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Neem is a unique herb with anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and blood purifying properties which is used in skin disorders and keeps the skin healthy. Neem is effective to most epidermal dysfunctions such as acne, psoriasis, eczema, antifungal.

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Neem is a high-quality herbal medication which is used in skin problems like mild acne, itchy skin, flakey scalp and many other mild dermatological problems. Neem inhibits the growth of microbes and protect the skin.

Neem also fights minor skin eruptions, reduces oiliness and inflammation, stimulates the skin’s circulation and cell renewal. It gently cleanses the skin and maintains moisture balance.

The growth of acne-causing bacteria such as propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) and staphylococcus epidermidis is also inhibited by Neem. The role of Neem in acne is further supported by studies which have shown that it exhibits anti-inflammatory activity by suppressing P. acnes-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-a and IL-8.

Neem's main ingredient are: Neem components and Turmeric.


Neem is available in capsules which are taken by mouth.

It is recommended to take 1 Neem capsule twice a day after meals.


If you overdose Neem and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.


Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Keep this medicine in the original bottle. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Neem are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Neem if you are allergic to Neem components.

Do not take Neem if you are pregnant or breast-feeding.

Do not use Neem in children under 12 years of age. It may cause serious side effects such as seizures, coma.

Neem should never be used in place of insulin.

Avoid dehydration.

Always give your health care provider a list of all the medicines, herbs, non-prescription drugs, or dietary supplements you use.

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A total of nine toothpastes in three groups were tested for their antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 0266P) and Candida albicans (Laboratory Strain) by modified agar well diffusion method. Statistical Analysis was performed using Minitab Software. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant.

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Oregano essential oil and neem have been reported to be effective against soil-borne pathogens and nematodes. The possibility of having an effect on soil properties was the aim of this investigation. Moreover, thiram, a common widely used chemical pesticide, was used for comparison.

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Advanced prostate cancer has significant long-term morbidity, and there is a growing interest in alternative and complimentary forms of therapy that will improve the outcomes of patients. Azadirachta indica (common name: neem) contains multiple active compounds that have potent anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. The present study investigates the novel targets of the anticancer activity of ethanol extract of neem leaves (EENL) in vitro and evaluates the in vivo efficacy in the prostate cancer models. Analysis of the components in the EENL by mass spectrometry suggests the presence of 2',3'-dehydrosalannol, 6-desacetyl nimbinene, and nimolinone. Treatment of C4-2B and PC-3M-luc2 prostate cancer cells with EENL inhibited the cell proliferation. Genome-wide expression profiling, using oligonucleotide microarrays, revealed genes differentially expressed with EENL treatment in prostate cancer cells. Functional analysis unveiled that most of the up-regulated genes were associated with cell death, and drug metabolism, and the down-regulated genes were associated with cell cycle, DNA replication, recombination, and repair functions. Quantitative PCR confirmed significant up-regulation of 40 genes and immunoblotting revealed increase in the protein expression levels of HMOX1, AKR1C2, AKR1C3, and AKR1B10. EENL treatment inhibited the growth of C4-2B and PC-3M-luc2 prostate cancer xenografts in nude mice. The suppression of tumor growth is associated with the formation of hyalinized fibrous tumor tissue and the induction of cell death by apoptosis. These results suggest that EENL-containing natural bioactive compounds could have potent anticancer property and the regulation of multiple cellular pathways could exert pleiotrophic effects in prevention and treatment of prostate cancer.

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Laboratory batch experiments with Azadirachata indicum indicated that this population had an excellent ability to bind lead (II) from its aqueous solution. The experiments carried out examined pH, biomass quantity, time of contact, and temperature dependency. Under optimum conditions, the removal of lead (II) was found to be around 95%. Column experiments were performed to examine the binding of lead (II) to silica-immobilized biomass under flow conditions. During this, a slight decrease in the pH of the effluents was also observed, implying an ion-exchange mechanism for metal binding.

