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Pharmacological inhibition of the potassium channel Kv1.3 has been shown to selectively kill B cells from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL). Here we aimed to biophysically characterize and compare Kv1.3 channel activity in B cells isolated either from healthy subjects or patients and investigated the mechanism accounting for the increased protein expression in B-CLL cells.
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Heart rate increasingly is being recognized either as an independent risk factor for a wide variety of cardiovascular disorders or as a surrogate marker for them. We analyzed the changes in heart rate associated with antihypertensive therapy with six drugs and placebo from the VA Cooperative Study on Single-Drug Therapy. These results were published previously (American Journal of Hypertension 1998;11:597-601). This paper provides a summary of the earlier publication with the addition of three figures not previously published. Atenolol had the greatest effect on heart rate reduction, followed by clonidine and diltiazem-SR. Hydrochlorothiazide and captopril were associated with small reductions in heart rate over time, whereas prazosin increased heart rate. Patients whose blood pressure was controlled by placebo had a 3.1 beats/min reduction of heart rate at 2 years. When the baseline heart rate was 65 beats/min or less, all drugs increased the heart rate except for atenolol, which further reduced it. Although it is clear that each of the six drugs used in our study had a different effect on heart rate, we cannot state that drug-induced reduction in heart rate per se confers a decrease in cardiovascular risk.
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To examine the influence of the autonomic nervous system on ultradian and circadian rhythms of blood pressure, heart rate and baroreflex sensitivity of heart rate (BRS) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR).
Alzheimer disease features amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide deposition in brain and blood vessels and is associated with hypertension. Aβ peptide can cause vasoconstriction and endothelial dysfunction. We observed that Aβ peptides exert a chronotropic effect in neonatal cardiomyocytes, similar to α1-adrenergic receptor autoantibodies that we described earlier. Recently, it was shown that α1-adrenergic receptor could impair blood-brain flow. We hypothesized that Aβ peptides might elicit a signal transduction pathway in vascular cells, induced by α1-adrenergic receptor activation. Aβ (25-35) and Aβ (10-35) induced a positive chronotropic effect in the cardiac contraction assay (28.75±1.15 and 29.40±0.98 bpm), which was attenuated by α1-adrenergic receptor blockers (urapidil, 1.53±1.17 bpm; prazosin, 0.30±0.96 bpm). Both Aβ peptides induced an intracellular calcium release in vascular smooth muscle cells. Chronotropic activity and calcium response elicited by Aβ (25-35) were blocked with peptides corresponding to the first extracellular loop of the α1-adrenergic receptor. We observed an induction of extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation by Aβ (25-35) in Chinese hamster ovary cells overexpressing α1-adrenergic receptor, vascular smooth muscle cells, and cardiomyocytes. We generated an activation-state-sensitive α1-adrenergic receptor antibody and visualized activation of the α1-adrenergic receptor by Aβ peptide. Aβ (25-35) induced vasoconstriction of mouse aortic rings and in coronary arteries in Langendorff-perfused rat hearts that resulted in decreased coronary flow. Both effects could be reversed by α1-adrenergic receptor blockade. Our data are relevant to the association between Alzheimer disease and hypertension. They may explain impairment of vascular responses by Aβ and could have therapeutic implications.
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The alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonist UK14,304 caused low-maximum constriction that was inhibited by rauwolscine (3 x 10(-8) M) but not by the selective alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin (10(-7) M). Concentration-effect curves to phenylephrine, cirazoline or noradrenaline were unaffected by rauwolscine but were inhibited by prazosin, which was more effective at high compared with low levels of constriction. In the presence of prazosin, rauwolscine inhibited the curves and was more effective at low compared with high levels of constriction. Although rauwolscine alone did not affect concentration-effect curves to phenylephrine, noradrenaline or cirazoline, it caused marked transient dilation when administered during constriction to these agonists. Dilation was mimicked by another alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist (RX821002, 3 x 10(-8) M), was dependent on agonist selectivity, and did not occur during adrenoceptor-independent constriction (U46619). During constriction to UK14,304 plus U46619, rauwolscine or rapid removal of UK14,304 caused transient dilation that virtually abolished the combined constriction. Endothelial denudation reduced these dilator responses.
