) the respiratory oscillation in systolic blood pressure depends on fluctuations in cardiac output and is normally counteracted by the sympathetic tone; (4) the low-frequency oscillations in systolic blood pressure reflect the sympathetic activity to the resistance vessels.

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Alterations in normal function of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) are important in the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis and its laboratory counterpart, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). As part of studies on drugs that affect vascular tone in rats with EAE, we have shown previously that the specific alpha 1-adrenoreceptor antagonist, prazosin, suppressed clinical and pathologic disease. In the present study we used quantitative morphometric analysis of capillary endothelium and the tracer horseradish peroxidase (HRP) to define effects of this drug on vascular events associated with central nervous system edema. In prazosin-treated and saline-treated EAE rats, protein extravasation in the spinal cord correlated with clinical presentation. Consistent with our previous data, the results showed that increased edema was associated with increased vesicular content of capillary endothelium. In prazosin-treated rats with no clinical signs, vesicular content was comparable to that found in normal animals. With increasing severity of disease, vesicular content increased and mitochondrial content decreased. In both prazosin- and saline-treated rats, mitochondrial content was reduced even when clinical signs were slight, and sharply declined when clinical signs increased. These results suggest that damage to mitochondria may be associated with early pathological events. In prazosin-treated animals, HRP accumulated in pericytes, suggesting that these cells were a target for the action of prazosin and may restrict the extravasation of fluid into the perivascular parenchyma. Our results underscore the presence of capillary changes associated with inflammation of the central nervous system, in addition to the well-recognized cellular inflammation that is targeted to the venular bed. The extent of capillary changes was closely associated with extent of tracer leakage in the spinal cord and support the conclusion that transcytotic vesicles are involved in transport of edema fluid during EAE, and that high mitochondrial levels are important for the normal function of BBB endothelium.

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Selective alpha-1-adrenoblockers are thought promising in current conservative treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The trial of doxazosin (cardura)--a selective alpha-blocker--included 78 BPH patients with obstructive urination. All the patients received a single daily dose of doxazosin 4-8 mg (mean 5.7 mg). 60 patients on placebo served as control. The comparison of the effects observed in the study vs control group has demonstrated that doxazosin has a favourable effect on BPH: it improved quality of life, relieved obstructive symptoms, reduced amount of residual urine. There is objective urodynamic evidence on decreased infravesical obstruction.

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Contractile responses of rabbit and guinea pig vasa deferentia to electrical field stimulation (EFS) are compared. A muscarinic receptor blocking agent, 1 microM atropine markedly reduced phasic and tonic contraction induced by EFS (20 Hz, 0.5 msec, 30 V, for 30 sec) in rabbit vas deferens, while it only slightly depressed those in guinea pig vas deferens. Further addition of an adrenergic alpha1 receptor blocking agent, 1 microM prazosin markedly depressed the second tonic contraction in both rabbit and guinea pig vasa deferentia. In the presence of atropine and prazosin, further addition of a P2X purinoceptor desensitizing agent, 10 microM alpha,beta-methylene ATP (alpha, beta-MeATP) abolished the residual phasic contractile response in guinea pig vas deferens, while it partially depressed that in rabbit vas deferens. The administration of 10 microM alpha,beta-MeATP in the absence of atropine and prazosin markedly potentiated the phasic contractile response of rabbit vas deferens to EFS, while it depressed that of guinea pig vas deferens. Contractile response of rabbit vas deferens to alpha,beta-MeATP was more potent than those of ATP and 2-methyl-thioATP (2-Me-thioATP), while these nucleotides had almost same potency in guinea pig vas deferens. These findings may indicate that contribution of cholinergic, adrenergic and purinergic neurotransmission to the contractile response of rabbit vas deferens to EFS is different from that of guinea pig vas deferens.

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A total of 117 patients in DC-5ARI and 113 in DC-α-blocker group completed the study. The baseline TPV and Qmax were similar between groups before combination therapy. Resumption of combination therapy was significantly more in DC-5ARI than DC-α-blocker group (51.3% vs 31.0%; P = .005). The mean duration from discontinuing to resuming medication was 5.0 ± 4.4 months in DC-α-blocker and 7.8 ± 3.8 months in DC-5ARI group (P <.05). The TPV progression (29.1% vs 8.0%; P <.001) and the need for TURP (14.5% vs 7.1%; P = .043) were significantly higher in DC-5ARI than DC-α-blocker group. Patients with larger TPV (45.8 ± 18.1 mL) had significantly greater need for resuming 5ARI than smaller TPV (36.3 ± 16.9 mL; P = .007), and a lower Qmax might predict resuming α-blocker.