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The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of feeding of four vegetables commonly consumed in Thailand, namely, flowers of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica var. siamensis), fruits of Thai and the Chinese bitter gourd (Momordica charantia Linn.) and leaves of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum Linn) on the levels of phase I enzymes, which include cytochrome P450 (P450), aniline hydroxylase (ANH) and aminopyrine-N-demethylase (AMD) as well as the capacity to activate the mutagenicities of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), and to induce the phase II enzymes [i.e. glutathione S-transferase (GST)] in rat liver. It was found that feeding of the diets containing 12.5% neem flowers and Thai bitter gourd fruits for 2 weeks strongly enhanced GST activity, 2.7- and 1.6- fold of the pair-fed control values, respectively, while resulting in a marked reduction of the levels of most phase I reactions. Fruits of the Chinese bitter gourd, which is in the same species as Thai bitter gourd, had no effect on GST activity but decreased AMD activity and the in vitro metabolic activation of AFB1 and BaP. On the other hand, however, dietary sweet basil leaves caused a significant increase in the levels of both GST and all phase I enzymes. Results in the present study clearly demonstrate that neem flowers and Thai bitter gourd fruits contain monofunctional phase II enzyme inducers and compounds capable of repressing some monooxygenases, especially those involved in the metabolic activation of chemical carcinogens, while sweet basil leaves contain compounds, probably bifunctional inducers, capable of inducing both phase I and phase II enzymes and Chinese bitter gourd fruits contain only compounds capable of repressing some monooxygenases. These results therefore suggest that neem flowers and Thai bitter gourd fruits may possess chemopreventive potential, while those of Chinese bitter gourd fruits and sweet basil leaves are uncertain.

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This research was carried out to evaluate the allelopathic effect of leaves aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica on germination and seedling growth of Vigna radiata. Different methods were used to preparing leaves aqueous extract. Germination percentage and seedling growth of V. radiata significantly decreased gradually as the concentration of the aqueous leaves extracts of A. indica increased in comparison with water control. Severe toxicity was observed at high concentrations and moderate toxicity at low concentrations in comparison with water control. Aqueous leaves extract significantly inhibited root length more than shoot. These results indicated that some kind of inhibitor(s) was the responsible agent for the phytotoxic effect of A. indica on germination and seedling growth of V. radiata.

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Neem (Azadirachta indica) has been shown to possess anti-malarial activity. In this study we systematically evaluated extracts of neem seeds and purified fractions further enriched in polar or non-polar constituents for their effect on in vitro growth and development of asexual and sexual stages of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Use of synchronized stages of parasites suggested trophozoites/schizonts as the susceptible target stages to various neem extracts. In addition, all the maturation stages of gametocytes were also killed by various neem fractions tested. The anti-plasmodial effect of neem components was also observed on parasites previously shown to be resistant to other anti-malarial drugs, i.e. chloroquine and pyrimethamine suggesting a different mode of action. Neem seed fractions are thus active not only against the parasite stages that cause the clinical infection but also against the stages responsible for continued malaria transmission.

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Laboratory bioassays were conducted to evaluate neem oil and neem extract for the management of key honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) pests. Neem pesticides inhibited the growth of Paenibacillus larvae (Ash, Priest & Collins) in vitro but had no effect on the growth of Ascophaera apis (Olive & Spiltoir). Azadirachtin-rich extract (neem-aza) was 10 times more potent than crude neem oil (neem oil) against P. larvae suggesting that azadirachtin is a main antibiotic component in neem. Neem-aza, however, was ineffective at controlling the honey bee mite parasites Varroa jacobsoni (Ouduemans) and Acarapis woodi (Rennie). Honey bees also were deterred from feeding on sucrose syrup containing > 0.01 mg/ml of neem-aza. However, neem oil applied topically to infested bees in the laboratory proved highly effective against both mite species. Approximately 50-90% V. jacobsoni mortality was observed 48 h after treatment with associated bee mortality lower than 10%. Although topically applied neem oil did not result in direct A. woodi mortality, it offered significant protection of bees from infestation by A. woodi. Other vegetable and petroleum-based oils also offered selective control of honey bee mites, suggesting neem oil has both a physical and a toxicological mode of action. Although oils are not as selective as the V. jacobsoni acaricide tau-fluvalinate, they nonetheless hold promise for the simultaneous management of several honey bee pests.