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The present study investigated NE involvement in the discriminative-stimulus effects of methamphetamine.
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Significant reductions in BMI, HbA(1c), FPG and PPG compared with baseline were observed after 6 months in both groups (p < 0.05). A significant decrease in FPI was obtained after 6 months (p < 0.05) in the doxazosin group compared with baseline, and this difference was also significant (p < 0.05) compared with the placebo group. Similarly, a significant decrease in HOMA-index was observed at 6 months (p < 0.05) compared with baseline in the doxazosin group, and this difference was also significant (p < 0.05) compared with the placebo group. Significant decreases in TC, LDL-C, HDL-C and TG (p < 0.05) were observed in the doxazosin group after 6 months compared with baseline values. Significant decreases in SBP and DBP were also observed at 3 months in the doxazosin group compared with baseline (p < 0.05), and these differences were significant (p < 0.05) compared with placebo. Furthermore, significant decreases in SBP and DBP were observed at 6 months (p < 0.01) in the doxazosin group compared with baseline, and these differences were also significant (p < 0.01) compared with placebo. All patients who completed an OGTT at 6 months (96 patients) were restored to normal glucose tolerance status.
Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a phenomenon that is often associated with decreased intracellular drug accumulation in the tumor cells of a patient, resulting from enhanced drug efflux. It is often related to the overexpression of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) on the surface of tumor cells, thereby reducing drug cytotoxicity. In this study, curcumin was tested for its potential ability to modulate the expression and function of Pgp in the multidrug-resistant human cervical carcinoma cell line KB-V1. Western blot analysis and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed that treatment with 1, 5, and 10 microM curcumin for up to 72hr was able to significantly lower Pgp expression in KB-V1 cells. Curcumin (1-10 microM) decreased Pgp expression in a concentration-dependent manner and was also found to have the same effect on MDR1 mRNA levels. The effect of curcumin on Pgp function was demonstrated by rhodamine 123 (Rh123) accumulation and efflux in Pgp-expressing KB-V1 cells. Curcumin increased Rh123 accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner (1-55 microM) and inhibited the efflux of Rh123 from these cells, but did not affect the efflux of Rh123 from the wild-type drug-sensitive KB-3-1 cells. Treatment of drug-resistant KB-V1 cells with curcumin increased their sensitivity to vinblastine, which was consistent with an increased intracellular accumulation of Rh123. In addition, curcumin inhibited verapamil-stimulated ATPase activity and the photoaffinity labeling of Pgp with the prazosin analog [125I]iodoarylazidoprazosin in a concentration-dependent manner, demonstrating that curcumin interacts directly with the transporter. Thus, curcumin seems to be able to modulate the in vitro expression and function of Pgp in multidrug-resistant human KB-V1 cells. In summary, this study describes the duel modulation of MDR1 expression and Pgp function by the phytochemical curcumin, which may be an attractive new agent for the chemosensitization of cancer cells.
N-[5-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2yl)-2-hydroxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro naphthalen-1-yl] methanesulfonamide hydrobromide (A-61603) is a novel and potent alpha-adrenoceptor agonist. In radioligand binding assays, the compound is at least 35-fold more potent at alpha 1A/a receptors than at alpha 1b or alpha 1d sites. In fibroblast cells transfected with alpha 1a receptors, A-61603 more potently stimulates phosphoinositide hydrolysis than norepinephrine, and is antagonized by prazosin. A-61603 is less potent in cells transfected with alpha 1b or alpha 1d receptors. A-61603 is a potent agonist at alpha 1A receptors in rat vas deferens (200- to 300-fold more potent than norepinephrine or phenylephrine, respectively) and in isolated canine prostate strips (130- to 165-fold more potent than norepinephrine or phenylephrine, respectively). In contrast, A-61603 is only 40-fold more potent than phenylephrine at alpha 1B sites in rat spleen and 35-fold less potent at rat aortic, alpha 1D sites. In an in vivo dog model, A-61603 raises intraurethral prostatic tone to a greater extent than mean arterial blood pressure. A-61603 induces a pressor response in conscious rats at doses 50- to 100-fold lower than phenylephrine, and the response is not attenuated by pretreatment with CEC, whereas YM-617 causes a 100-fold shift in the response. These results indicate that A-61603 is a potent adrenergic agonist, selective for alpha 1A/a receptors, and may prove a useful probe for studies of adrenergic function and alpha 1 adrenoceptor regulation of physiological functions.