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Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated abundant P2X(1)-receptor immunoreactivity colocalized with alpha-actin within the fibromuscular stroma of the guinea pig prostate. P2X(2)-, P2X(3)- and P2X(4)-receptor immunoreactivity was absent. alphabetamethylene Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) attenuated contractile responses to electrical field stimulation (50 V, 0.5 ms, 5-20 Hz) in the absence and presence of prazosin (0.3 microM). Responses to 1-2 Hz were unaffected. ARL 67156 (6-N, N-diethyl-beta-gamma-dibromomethylene-D-adenosine-5-triphosphate; 100 microM) enhanced contractile responses to electrical field stimulation (50 V, 0.5 ms, 10-20 Hz). Concentration-response curves to exogenously applied ATP analogues on unstimulated preparations elicited concentration-dependent suramin (100 microM)-sensitive contractions. The rank order of potency was: alphabetamethylene ATP>2methylthio ATP=betagammamethylene ATP>adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP)=ATP. Adenosine and adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) did not produce contractile responses. These results demonstrate the presence of functional P2X(1)-receptors within the fibromuscular stroma of the guinea pig prostate and suggest a cotransmitter role for ATP with noradrenaline during high-frequency stimulation.

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In this study we investigated diurnal changes in the activation state of the 90-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (p90RSK) in the rat pineal gland. In animals housed under a lighting regimen with 12 h of light, we found an increase in phosphorylated p90RSK during the dark phase, and this increase was abolished by treatment with propranolol or continuous exposure to light. To determine the intracellular mechanism involved, rat pinealocytes were treated with norepinephrine. Norepinephrine caused a parallel increase in phosphorylated p42/44 MAPK (p42/44(MAPK)) and p90RSK that was reduced by prazosin or propranolol, indicating involvement of both alpha(1)- and beta-adrenergic receptors. Treatment with dibutyryl cGMP, 4beta-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, or ionomycin mimicked norepinephrine-stimulated p90RSK phosphorylation, whereas dibutyryl cAMP caused a decrease in p90RSK phosphorylation. Inhibition of p42/44(MAPK) activation by UO126 was effective in reducing norepinephrine-stimulated p90RSK phosphorylation. Moreover, UO126 had an inhibitory effect on norepinephrine-stimulated arylalkyl-N-acetyltransferase activity. These results indicate that the adrenergically regulated nocturnal increase in p90RSK phosphorylation is mainly mediated through a cGMP-->p42/44(MAPK)-dependent mechanism.

minipress drug class

In continuing our search for selective alpha(1)-adrenoceptor (AR) antagonists, we have synthesized new alkoxyarylpiperazinylalkylpyridazinone derivatives. The new compounds were tested for their affinity toward alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-AR and toward the 5-HT(1A) receptor. alpha(1)-AR affinity data are in the subnanomolar range, with 3 showing an affinity of 0.052 nM, about 5-fold higher than prazosin. None of the studied compounds was found to be alpha(1)/alpha(2) selective, but 8 showed an interesting 5-HT(1A)/alpha(1) affinity ratio of 119.

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tab minipress dose 2015-12-04

The unique cardiovascular profile of OPC-28326 [4-(N-methyl-2-phenylethylamino)-1-(3, 5-dimethyl-4-propionylaminobenzoyl)piperidine hydrochloride monohydrate] provides insight into basic mechanisms of this new drug as determined by experiments in dogs and rats buy minipress online . In anesthetized open-chest dogs, an i.v. administration of a low dose (0.3 and 1.0 microg/kg) of OPC-28326 selectively increased femoral artery blood flow with only minimal action on systemic blood pressure, heart rate and coronary, carotid, vertebral, renal, and mesenteric blood flows. Biochemical study suggests that OPC-28326 had no effect on phosphodiesterase-3 and -5. OPC-28326 dose-dependently inhibited phenylephrine-induced increases in blood pressure in spinally anesthetized dogs. The potency of OPC-28326 was, however, about 180 times lower than that of prazosin. Although binding studies have revealed an affinity of OPC-28326 to serotonin 5-HT(2) receptors, the drug is without effect, except at very high concentrations, on serotonin-induced contraction in an isolated canine femoral artery preparation. The potency of OPC-28326 on the increase in femoral artery blood flow was about 14 times higher than that of prazosin but was at about the same level as that obtained with yohimbine in canine autoperfused femoral artery preparations. In perfused rat hindlimb preparations, OPC-28326 inhibited the decrease in perfusion flow induced by brimonidine, a selective alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonist. The potency of OPC-28326 was at least 10 times less than that of yohimbine. Taken together, the results show that at low doses, OPC-28326 selectively exerts a potent vasodilating effect on the femoral arterial bed, in part due to an alpha(2)-adrenoceptor-blocking activity.