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Minimum intervention dentistry (MI) can be defined as a philosophy of professional care concerned with the first occurrence, early detection, and earliest possible cure of disease on micro levels, followed by minimally invasive, patient-friendly treatment to repair irreversible damage caused by such disease. The benefit for patients from MI lies in better oral health through disease healing and not merely on symptom relief. Furthermore, minimally invasive treatment assists in reducing widespread patient dental anxieties. MI has the potential for dentists to apply a more conservative approach to caries treatment and simultaneously offer patients less invasive, health-oriented treatment options.

neem capsule benefits

The repellent activity of essential oils of lemon eucalyptus (Eucalyptus maculata citrodion), rue (Ruta chalepensis), oleoresin of pyrethrum (Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium) and neem (Azadiracta indica) have been field tested as 40%, 50% and 75% solutions in coconut oil against populations of mosquitoes consisting mainly of Mansonia in Gambella, western Ethiopia. A latin square design was used to randomize the test subjects for possible individual differences for mosquito attraction. Repellency was evaluated as the percentage protection. Deet was included in the study for comparison. All the plant products manifested repellency. At 50% concentration at which the highest repellency was recorded the protection was 91.6%, 87.0%, 96.0%, 97.9% for rue, neem, pyrethrum and deet, respectively. The essential oil of lemon eucalyptus was not tried at this concentration. At a 40% concentration deet, lemon eucalyptus and pyrethrum were significantly (p < 0.05) more effective than rue and neem. At a 50% concentration, deet and pyrethrum were significantly better (p < 0.05) than rue and neem. At a 75% concentration concentration, deet and lemon eucalypus performed significantly better (p < 0.05) than pyrethrum and neem. The difference between pyrethrum and neem was also significant (p < 0.01).

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Crude extraction from Neem, Chili and, Pong-pong showed a complete inhibition zone at 3,000ppm (100%) in the green mould in vitro. At in vivo, concentrations (4,000 and 5,000ppm), Neem, Chili, and Pong-pong showed a high effect on the prevention of the development of mycelia growth Penicillium digitatum on the surface fruits in storage conditions at 25 °C±2. In addition, the lethal concentration (LC50) values of the crude extracts were investigated by using the Brine-shrimp (Artemia salina Leach) lethality test (BST). At 20.5 and 30 μg/ml-1, Neem, Pong-pong and hot Chili showed very high lethal toxicity on brine and effect. Lemon grass and Ginger killed 50% at 495 and 473 μg/ml(-1), respectively, compared with controls.

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In traditional healing, practitioners use barks, leaves, nuts, fruit juices and roots, and parts of domestic animals. They practice their craft mostly in Africa, Asia, and other Third World countries, and they are variously called juju priests, diviners, herbalists, and witch doctors. Cases of achievements in their contributions to preventive and curative health have been documented. In Nigeria, clients regularly patronize both orthodox and traditional medical practitioners. Their remedies include healing the bite of the very poisonous carpet viper, chronic bronchitis, peptic ulcer, and heart problems, as well as performing uvulectomy and tonsillectomy. Quinine, the cure for malaria, was originally the ritual medicine of the Incas of Peru. It was confirmed that Azadirachta Indica (Meliaceae), the neem tree, used against malaria in Nigeria, India, and Asia, had a potent antiplasmodial activity. The plant Streblus asper, Linn (Shakhotoha Siora) is well known in Indian Ayurvedic medicine to treat fever, filariasis, dysentery, and diarrhea. The alkaloids derived from the Madagascan periwinkle Catharanthus roseus (Apocynaceae), used in a West Indian remedy for diabetes mellitus, have antitumor activity. The drug Maytensine, obtained from Mytenus ovatus Loes (Celastraceae), was found to be a powerful antitumor agent in animals. Tea made from the leaves of Osyris wightiana stimulated the flow of breast milk and also acted as a labor-inducing agent. Saponaria officinalis and Enterobbium cyclocarpum are both used in Egypt and Tanzania as spermicide contraceptives. A 1985 survey in Cross River State, Nigeria, demonstrated that 165 (61%) of respondents went to traditional healers for treatment. Part of their continued popularity is the person-centered approach that is virtually lacking in orthodox hospitals, although this humanistic approach to therapy is gradually gaining inroads into Western medical education. The services of both kinds of medicine could be harmonized by open-minded appraisal, identification of positive aspects, and acceptance of their complimentary nature.