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Changes in alpha1-adrenoceptor (alpha1AR) gene expression in the rat liver during different phases of sepsis were studied. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Septic rats exhibit two metabolically distinct phases: an initial hyperglycemic phase (9 h after CLP, early sepsis) followed by a hypoglycemic phase (18 h after CLP; late sepsis). The [3H]prazosin binding studies show that the density of alpha1AR was increased by 30% during the early phase while it was decreased by 24% during the late phase of sepsis. Western blot analyses reveal that alpha1AR protein level was elevated by 48% during early sepsis but was decreased by 55% during late sepsis. Northern blot analyses depict that the steady-state level of alpha1bAR mRNA was enhanced by 21% during the early phase but was declined by 29% during the late phase of sepsis. Nuclear run-off assays show that the transcription rate of alpha1bAR gene transcript was increased by 76% during early sepsis while it was decreased by 29% during late sepsis. The actinomycin D pulse-chase studies indicate that the half-life of alpha1bAR mRNA remained unaffected during the early and the late phases of sepsis. These findings demonstrate that during the early phase of sepsis, the increase in the rate of transcription of alpha1bAR gene paralleled with the elevations in the alpha1bAR mRNA abundance and alpha1AR protein level, while during the late phase of sepsis, the decrease in the rate of transcription of alpha1bAR gene coincided with the declines in the alpha1bAR mRNA abundance and the alpha1AR protein level in the rat liver. These observations indicate that the altered expression of alpha1AR genes in the rat liver during the progression of sepsis was regulated transcriptionally.
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The forced swimming test (FST) model of depression, plasma ghrelin measurement, and in vivo and in vitro measurements of GI motility were used.
A role for phospholipase C hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2] as a mechanism of alpha 2-adrenergic signal transduction in rabbit tracheal epithelial cells (tracheocytes) was investigated in isolated cells grown in in vitro culture and prelabeled with myo-[3H]inositol (3 microCi/ml) for 72 h. Breakdown of polyphosphoinositides was measured by using thin-layer chromatography to detect phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate [PtdIns(4)P], and PtdIns(4,5)P2. Inositol phosphates were separated by ion-exchange column chromatography. The endogenous catecholamine l-epinephrine and alpha 2-adrenergic agonists clonidine and 1-(2,6-dichlorobenzylideneamino)guanidine (guanabenz) produced a rapid transient accumulation of inositol trisphosphate and inositol 4,5-bisphosphate and breakdown of [PtdIns(4)P] and PtdIns(4,5)P2. The alpha 2-adrenergic effects were not blocked by the beta-adrenergic antagonist DL-propranolol or by the alpha 1-adrenergic antagonists prazosin and methylurapidil but were inhibited by pertussis toxin and blocked by yohimbine, an alpha 2-adrenergic antagonist. The 50% effective concentration for guanabenz-stimulated inositol trisphosphate generation was right shifted from 0.3 to 0.9 microM by yohimbine. The results provide the first demonstration of alpha 2A-adrenergic activation of pertussis toxin-sensitive PtdIns(4,5)P2-dependent phospholipase C in mammalian tracheocytes. The findings are consistent with previous observations on alpha 2A-adrenergic-mediated activation of NaCl cotransport in these cells.
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Doxazosin GITS and doxazosin were effective in reducing clinic and ambulatory blood pressure. The GITS formulation reduced the need for dose titration. Both doxazosin formulations were well tolerated.