minipress overdose symptoms 2016-04-17

An explanation for the higher incidence of cardiovascular disease and heart failure in the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT) with doxazosin and the Vasodilator Heart Failure Trial (V-HeFT) with prazosin might be decreased expression of heat shock proteins. Heat shock proteins help to protect cells from ischemic injury by decreasing buy minipress online oxidation, suppressing cytokine action, refolding damaged proteins, and decreasing apoptosis. I hypothesize that alpha-adrenergic blockade decreases heat shock protein levels, thus making the heart and vascular system vulnerable to injury from pathologic processes such as ischemia, hypertension, oxidation or inflammation. Similarly, poor cardiovascular outcomes with calcium-channel blockers might be due to decreased expression of heat shock proteins.

minipress tablets dose 2016-09-28

(+/-)-Dobutamine at concentrations < or =10(-5) M did not evoke contractions of rat gastric artery segments. However, when the tissues were contracted with methoxamine, (+/-)-dobutamine evoked concentration-dependent relaxation. The relaxant responses were not significantly affected by propranolol. In the same preparation, propranolol competitively antagonized isoprenaline-induced relaxation with a -log K(B) value of 7.90+/-0.26. (+/-)-Dobutamine did not relax arterial ring segments precontracted with vasopressin (10(-7) M). (+/-)-Dobutamine antagonized noradrenaline-induced contractions of the gastric artery segments. The pA2 value was 6.93+/-0.20, and the slope of the Schild regression line was 1.22+/-0.14. This value (slope) was not significantly different from 1, indicating competitive antagonism. Pretreatment of gastric artery segments with dobutamine before phenoxybenzamine (PBZ) protected against inactivation of alpha1-adrenoceptors by PBZ. The dose ratio of prazosin (3x10(-9) M) and (+/-)-dobutamine (10(-5) M) in combination was close to the expected sum of their individual dose ratios buy minipress online minus 1, indicating interaction with a common site. It was therefore concluded that (+/-)-dobutamine evoked relaxation of rat gastric artery segments by an action not involving beta-adrenoceptor activation but by blocking alpha1-adrenoceptors.

minipress 2 mg 2017-12-28

A study was carried out of 22 patients with essential hypertension who were treated with metoprolol (100 mg/day) and placebo for 4 weeks. Felodipine (n = 11) or prazosin (n = 11) were then added in increasing doses (felodipine 5, 10, 20 mg bid; prazosin 1, 2, 4 mg bid) for 2 weeks until a diastolic blood pressure of less than or equal to 90 mm Hg was achieved. Acute haemodynamic and hormonal responses to 80 degrees tilting (measurements after 4 minutes' tilt) were obtained immediately prior to randomisation to felodipine or prazosin, and after 6 to 8 weeks buy minipress online of treatment. At randomisation, 80 degrees tilt produced no change in blood pressure and only a small increase in pulse rate. There was no significant change in the plasma renin-angiotensin system, vasopressin or adrenaline concentrations. Plasma noradrenaline concentration rose in response to 80 degrees tilt. Following substitution of felodipine (n = 11) or prazosin (n = 11) for placebo, and continuation of metoprolol, blood pressure fell. 80 degrees tilt caused no change in the plasma renin-angiotensin system, vasopressin or adrenaline concentration. Plasma noradrenaline concentration rose in response to tilt, as before. Felodipine is an effective antihypertensive agent when used with metoprolol.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

tab minipress dosage 2015-01-06

Our results buy minipress online indicate that decreased methionine rather than decreased tetrahydrofolate plays the major role in N2O-induced teratogenicity in rats. They also indicate that N2O stimulates the alpha 1-adrenergic pathway in the embryo and thereby increases the incidence of phenylephrine-induced situs inversus.

minipress medication 2015-03-05

0.1-0.2% of all cases of hypertension are caused by pheochromocytomas, or catecholamine-producing tumors derived from chromaffin tissue. The occurrence of combined symptoms of paroxysmal headache, sweating, and hypertension is probably a more sensitive and specific indicator than any one biochemical test for pheochromocytoma. Alpha-adrenergic receptor blockade with prazosin or doxazosin has been administered to restore plasma volume by counteracting the vasoconstrictive effects of high levels of catecholamines. Virtually all anesthetic drugs and techniques (including isoflurane, sevoflurane, remifentanil, fentanyl, and regional anesthesia) have been used with success. For intraoperative hypertension various drugs have been used and for hypotension noradrenaline, dopamine, dobutamine, and adrenaline have been used. 25-50% of hospital deaths in patients with pheochromocytoma occur during induction of anesthesia or during operative procedures for other causes. Adrenergic receptor blocking drugs probably reduce the complications of hypertensive crisis, the wide BP fluctuations during manipulation of the tumor (especially until venous drainage is obliterated), and buy minipress online the myocardial dysfunction that occurs perioperatively. A reduction in mortality associated with resection of pheochromocytoma (from 40% to 60% to the current 0% to 6%) occurred when alpha-adrenergic receptor blockade was introduced as preoperative preparatory therapy.