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Chemoprevention by medicinal plants is a promising approach for controlling cancer. There is substantial evidence to indicate that chemopreventive agents exert their anticarcinogenic effects by modulation of phase I and phase II xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes. Therefore, we examined the chemopreventive potential of ethanolic neem leaf extract (ENLE) on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis. Hamsters were divided into four groups of six animals each. The right buccal pouches of animals in Group I were painted with 0.5 per cent DMBA in liquid paraffin three times per week. Animals in Group 2 painted with DMBA as in group 1, received in addition, intragastric administration of ENLE at a concentration of 200 mg/kg bw three times per week on days alternate to DMBA application. Group 3 was given ENLE alone. Animals in Group 4 served as controls. All animals were killed after an experimental period of 14 weeks. Five out of six hamsters painted with DMBA alone developed squamous cell carcinomas in the buccal pouch. The HBP tumours showed an increase in phase I carcinogen activation (cytochrome P450 and b5) and phase II detoxification enzyme (glutathione-S-transferase, DT-diaphorase and NADPH-diaphorase) activities. In the liver of tumour-bearing animals, enhanced cytochrome P450 and b5 levels were accompanied by a decrease in phase II detoxification enzyme activities. Administration of ENLE effectively suppressed DMBA-induced HBP tumours, decreased cytochrome P450 and b5 levels, and enhanced phase II enzyme activities in the pouch and liver. Our results suggest that the modulation of DMBA metabolism is a possible mechanism for the chemopreventive effects of ethanolic neem leaf extract.

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The combination of the three herbal ingredients resulted in the potentiation of the spermicidal action by 8-folds. The post coital tests confirmed the spermicidal properties of the Praneem polyherbal pessary (PPP) in women with high cervical mucous score around mid estrus. It also prevented in most women the migration of sperm into the cervical mucous. In 15 rabbits studied pregnancy was prevented by the intravaginal administration of PPP, whereas 13 of the 15 animals in the control group became pregnant.

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We have reported that prophylactic as well as therapeutic administration of neem leaf glycoprotein (NLGP) induces significant restriction of solid tumor growth in mice. Here, we investigate whether the effect of such pretreatment (25µg/mice; weekly, 4 times) benefits regulation of tumor angiogenesis, an obligate factor for tumor progression. We show that NLGP pretreatment results in vascular normalization in melanoma and carcinoma bearing mice along with downregulation of CD31, VEGF and VEGFR2. NLGP pretreatment facilitates profound infiltration of CD8+ T cells within tumor parenchyma, which subsequently regulates VEGF-VEGFR2 signaling in CD31+ vascular endothelial cells to prevent aberrant neovascularization. Pericyte stabilization, VEGF dependent inhibition of VEC proliferation and subsequent vascular normalization are also experienced. Studies in immune compromised mice confirmed that these vascular and intratumoral changes in angiogenic profile are dependent upon active adoptive immunity particularly those mediated by CD8+ T cells. Accumulated evidences suggest that NLGP regulated immunomodulation is active in tumor growth restriction and normalization of tumor angiogenesis as well, thereby, signifying its clinical translation.