NBF-LFME (1.0 x 10(-5) to 3.0mg/ml) was found to be the most potent to concentration-dependently relax the endothelium-intact phenyephrine (PE, 1 microM)- and high K(+) (80 mM)-precontracted rat aortic rings. Removal of the endothelium completely abolished the vascular relaxing properties of NBF-LFME. Pretreatment with atropine (1 microM), L-NAME (10 microM), indomethacin (10 microM) and methylene blue (10 microM) significantly blocked NBF-LFME-mediated relaxation. Endothelium-dependent and -independent relaxations induced by acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP), respectively, were significantly enhanced in aortic rings pretreated with NBF-LFME when compared to those observed in control aortic rings. On the contrary, glibenclamide (10 microM), propranolol (1 microM) and prazosin (0.01 microM) did not alter NBF-LFME-induced relaxation.
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In this study, the stereoselective pharmacokinetics of doxazosin enantiomers and their pharmacokinetic interaction were studied in rats. Enantiomer concentrations in plasma were measured using chiral high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection after oral or intravenous administration of (-)-(R)-doxazosin 3.0 mg/kg, (+)-(S)-doxazosin 3.0 mg/kg, and rac-doxazosin 6.0 mg/kg. AUC values of (+)-(S)-doxazosin were always larger than those of (-)-(R)-doxazosin, regardless of oral or intravenous administration. The maximum plasma concentration (Cmax ) value of (-)-(R)-doxazosin after oral administration was significantly higher when given alone (110.5 ± 46.4 ng/mL) versus in racemate (53.2 ± 19.7 ng/mL), whereas the Cmax value of (+)-(S)-doxazosin did not change significantly. The area under the curve (AUC) and Cmax values for (+)-(S)-doxazosin after intravenous administration were significantly lower, and its Cl value significantly higher, when given alone versus in racemate. We speculate that (-)-(R)-doxazosin increases (+)-(S)-doxazosin exposure probably by inhibiting the elimination of (+)-(S)-doxazosin, and the enantiomers may be competitively absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. In conclusion, doxazosin pharmacokinetics are substantially stereospecific and enantiomer-enantiomer interaction occurs after rac-administration.
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Mechanisms of the positive inotropic response to alpha(1)-adrenergic stimulation in the heart remain poorly understood, but recent evidence in rat papillary muscle suggests an important role of regulatory myosin light chain (MLC2) phosphorylation. This study investigated alpha(1)-adrenergic contractile effects and the role of MLC kinase (MLCK)-dependent phosphorylation of MLC2 in human atrial muscle strips.
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Even though the erythroleukemia cell lines K562 and HEL do not express α1-adrenoceptors, some α1-adrenergic drugs influence both survival and differentiation of these cell lines. Since Ca2+ is closely related to cellular homeostasis, we examined the capacity of α1-adrenergic drugs to modulate the intracellular Ca2+ content in K562 cells. Because of morphological alterations of mitochondria following α1-adrenergic agonist treatment, we also scrutinized mitochondrial functions. In order to visualize the non-adrenoceptor binding site(s) of α1-adrenergic drugs in erythroleukemia cells, we evaluated the application of the fluorescent α1-adrenergic antagonist BODIPY® FL-Prazosin. We discovered that the α1-adrenergic agonists naphazoline, oxymetazoline and also the α1-adrenergic antagonist benoxathian are able to raise the intracellular Ca2+-content in K562 cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that naphazoline treatment induces ROS-formation as well as an increase in Δψm in K562 cells. Using BODIPY® FL-Prazosin we were able to visualize the non-adrenoceptor binding site(s) of α1-adrenergic drugs in erythroleukemia cells. Interestingly, the SERCA-inhibitor thapsigargin appears to interfere with the binding of BODIPY® FL-Prazosin. Our data suggest that the effects of α1-adrenergic drugs on erythroleukemia cells are mediated by a thapsigargin sensitive binding site, which controls the fate of erythroleukemia cells towards differentiation, senescence and cell death through modulation of intracellular Ca2+.