minipress dosage 2016-03-12

The minimal vascular resistance after ischaemic work was calculated from the forearm blood flow determined by venous occlusion plethysmography before treatment and after two and 16 months of treatment Arterial and venous plasma noradrenaline levels were determined and systemic pressor responses and buy minipress online forearm vasoconstriction were studied during intravenous infusion of noradrenaline.

minipress medicine 2017-01-29

Norepinephrine is implicated in cocaine's behavioral effects. In this study, we tested the effect of prazosin, an alpha1-adrenergic receptor antagonist, on cocaine-induced reinstatement buy minipress online of drug-seeking behavior.

minipress and alcohol 2016-05-17

To better define the effects of long-term vasodilator therapy on exercise performance in chronic congestive heart failure, we compared placebo with prazosin and with the combination of hydralazine and isosorbide dinitrate (Hyd-Iso) in 642 men over a 5-year period in V- buy minipress online HeFT I.

minipress medication information 2017-11-06

Three different intensities of swim stress produced stress-induced antinociception (SIA) in mice which was assessed either buy minipress online by the reduction in the number of abdominal constrictions produced by acetic acid or by an increase in reaction time on a hot-plate. The involvement of alpha-adrenoceptors in the three models of SIA was investigated using selective antagonists. SIA produced by the mild stress of a 30 s warm water swim was attenuated by idazoxan (0.5-1 mg kg-1), and by yohimbine at a dose (1 mg kg-1) which reduced antinociception produced by clonidine (12.5-50 micrograms kg-1). Indoramin (1-2 mg kg-1) did not affect this model of SIA, but reversed phenylephrine induced inhibition of the constrictions. A 3 min room temperature swim increased reaction times on the hot-plate and this naloxone-sensitive SIA was reduced significantly by prazosin (1-2 mg kg-1), idazoxan (0.5-1 mg kg-1) and yohimbine (0.5-1 mg kg-1) but enhanced by clonidine (0.5 mg kg-1) and noradrenaline (NA) (10 micrograms i.c.v.). Mice treated with 6-hydroxydopamine (60 + 60 micrograms i.c.v.) were hypersensitive to the hot-plate and did not develop SIA. Levels of noradrenaline in the brain (minus the cerebellum) were decreased after the room temperature swim SIA. The most severe stress of a cold water swim produced SIA on the hot-plate which was initially naloxone-insensitive.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

minipress tablets 2016-03-06

A large number of alpha 2-adrenoceptors are present buy minipress online in rabbit ciliary body. They are not the imidazoline-preferring receptor but are alpha 2-adrenergic-specific receptors of the alpha 2A subtype.

minipress drug 2016-08-09

Intravenous phenylephrine increases, and isoproterenol and fenoterol decrease the frequency and amplitude of ureteral contractions in the pig. The same effects are observed with the topical administration of phenylephrine, which causes a significant local but not systemic side effect. buy minipress online Topical administration of isoproterenol and fenoterol produced local as well as systemic effects, suggesting absorption by the urothelium. However, to our knowledge a drug that relaxes ureteral peristalsis in pigs without causing systemic side effects has not yet been identified.

minipress user reviews 2017-02-04

To determine the impact of a 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor on the need for surgical treatment of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in clinical urologic practice, we retrospectively reviewed records of 794 patients treated with pharmacotherapy or surgery (or both). The number of transurethral resections of the prostate (TURPs) performed during the 30 months since introduction of finasteride buy minipress online was compared with the number performed during the 30 months before finasteride became available. The alpha-blockers doxazosin and prazosin were used during both times for the treatment of BPH. Of the 619 patients treated with drugs, 88.5% received finasteride for a mean of 249.6 days. The alpha-blockers, either alone or combined with finasteride, were prescribed for 11.5% of patients for a mean of 179 days. In the 30 months after the introduction of finasteride, 65 patients underwent TURP: 28 of these men had initially received drug therapy. In contrast, 138 TURPs were performed in the 30 months prior to the availability of finasteride. The use of a 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor as primary medical therapy for symptomatic BPH decreased the number of prostatectomies by 52.9% (65 vs 138). This observation warrants corroboration through additional prospective studies.

minipress pill 2016-09-26

The ability of (+/-)-norephedrine (phenylpropanolamine) and its component isomers, (+)-and (-)-norephedrine, to activate adrenergic receptor subtypes in the cardiovascular system of the urethane/chloralose-anaesthetized pithed rat has been investigated. At all adrenoceptor subtypes, (-)-norephedrine was the most potent agonist followed by (+/-)- then (+)-norephedrine. The greatest activity was observed at the alpha 1-receptor, with little activity observed at either beta Hytrin 5 Mg 1 or beta 2-adrenoceptors. Reserpinization shifted the (-)-norephedrine dose-response curve slightly to the right, indicating that only a minor portion of its activity is due to the release of stored endogenous catecholamines. These results suggest that most of the cardiovascular activity of the compounds is through the direct activation of alpha 1-adrenoceptors.