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Hexane and ethanol extracts of seeds from 10 plant species (including neem-Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) of the family Meliaceae were incorporated into artificial diet at various doses and fed to fall armyworm [Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)] larvae in nochoice tests. All produced significant mortality, reduced larval growth rate, increased time to pupation, or all three, at some concentration. The two highest doses of all of the ethanol extracts caused 100% mortality before pupation, but the hexane extracts tended to be less effective.Aglaia cordata Hiern. ethanol extract was as potent as the comparable neem seed extract at virtually all levels, and its hexane extract was active at much lower concentrations than the neem extract was. The sublethal effects (slower growth and increased time to pupation) were usually detectable at lower doses of extract than mortality was.

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This article aims to offer, on the basis of Coherence theory, the epistemological proposition that mutually supportive evidence from multiple systematic reviews may successfully refute radical, philosophical scepticism.

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New pesticides based on natural products are urgently needed, in consideration of their environmental care and lower collateral effects. Neem oil, the main product obtained from Azadiractha indica A. Juss, commonly known as neem tree, is mainly used in medical devices, cosmetics and soaps, as well as important insecticide. Manufacturing of neem oil first includes the collection of the neem seeds as raw material used for the extraction. Neem cake is the waste by-product remaining after extraction processes. The quality of the oil, as that of the cake, strictly depends from the quality of seeds as well as from the type of extraction processes used, which strongly influences the chemical composition of the product. Currently, the different types of commercial neem cake on the market are roughly identified as oiled and deoiled cake, but several other differences can be detected. The differences are relevant and must be determined, to obtain the necessary correlation between chemical constitution and larvicidal activities. Six different batches of neem cake, marketed by several Indian and European companies, were analyzed by HPLC and HPTLC, and their fingerprints compared, obtaining information about the different compositions, focusing in particular on nortriterpenes, considered as the main active components of neem oil. Therefore, the chemical composition of each cake was connected with the biological activitiy, i.e., the effects of the extracts of the six neem cakes were tested on eggs and larvae of Aedes albopictus (Stegomyia albopicta) (Diptera: Culicidae), commonly known as Asian tiger mosquito. The results confirmed the previously reported larvicide effects of neem cake that, however, can now be related to the chemical composition, in particular with nortriterpenes, allowing in that way to discriminate between the quality of the various marketed products, as potential domestic insecticides.

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Simulated RCTs with various parameter settings were generated, using R software, and subjected to bias-free and selection bias scenarios. The effect size inflation due to bias was quantified. The test was applied in both scenarios and the pooled sensitivity and specificity, with 95% confidence intervals for alpha levels of 1%, 5%, and 20%, were computed. Summary ROC curves were generated and the relationships of parameters with test accuracy were explored.

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Histological sections of the experimental groups revealed no histopathological features. No statistically significant difference was observed in the serum levels of FSH in the treated groups. However, serum levels of LH were significantly reduced when compared with the control.

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Many studies have been conducted with plants whose extracts have the potential to be used for pest control. One of these plants is Azadirachta indica (neem), whose main active ingredient is azadirachtin, a compound shown to have acaricide and insecticide activity. Rhipicephalus sanguineus (brown dog tick) is currently considered to be an "urban pest," because of its high levels of infestation and its ability to attack humans. In the present study partially and fully engorged R. sanguineus females were exposed to aqueous extracts of neem at concentrations of 10% and 20%, and to a control treatment. The results showed that differently from what was observed in the control, the pedicel cells of females exposed to neem at both concentrations lost their original shape. In the latter cases, the cytoplasm of the cells became fully vacuolated, especially near the germinal vesicle (oocyte nuclei) and in the oocyte pole, which is in contact with the cells of the pedicel. Oocytes in early stages of development (I and II) of ticks treated with both concentrations had irregular germinal vesicle, including the presence of two nucleoli as well as fragments of these. Oocytes in stages IV and V of exposed individuals showed full granular cytoplasm with bigger yolk granules when compared to the early stages. Chorion of mature oocytes was also altered, showing folds and deformations along their entire extension. The observed changes in cells of the reproductive system of R. sanguineus, especially in the oocytes, indicated the potential of neem as a new alternative method to control these ectoparasites.