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The anticonvulsant (AC drug)- or ethanol (EtOH)-modified effects of cardiovascular (CV) drugs against cocaine (COCA)-induced toxicity were examined in male ICR mice. Nontoxic doses of the CV drugs nimodipine (NIMO), prazosin (PRA), phentolamine (PHEN), propranolol (PRO), and enalapril (ENA) were used with or without the AC drugs diazepam (DZP), phenobarbital (PHB), phenytoin (PHY), and EtOH. Each CV drug combined with or without each AC drug was administered intraperitoneally (IP) 5 min before an IP injection of COCA 75 mg/kg. Of the CV drugs examined, PRA 5 mg/kg and PHEN 5 mg/kg protected against COCA-induced seizures, but only the alpha1-adrenergic blocking agent PRA protected against COCA-induced deaths. Of the AC drugs examined, DZP 5 mg/kg and PHB 50 mg/kg, as well as EtOH 3 g/kg, attenuated the severity of the COCA-induced seizures, but only PHB protected against COCA-induced deaths. The total mortality rate was significantly, often synergistically, decreased compared to the COCA-only group when the appropriate CV drugs were combined with the AC drugs: PRA 5 mg/kg in the EtOH-cotreated groups, PRA 5 mg/kg, PHEN 5 mg/kg or ENA 10 mg/kg in the DZP-cotreated groups, and NIMO 5 mg/kg, PRA 5 mg/kg, PHEN 5 mg/kg, or PRO 10 mg/kg in the PHB-cotreated groups. The decrease in the COCA concentration in the blood and/or brain was not always accompanied by an attenuation of the mortality rate. However, the attenuation of severe seizures by a single PRA, PHEN, DZP, or PHB cotreatment was accompanied by a decrease in the brain COCA concentration.
Male albino mice were pretreated with monoaminergic or cholinergic receptor antagonists, L-arginine or N(G)-nitro-L-arginine (nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) (at doses reported to block the in vivo effect of the agonists), 15 min before oral administration of CF (100 mg/kg), 1 h later, the forced swim test (FST) in mice was carried out.
During a 7-week study period, 530 prescriptions were collected. All except 14 patients received antihypertensive drugs with 262 (50.8%) on monotherapy and 254 (49.2%) on combination therapy. Calcium channel blocking agents and beta-adrenoceptor blocking agents were the two most popular antihypertensive drugs used in both monotherapy (38% and 31%, respectively) and combination therapy (27% and 33%, respectively). Forty-nine patients (19%) received three antihypertensive drugs or more. The number of antihypertensive drugs showed a significant positive correlation with the duration of attendance at the clinic (r=0.88, P < 0.001). Of the total 530 prescriptions, 5.6% and 10% contained antidiabetic drugs and lipid-lowering agents, respectively. Calcium channel blocking agents, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and lipid lowering agents, accounted for 82% (HK$211,654; pounds sterling 1 approximately HK$12) of the total drug expenditure (HK$258,115). Seventy-nine percent of the lipid lowering agents prescribed were hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase inhibitors. Amlodipine accounted for 26% of usage but contributed to 41% of the overall costs of calcium channel blocking agents. Alpha1-adrenoceptor blocking agents were only used infrequently and were the most expensive class of drugs, due to the preferred use of doxazosin rather than prazosin which is far cheaper than the former.
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We investigated the fluctuations which underly the spontaneous variability of blood pressure and heart rate in conscious rats. Intrafemoral blood pressure was computed to generate evenly spaced signals (systolic, diastolic, mean blood pressure, heart rate) at 200 ms intervals. This equidistant sampling allowed a direct spectral analysis using a Fast Fourier Transform algorithm. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate exhibited low-frequency oscillations (Mayer waves, 20-605 mHz) and a high- frequency oscillation related to respiration (1855 mHz). The respiratory fluctuations in heart rate were almost abolished by vagal blockade (atropine). Heart rate fluctuations in the low-frequency regime were diminished by vagal blockade or cardiac sympathetic blockade (atenolol). The respiratory frequency fluctuations in systolic blood pressure were markedly increased by alpha-sympathetic blockade (prazosin). In contrast, the low-frequency oscillations in systolic blood pressure were reduced by alpha-sympathetic blockade. These data indicate that in conscious rats: (1) the heart rate oscillation with respiration is vagally mediated; (2) the heart rate fluctuation in the low-frequency range is jointly mediated by beta-sympathetic and parasympathetic activities; (3) the respiratory oscillation in systolic blood pressure depends on fluctuations in cardiac output and is normally counteracted by the sympathetic tone; (4) the low-frequency oscillations in systolic blood pressure reflect the sympathetic activity to the resistance vessels.