minipress capsules 2017-07-06

We have previously shown an enhanced activity of the pituitary-adrenal response in rats dependent on morphine, which occurs concomitantly with an increase in the activity of catecholaminergic terminals in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). The present study examined the possible role of noradrenergic system in the regulation of opioid withdrawal-induced activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity. Rats were given morphine by s.c. implantation of morphine pellets for 7 days. On the seventh day, morphine withdrawal was induced by s.c. administration of naloxone (1 mg/kg), rats were sacrificed 30 min later, and changes in noradrenaline (NA) turnover (estimated by the 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethylen glycol/NA ratio) and in dopamine turnover (estimated by the 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid/dopamine ratio) in the PVN (HPLC with electrochemical detection) and in plasma corticosterone levels were determined. We found a parallelism between the behavioral signs of withdrawal, an increased activity of noradrenergic and dopaminergic terminals in the PVN, and the hypersecretion of the HPA axis. Pretreatment with alpha(1)- or alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonists prazosin or yohimbine, respectively, 15 min before naloxone administration significantly prevented the withdrawal-induced corticosterone hypersecretion and attenuated the behavioral signs of morphine withdrawal. In addition, biochemical analysis indicated that both prazosin and yohimbine completely abolished the withdrawal-induced increase in NA turnover in the PVN. In contrast, neither prazosin nor yohimbine modified the hyperactivity of dopaminergic terminals in the PVN during withdrawal. Collectively, these data suggest that the secretory activity in the HPA axis after morphine withdrawal results from an Singulair Medication Generic increase in noradrenergic activity that is dependent on alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-adrenoceptor activation. Activation of dopaminergic pathways might not contribute to the neuroendocrine response during withdrawal.

minipress xl dosage 2017-05-10

Our study is the first report documenting that NE induces apoptosis in neonatal rat endothelial cells mainly through down-regulation of Bcl-2 protein and activation of the beta-adrenergic (beta2>beta1) and caspase-2 pathways. beta-Adrenergic Aricept Tablets antagonists and caspases inhibitors may be useful in the prevention and management of NE-mediated endothelial apoptosis during heart failure.

minipress xl tablets 2017-07-04

Although melatonin has been reported to influence neurohypophysial hormone release, no binding has been demonstrated in the neurohypophysial system, suggesting melatonin could affect afferent inputs. The effect of neurotransmitter receptor antagonists on the inhibitory effect of melatonin on neurohypophysial hormone release from the rat hypothalamus in vitro was therefore determined. The agents employed were atropine, a muscarinic cholinergic antagonist; mecamylamine, a nicotinic cholinergic antagonist; atenolol, a beta-adrenergic antagonist; phentolamine, a nonselective alpha-adrenergic antagonist; prazosin, a selective alpha-adrenergic antagonist; haloperidol, a dopaminergic antagonist; naloxone, an opioid antagonist; and ibuprofen, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor. Rat hypothalami were incubated in either medium alone or medium containing melatonin or melatonin and antagonist, and hormone release determined. Melatonin (43 nM) significantly inhibited (p < 0.05) vasopressin and oxytocin release. Inhibition was still observed in the presence of atenolol, phentolamine, and naloxone, suggesting that neither adrenergic nor opioid pathways contribute to the response. The inhibitory effect of melatonin on vasopressin and oxytocin release was abolished (p < 0.05) in the presence of atropine (10[-8] M), mecylamine (10[-6] and 10[-4] M), ibuprofen (10[-4] M) and haloperidol (10[-6] and 10[-5] M). The melatonin-induced inhibition of oxytocin release was also attenuated in the presence of prazosin (10[- Cardura Medication Doxazosin 8] and 10[-6] M). This study suggests that melatonin may influence neurohypophysial hormone release through modulation of afferent pathways mediated by acetylcholine, dopamine, and/or prostaglandin.