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Bait sprays containing neem are a promising alternative for the management of R. cerasi, especially where the risk of immigration of fertilized females is low, as in isolated orchards or as part of area-wide treatments.

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neem with alcohol 2015-12-11

The concern about the harmful effects caused by synthetic pesticides has led to the search for safe and ecological alternatives for pest control. In this context, the neem tree (Azadirachta indica) stands out due to its repellent properties and effects on various arthropods, including ticks. For this reason, this study aimed to demonstrate the potential of neem as a control method for Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, important vectors of diseases in the veterinary point of view. For this, R. sanguineus semi-engorged females were subjected to treatment with neem seed oil enriched with azadirachtin, its main compound, and ovaries were assessed by means of morphological techniques in conventional light microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Neem demonstrated a clear dose-dependent effect in the analyzed samples. The observed oocytes presented, especially in the groups treated with higher concentrations of neem oil, obvious signs of cytoplasmic disorganization, cellular vacuolization, nuclear and nucleolar irregularity, dilation in mitochondrial cristae, alterations in mitochondrial matrix, and swelling of rough endoplasmic reticulum. Intracellular microorganisms were observed in all analyzed groups, reinforcing the importance of ticks in the transmission of pathogens. A greater quantity of microorganisms was noted as the concentration of neem increased, indicating that the damaged oocytes may be more susceptible for their buy neem online development. Such morphological alterations may promote future damages in reproductive performance of these animals and demonstrate the potential of neem seed oil for the control of R. sanguineus ticks, paving the way for new, cheaper, and safer methods of control.

neem toothpaste review 2017-06-07

Experiments were conducted to assess the influence of storage practices on mycotoxin incidences in stored maize and groundnuts in Kilosa District, Eastern Central Tanzania. Factorial experiments were used to test the effects of processing, storage conditions, and protectants at 3-month intervals for 12 weeks. Temperature and relative humidity data were recorded by using data loggers. The differences among the treatment means were compared using Tukey's honestly significant difference test at 5% probability level. The log-linear model was used to determine the influence of weather on mycotoxin. Dried neem ( Azadirachta indica ) leaves significantly reduced fumonisin B1 (FB1) in stored maize. Levels of FB1 were significantly buy neem online higher in maize heaped on the floor than in the other tested storage methods (P < 0.001). Similarly, aflatoxin levels were significantly higher in groundnuts stored in nylon bags than in the other tested methods (P < 0.001). The high concentration of mycotoxins at the study villages suggests that storage practices and weather conditions play major roles in mycotoxin production.

neem capsules 2017-02-08

Neem (Azadirachta indica) has attracted the attention of researchers worldwide due to its repellent properties and recognized effects on the morphology and physiology of arthropods, including ticks. Therefore, this study aimed to demonstrate the effects of neem seed oil enriched with azadirachtin on salivary glands of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, targets of great veterinary interest because of their ability to transmit pathogens to dogs. For this, R. sanguineus semi-engorged females were subjected to treatment with neem seed oil, with known azadirachtin concentrations (200, 400 and 600ppm). After dissection, salivary glands were collected and evaluated through morphological techniques in light microscopy, confocal scanning laser microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, so that the possible relation between neem action and further impairment in these ectoparasites feed performance could be established. Neem oil demonstrated a clear dose-dependent effect in the analyzed samples. The agranular (type I) and granular acini (types II and III) showed, particularly in individuals treated with the highest concentrations of the product, cells with irregular shape, intense buy neem online cytoplasmic disorganization and vacuolation, dilation of rough endoplasmic reticulum lumen, besides alterations in mitochondrial intermembrane space. These morphological damages may indicate modifications in salivary glands physiology, demonstrating the harmful effects of compounds present in neem oil on ticks. These results reinforce the potential of neem as an alternative method for controlling R. sanguineus ticks, instead of synthetic acaricides.