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Alterations in normal function of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) are important in the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis and its laboratory counterpart, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). As part of studies on drugs that affect vascular tone in rats with EAE, we have shown previously that the specific alpha 1-adrenoreceptor antagonist, prazosin, suppressed clinical and pathologic disease. In the present study we used quantitative morphometric analysis of capillary endothelium and the tracer horseradish peroxidase (HRP) to define effects of this drug on vascular events associated with central nervous system edema. In prazosin-treated and saline-treated EAE rats, protein extravasation in the spinal cord correlated with clinical presentation. Consistent with our previous data, the results showed that increased edema was associated with increased vesicular content of capillary endothelium. In prazosin-treated rats with no clinical signs, vesicular content was comparable to that found in normal animals. With increasing severity of disease, vesicular content increased and mitochondrial content decreased. In both prazosin- and saline-treated rats, mitochondrial content was reduced even when clinical signs were slight, and sharply declined when clinical signs increased. These results suggest that damage to mitochondria may be associated with early pathological events. In prazosin-treated animals, HRP accumulated in pericytes, suggesting that these cells were a target for the action of prazosin and may restrict the extravasation of fluid into the perivascular parenchyma. Our results underscore the presence of capillary changes associated with inflammation of the central nervous system, in addition to the well-recognized cellular inflammation that is targeted to the venular bed. The extent of capillary changes was closely associated with extent of tracer leakage in the spinal cord and support the conclusion that transcytotic vesicles are involved in transport of edema fluid during EAE, and that high mitochondrial levels are important for the normal function of BBB endothelium.
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Selective alpha-1-adrenoblockers are thought promising in current conservative treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The trial of doxazosin (cardura)--a selective alpha-blocker--included 78 BPH patients with obstructive urination. All the patients received a single daily dose of doxazosin 4-8 mg (mean 5.7 mg). 60 patients on placebo served as control. The comparison of the effects observed in the study vs control group has demonstrated that doxazosin has a favourable effect on BPH: it improved quality of life, relieved obstructive symptoms, reduced amount of residual urine. There is objective urodynamic evidence on decreased infravesical obstruction.
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Contractile responses of rabbit and guinea pig vasa deferentia to electrical field stimulation (EFS) are compared. A muscarinic receptor blocking agent, 1 microM atropine markedly reduced phasic and tonic contraction induced by EFS (20 Hz, 0.5 msec, 30 V, for 30 sec) in rabbit vas deferens, while it only slightly depressed those in guinea pig vas deferens. Further addition of an adrenergic alpha1 receptor blocking agent, 1 microM prazosin markedly depressed the second tonic contraction in both rabbit and guinea pig vasa deferentia. In the presence of atropine and prazosin, further addition of a P2X purinoceptor desensitizing agent, 10 microM alpha,beta-methylene ATP (alpha, beta-MeATP) abolished the residual phasic contractile response in guinea pig vas deferens, while it partially depressed that in rabbit vas deferens. The administration of 10 microM alpha,beta-MeATP in the absence of atropine and prazosin markedly potentiated the phasic contractile response of rabbit vas deferens to EFS, while it depressed that of guinea pig vas deferens. Contractile response of rabbit vas deferens to alpha,beta-MeATP was more potent than those of ATP and 2-methyl-thioATP (2-Me-thioATP), while these nucleotides had almost same potency in guinea pig vas deferens. These findings may indicate that contribution of cholinergic, adrenergic and purinergic neurotransmission to the contractile response of rabbit vas deferens to EFS is different from that of guinea pig vas deferens.