minipress 1mg capsule 2017-06-15

Pharmacologic strategies for the treatment of BPH are at present directed toward relaxing Ponstel Drug Interactions prostate smooth muscle and reducing prostate volume. Historically, the primary limitation of pharmacotherapy for BPH has been that the symptomatic improvement achieved was overshadowed by the morbidity of treatment. However, the morbidity has been markedly diminished based on a more precise understanding of the embryology, physiology, and pharmacology of the prostate. The origins and pharmacologic properties of the smooth musculature of the prostate and bladder are unique. Therefore, drugs such as alpha blockers may relax the prostate selectively without altering bladder function. Although phenoxybenzamine, a nonselective alpha blocker, relieves infravesical obstruction secondary to BPH, the severity of the adverse reactions limits the use of this drug. The contractile properties of the prostate smooth muscle are mediated by alpha-1 adrenoceptors. The effectiveness of phenoxybenzamine and selective alpha-1 blockers such as prazosin and terazosin are similar. The side effects of the selective alpha-1 blockers are negligible. Androgen suppression, which lowers testosterone, produces intolerable side effects such as gynecomastia, erectile dysfunction, and impaired libido. The androgen dependency of the prostate provides the rationale for using 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors for the treatment of BPH. Reduction of prostate volume can be achieved by blocking the action or synthesis of dihydrotestosterone without impotence, gynecomastia, and hot flashes. These recent advances in pharmacotherapy for BPH are based on understanding of the fundamental developmental properties of the prostate.

minipress tab 2017-11-20

Several studies have demonstrated significant interactions between immunosuppressants (e.g., cyclosporin A) and chemotherapeutic drugs that are BCRP substrates (e.g., irinotecan), resulting in increased bioavailability and reduced clearance of these agents. One possible mechanism underlying this observation is that the immunosuppressants modulate the pharmacokinetics of these drugs by inhibiting BCRP. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether Nizoral Drug the immunosuppressants cyclosporin A, tacrolimus and sirolimus are inhibitors and/or substrates of BCRP.

minipress nightmares dosage 2016-12-07

Doses/combinations of prazosin and timolol that reversed cirazoline-induced effects did not alter DOI-induced effects Famvir Maximum Dose , and ritanserin did not affect cirazoline at doses that blocked DOI-mediated effects. Concomitant antagonism of α1 + β + 5-HT(2) receptors did not modify PPI, nor did combinations of subthreshold doses of cirazoline and DOI.

minipress drug interactions 2015-06-14

Eleven (44%) out of 25 patients using doxazosin and 10 (40%) out of 25 patients using terazosin showed improvement in both IPSS and Qmax at the end of the 3rd month and Deltasone Drug Interactions continued using the drug. After 3 months of treatment, increase in Qmax (p < 0.001) and decrease in IPSS (p < 0.01) was significant for both doxazosin and terazosin. Nineteen patients, who did not show improvement in any of the parameters, switched the drug. Of the patients who switched the drug, 2 (4%) showed improvement both in IPSS and in Qmax, while 2 (4%) showed improvement only in IPSS but not in Qmax. The remaining 15 (30%) patients did not show improvement in any of the parameters.

minipress max dose 2017-09-06

Contractile responses to agonists, adrenaline and A-61603 (alpha(1A)-selective) were significantly increased in ischaemic arteries compared to those in non-ischaemic arteries. Receptor inactivation studies indicated an increase in the Paracetamol Reviews alpha-adrenoceptor reserve in the ischaemic arteries but the affinity of noradrenaline was unaffected. Healthy subcutaneous arteries had a similar noradrenaline affinity but a higher receptor reserve than skeletal muscle arteries. In the ischaemic arteries, the antagonists prazosin (alpha(1)-selective), 5-methyl-urapidil (alpha(1A)-selective) and BMY 7378 (alpha(1D)-selective) produced rightward shifts in the concentration response curves (CRCs) of noradrenaline giving pK(B)s of 9.6+/-0.3, 8.4+/-0.2 and 7.1+/-0.4, respectively. Pretreatment with 10 microM chloroethylclonidine decreased the contractile responses to noradrenaline and A-61603 to 57+/-7 and 72+/-4% of their respective controls.

minipress drug class 2016-06-23

Scorpion stings account for 1 in every 36 admissions. Maximum cases were in 0-3 years age group. Electrocardiogram changes were seen in 76% cases and myocarditis in 42% cases. Echocardiography revealed decreased ejection fraction (EF), transient mitral regurgitation and wall motion abnormalities were observed. Average EF improved from 16% on day 1 to 47.94% and 59% on day 5 and 14 respectively, which was highly statistically significant. Voltaren Gel Reviews By the end of 1 month, all the survivors had normal EF and no residual cardiac dysfunction was observed at 6 months.