neem 475 mg 2016-09-15

Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), a serine/threonine kinase is frequently inactivated by the oncogenic signalling kinases PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK in diverse malignancies. The present study was designed to investigate GSK-3β signalling circuits in the 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis model and the therapeutic potential of the neem limonoid nimbolide. Inactivation of GSK-3β by phosphorylation at serine 9 and activation of PI3K/Akt, MAPK/ERK and β-catenin was associated with increased cell proliferation and apoptosis evasion during stepwise evolution of HBP carcinomas. Administration of nimbolide inhibited PI3K/Akt signalling with consequent activation of GSK-3β thereby inducing trafficking of β-catenin away from the nucleus and enhancing the expression of miR-126 and let-7. Molecular docking studies confirmed interaction of nimbolide with PI3K, Akt, ERK and GSK-3β. Furthermore, nimbolide attenuated cell proliferation and induced apoptosis as evidenced by increased p-cyclin D1(Thr286) and pro-apoptotic proteins. The present study has buy neem online unravelled aberrant phosphorylation as a key determinant for oncogenic signalling and acquisition of cancer hallmarks in the HBP model. The study has also provided mechanistic insights into the chemotherapeutic potential of nimbolide that may be a useful addition to the armamentarium of natural compounds targeting PI3K for oral cancer treatment.

neem gel 2017-05-27

Two percent neem oil mixed in coconut oil, when applied to the exposed body parts of human volunteers, provided complete protection for 12 h from the bites of all anopheline species. Application of neem oil is safe and can be used for protection buy neem online from malaria in endemic countries.

neem reviews 2017-07-09

The aetiology and pathogenesis of Reye's syndrome (RS) are incompletely understood. A number of environmental toxins and biological agents, including viruses, have been postulated to cause RS, either acting alone or synergistically. Most investigations have suggested that the primary insult is in the liver mitochondria, leading to a complex biochemical catastrophe, with death from encephalopathy. Margosa oil (MO), a long-chain fatty acid compound, has been shown to cause a Reye-like syndrome with death from hepatoencephalopathy, in children in Malaysia and India. The present time-course study performed in MO-administered mice showed the development of hepatic lesions with many features of RS. MO acts rapidly, within 30 min, on the nuclei of hepatocytes inducing mitoses buy neem online and binucleated cells. This is followed by mitochondrial injury, with swelling, rarefaction of matrix, loss of dense bodies, pleomorphism, and loss of ribosomes starting at 60 min. There is loss of liver glycogen, and proliferation and hypertrophy of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), followed by the presence of lipid droplets in the hyaloplasm, and globules within dilated cisterns of the ER. Additional fatty acids from lipolysis of body adipocytes, and fat globules from intestinal MO ingestion further aggravate the liver fatty change. There is evidence of fat globule ingestion by endocytosis into hepatocytes at the level of the sinusoids. The development of microvesicular liver steatosis and glycogen depletion due to involvement of liver cell organelles occur rapidly as in RS.

dabur neem capsules 2017-07-26

The efficacy of neem (1500 ppm azadirachtin (AI)), Delfin WG, a biological insecticide based on selected strain of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) subspecies kurstaki, and Cry1Ac protein, either individually or in combination, were examined against first to fourth instar Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) larvae. Using an oral administration method, various growth inhibitory concentrations (EC) and lethal concentrations (LC) were determined for each bioagent. Combinations of sublethal concentrations of Bt spray formulation buy neem online with azadirachtin at EC50 or EC95 levels not only enhanced the toxicity, but also reduced the duration of action when used in a mixture. The LC20 and LC50 values for Cry1Ac toxin were 0.06 and 0.22 microg ml-1, respectively. Bt-azadirachtin combinations of LC50+EC20 and LC50+EC50 result in 100% mortality. The mortality also was significant in LC20+EC20 and LC20+EC50 mixtures. These studies imply that the combined action is not synergistic but complimentary, with azadirachtin particularly facilitating the action of Bt. The Bt spray-azadirachtin combination is more economical than combinations that involve isolating the toxic protein, as the Bt spray formulations can be combined in a spray mixture with neem. These combinations may be useful for controlling bollworm populations that have acquired resistance to Bt as they may not survive the effect of mixture. Azadirachtin may be useful as a means of reducing the endotoxin concentrations in a mixture, to promote increased economic savings and further reduce the probability of resistance development to either insect control agent.