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A total of 117 patients in DC-5ARI and 113 in DC-α-blocker group completed the study. The baseline TPV and Qmax were similar between groups before combination therapy. Resumption of combination therapy was significantly more in DC-5ARI than DC-α-blocker group (51.3% vs 31.0%; P = .005). The mean duration from discontinuing to resuming medication was 5.0 ± 4.4 months in DC-α-blocker and 7.8 ± 3.8 months in DC-5ARI group (P <.05). The TPV progression (29.1% vs 8.0%; P <.001) and the need for TURP (14.5% vs 7.1%; P = .043) were significantly higher in DC-5ARI than DC-α-blocker group. Patients with larger TPV (45.8 ± 18.1 mL) had significantly greater need for resuming 5ARI than smaller TPV (36.3 ± 16.9 mL; P = .007), and a lower Qmax might predict resuming α-blocker.
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Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated abundant P2X(1)-receptor immunoreactivity colocalized with alpha-actin within the fibromuscular stroma of the guinea pig prostate. P2X(2)-, P2X(3)- and P2X(4)-receptor immunoreactivity was absent. alphabetamethylene Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) attenuated contractile responses to electrical field stimulation (50 V, 0.5 ms, 5-20 Hz) in the absence and presence of prazosin (0.3 microM). Responses to 1-2 Hz were unaffected. ARL 67156 (6-N, N-diethyl-beta-gamma-dibromomethylene-D-adenosine-5-triphosphate; 100 microM) enhanced contractile responses to electrical field stimulation (50 V, 0.5 ms, 10-20 Hz). Concentration-response curves to exogenously applied ATP analogues on unstimulated preparations elicited concentration-dependent suramin (100 microM)-sensitive contractions. The rank order of potency was: alphabetamethylene ATP>2methylthio ATP=betagammamethylene ATP>adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP)=ATP. Adenosine and adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) did not produce contractile responses. These results demonstrate the presence of functional P2X(1)-receptors within the fibromuscular stroma of the guinea pig prostate and suggest a cotransmitter role for ATP with noradrenaline during high-frequency stimulation.
In this study we investigated diurnal changes in the activation state of the 90-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (p90RSK) in the rat pineal gland. In animals housed under a lighting regimen with 12 h of light, we found an increase in phosphorylated p90RSK during the dark phase, and this increase was abolished by treatment with propranolol or continuous exposure to light. To determine the intracellular mechanism involved, rat pinealocytes were treated with norepinephrine. Norepinephrine caused a parallel increase in phosphorylated p42/44 MAPK (p42/44(MAPK)) and p90RSK that was reduced by prazosin or propranolol, indicating involvement of both alpha(1)- and beta-adrenergic receptors. Treatment with dibutyryl cGMP, 4beta-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, or ionomycin mimicked norepinephrine-stimulated p90RSK phosphorylation, whereas dibutyryl cAMP caused a decrease in p90RSK phosphorylation. Inhibition of p42/44(MAPK) activation by UO126 was effective in reducing norepinephrine-stimulated p90RSK phosphorylation. Moreover, UO126 had an inhibitory effect on norepinephrine-stimulated arylalkyl-N-acetyltransferase activity. These results indicate that the adrenergically regulated nocturnal increase in p90RSK phosphorylation is mainly mediated through a cGMP-->p42/44(MAPK)-dependent mechanism.
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In continuing our search for selective alpha(1)-adrenoceptor (AR) antagonists, we have synthesized new alkoxyarylpiperazinylalkylpyridazinone derivatives. The new compounds were tested for their affinity toward alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-AR and toward the 5-HT(1A) receptor. alpha(1)-AR affinity data are in the subnanomolar range, with 3 showing an affinity of 0.052 nM, about 5-fold higher than prazosin. None of the studied compounds was found to be alpha(1)/alpha(2) selective, but 8 showed an interesting 5-HT(1A)/alpha(1) affinity ratio of 119.