minipress 6 mg 2016-09-01

1. The cardiovascular responses to intravenous (i.v.) injection of natural tachykinins, substance P (SP), neurokinin A (NKA), neurokinin B (NKB) and selective tachykinin (NK) receptor agonists, [Sar9, Met(O2)11]SP, [beta Ala8]NKA(4-10), [MePhe7]NKB and senktide were assessed in conscious, freely moving, guinea-pigs. 2. SP and [Sar9, Met(O2)11]SP (1-1000 pmol kg-1) induced dose-dependent decreases Ventolin Syrup Drug in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) accompanied by increases in heart rate (HR). NKA evoked only weak hypotensive effects at high doses (3000 pmol kg-1) whereas [beta Ala8]NKA(4-10) (1-3000 pmol kg-1) had no effects. By contrast, NKB [MePhe7]NKB (1-10,000 pmol kg-1) and senktide (1-1000 pmol kg-1), produced dose-related hypertensive effects with the following rank order of potency: senktide > [MePhe7]NKB > NKB. Bradycardia occurred simultaneously with the increases in arterial pressure. 3. The pressor response to intravenous injection of senktide (300 pmol kg-1) was partially reduced by pretreatment with prazosin (0.71 mumol kg-1), or clonidine (0.38 mumol kg-1) and was completely inhibited by the combination of the two compounds. Atropine (1.5 mumol kg-1) suppressed the decrease in HR induced by senktide without altering the blood pressure response. These findings suggest that the blood pressure response to senktide is an indirect effect mediated by noradrenaline released from sympathetic nerve endings, whereas the bradycardia is of vagal reflex origin. 4. SR 142801, ((S)-(N)-(1-(3-(1-benzoyl-3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl) piperidin-3-yl) propyl)-4-phenyl-piperidin-4-yl)-N-methylacetamide), a potent and specific non-peptide NK3 receptor antagonist dose-dependently (0.46-4.6 mumol kg-1, i.v.; 4.6-46 mumol kg-1, p.o.) inhibited the cardiovascular effects of senktide and displayed a long-lasting inhibitory effect after oral administration. By contrast, SR 142806 (4.6 mumol kg-1, i.v.), the (R)-enantiomer of SR 142801 had no effect on the responses to senktide. SR 142801 at a high dose (15 mumol kg-1, i.v.) was inactive toward the [Sar9, Met(O2)11]SP-induced hypotension. 5. SR 142801 did not modify MAP in conscious guinea-pigs both after i.v. (4.6 and 15 mumol kg-1) and oral (46 and 150 mumol kg-1) administration, showing a lack of agonistic properties. However, a slight reduction in HR was observed only after i.v. injection. 6. In conclusion, these results show evident differences in the functional role of tachykinin receptors in the peripheral control of the cardiovascular system. Furthermore, a clear pressor effect of senktide, which was selectively blocked by SR 142801, was observed in conscious guinea-pigs. Hence, this antagonist appears suitable for investigating the functional role of NK3 receptors.

minipress overdose 2017-02-25

Percutaneous inoculation with herpes simplex virus type-1 brings about herpes zoster-like skin lesions, tactile allodynia, and mechanical hyperalgesia in mice. This study was conducted to determine whether the sympathetic nervous system and alpha-adrenoceptors would be involved in these pain-related responses and whether the alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonist clonidine would suppress these responses. The adrenergic neuron blocker guanethidine and the non-selective alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist phentolamine did not affect the pain-related responses, although these agents suppressed the pain-related responses induced by partial ligation of the sciatic nerve. The pain-related responses induced by herpetic inoculation was suppressed by intraperitoneal and intrathecal injections, but not by intraplantar and intracerebroventricular injections, of clonidine. The suppressive effect of an intraperitoneal injection of clonidine (0.1 mg/kg) was antagonized by intrathecal injections of phentolamine and the alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine, but not the alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin. The results suggest that sympathetic nerves and alpha-adrenoceptors are not involved in the pain-related responses induced by herpetic infection. Clonidine suppresses the responses probably through the action on alpha(2)-adrenoceptors in the dorsal horn.

minipress cost 2015-05-31

In the intestine neuropeptide Y (NPY) is contained in sympathetic nerves, in neuroendocrine cells of the mucosa, and in neurons of the enteric plexuses. After a meal is ingested the concentration of NPY in the blood rises, and intestinal absorption of water and ions increases. We have recently demonstrated a proabsorptive effect of NPY on water and ion transport in the small intestine. The current experiments tested the hypothesis that the alpha 2-adrenergic receptor mediates NPY-induced intestinal absorption. Rabbit ileal segments (n = 35) were harvested and arterially perfused ex vivo. The intestinal lumen was perfused with an isotonic solution containing carbon 14-labeled polyethylene glycol. Net fluxes of H2O, Na+, and Cl- were calculated for three 20-minute periods: basal, drug infusion, and recovery. Five groups were randomly studied: (1) NPY (500 pmol/min); (2) terazosin (1 microgram/min, alpha 1-adrenergic receptor antagonist); (3) NPY + terazosin; (4) yohimbine (1 microgram/min, alpha 2-adrenergic receptor antagonist); and (5) NPY + yohimbine. The infusion of NPY alone caused a significant (p less than 0.05) proabsorptive response for H2O, Na+, and Cl-. Neither terazosin nor yohimbine alone had a significant effect on the transport state of the intestine. Yohimbine, but not terazosin, completely prevented the NPY-induced proabsorptive response. These data support the hypothesis that the proabsorptive effect of NPY is mediated by the alpha 2-adrenergic receptor system.

minipress drug information 2015-05-08

Traditional treatment of dysfunctional voiding in children with urinary retention involves retraining the pelvic floor muscles using biofeedback. Alpha-blockers are reported to also be effective in children with urinary retention and dysfunctional voiding. We compared the efficacy of biofeedback and alpha-blockers for dysfunctional voiding and urinary retention in terms of residual urine volume and urge incontinence episodes, mean flow rates and urinary tract infections.

minipress ptsd dosage 2015-10-21

Refugees are a highly traumatized and culturally diverse group of patients who present many clinical challenges. Refugees have a high prevalence of traumas from torture, ethnic cleansing, and the effects of long civil wars. The most common diagnoses associated with the effects of such traumas are posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or PTSD with comorbid depression; however, psychosis and neurocognitive disorders are also common. For those with PTSD, a suggested treatment approach is long-term supportive psychotherapy with drug treatment directed at reducing the most disruptive symptoms, such as insomnia, nightmares, and irritability or psychosis. The author recommends a sedative tricyclic antidepressant, clonidine or prazosin, and aripiprazole as a useful combination of medications to provide rapid relief. In addition to PTSD, long-term studies indicate a high prevalence of diabetes and hypertension in traumatized refugees. It is therefore important to perform a thorough evaluation for these disorders that includes the measurement of blood pressure and a blood test for diabetes. When managed with such a medical approach, refugees are generally accepting of psychiatric treatment and can obtain relief from the symptoms associated with the massive trauma and losses they have experienced.

minipress dosage forms 2017-01-11

The mechanisms involved in the activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis after administration of Mycoplasma fermentans were examined. Male rats were injected intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) with heat-inactivated M. fermentas (6 micrograms protein/10 microliters/rat) or vehicle and were killed 2 h later. M. fermentans caused a significant depletion of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH-41) content in the median eminence (ME), and elevation of serum ACTH and corticosterone (CS) levels, compared to control levels. Pretreatment with dexamethasone (DEX, 40 micrograms/kg) markedly inhibited M. fermentans-induced depletion of ME CRH-41 and the increase in serum ACTH and CS. Injection of the type II corticosteroid receptor antagonist RU-38486, but not the type 1 antagonist RU-28318, enhanced the adrenocortical response and completely abolished the inhibitory effect of DEX following M. fermentans. Injection of the catecholamine neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine into the ventral noradrenergic bundle, which significantly depleted hypothalamic norepinephrine content, or i.c.v. injection of the specific alpha 1-adrenergic receptor antagonist prazosin failed to affect the adrenocortical response to M. fermentans. In contrast, these agents markedly inhibited the adrenocortical response following i.c.v. injection of interleukin-1. I.c.v. administration of M. fermentans caused a significant elevation of hypothalamic levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha), determined by both bioassay and immunoassay. In rats treated with pentoxifylline, an inhibitor of TNF alpha synthesis, the adrenocortical response to M. fermentans was markedly inhibited. These findings suggest that: (1) M. fermentans-induced activation of the pituitary-adrenal axis, and the inhibitory effect of DEX on this response, are mediated by a reduction of CRH-41 release from the ME. (2) The feedback exerted by glucocorticoids is mediated by type II corticosteroid receptors. (3) In contrast to the adrenocortical response to interleukin-1 beta, the central noradrenergic system does not have an important role in mediating the adrenocortical response to M. fermentans. (4) Hypothalamic TNF alpha production is probably involved in mediating the adrenocortical activation following M. fermentans.

minipress 4 mg 2017-02-12

In the present paper, the cloning and expression of the guinea pig alpha(1A)-adrenoceptor is presented. The nucleotide sequence had an open reading frame of 1401 bp that encoded a 466 amino-acid protein with an estimated molecular mass of approximately 51.5 kDa. When the clone was expressed in Cos-1 cells, specific high-affinity binding of [(3)H]prazosin and [(3)H]tamsulosin was observed. Chloroethylclonidine treatment of membranes slightly decreased the total binding with both radioligands. Binding competition experiments using [(3)H]tamsulosin showed the following potency order: (a) for agonists: oxymetazoline >epinephrine>norepinephrine>methoxamine, and (b) for antagonists: prazosin> or 5-methyl-urapidil=benoxathian>phentolamine>BMY 7378 (8-[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-8-azaspiro[4,5]decane-7,9-dione). Photoaffinity labeling using [(125)I-aryl]azido-prazosin revealed a major broad band with a molecular mass between 70 and 80 kDa. The receptor was functional, as evidenced by an epinephrine-increased production of [(3)H]inositol phosphates that was blocked by prazosin.