neem capsule benefits 2017-06-29

In the Ayurvedha and Sidha system of medicine (Indian system of medicine) Azadirachta indica ADR ('Neem') and Curcuma longa ('Turmeric') has been used for healing chronic ulcers and scabies. The 'Neem' and 'Turmeric' was used as a paste for the treatment of scabies in 814 people. In 97% of cases cure was obtained within 3 to 15 days of treatment. We find that this is a very cheap buy neem online , easily available, effective and acceptable mode of treatment for the villagers in the developing countries. We have noticed no toxic or adverse reaction so far. However, further research is needed.

dabur neem tablets 2016-05-29

A range of cultured cells of invertebrate and vertebrate origin was grown in the presence of a number of phytochemical pesticides to test the effect of the latter on cell proliferation. The main observation was that azadirachtin was a potent inhibitor of insect cell replication, with an EC50 of 1.5 x 10(10) M against Spodoptera cells and of 6.3 x 10(9) M against Aedes albopictus cells, whilst affecting mammalian cells only at high concentrations (> 10(-4) M). As expected, the other phytochemical pesticides, except for rotenone, had little effect on the growth of the cultured cells. Rotenone was highly effective in inhibiting the growth of insect cells (EC50:10(-8) M) but slightly less toxic towards mammalian cells (EC50:2 x 10(-7) M). Neem terpenoids other than azadirachtin and those very similar in structure significantly inhibited growth of the cell cultures, but to a lesser degree. The major neem seed terpenoids, nimbin and salannin, for example, inhibited insect cell growth by 23% and buy neem online 15%, respectively.

neem tablets 2015-02-08

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is responsible for proinflammatory reactions in various infectious and non-infectious diseases. We have investigated the mechanism of anti-inflammatory activity of epoxyazadiradione, a limonoid purified from neem (Azadirachta indica) fruits, against MIF. Epoxyazadiradione inhibited the tautomerase activity of MIF of both human (huMIF) and malaria parasites (Plasmodium falciparum (PfMIF) and Plasmodium yoelii (PyMIF)) non-competitively in a buy neem online reversible fashion (K(i), 2.11-5.23 μm). Epoxyazadiradione also significantly inhibited MIF (huMIF, PyMIF, and PfMIF)-mediated proinflammatory activities in RAW 264.7 cells. It prevented MIF-induced macrophage chemotactic migration, NF-κB translocation to the nucleus, up-regulation of inducible nitric-oxide synthase, and nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 cells. Epoxyazadiradione not only exhibited anti-inflammatory activity in vitro but also in vivo. We tested the anti-inflammatory activity of epoxyazadiradione in vivo after co-administering LPS and MIF in mice to mimic the disease state of sepsis or bacterial infection. Epoxyazadiradione prevented the release of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α when LPS and PyMIF were co-administered to BALB/c mice. The molecular basis of interaction of epoxyazadiradione with MIFs was explored with the help of computational chemistry tools and a biological knowledgebase. Docking simulation indicated that the binding was highly specific and allosteric in nature. The well known MIF inhibitor (S,R)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4,5-dihydro-5-isoxazole acetic acid methyl ester (ISO-1) inhibited huMIF but not MIF of parasitic origin. In contrast, epoxyazadiradione inhibited both huMIF and plasmodial MIF, thus bearing an immense therapeutic potential against proinflammatory reactions induced by MIF of both malaria parasites and human.

neem pills 2016-06-27

Effects of feeding of powdered dry leaves of A. indica (AI) were investigated on humoral and cell mediated immune responses, in a flock of broilers which had survived an outbreak of infectious bursal disease (IBD). AI (2 g/kg) treatment significantly enhanced the antibody titres against new castle disease virus (NCDV) antigen and also potentiated the inflammatory reactions to 1. Chloro-2,4-di- nitro benzene (DNCB) inskin contact test. The results indicate that AI could be beneficial in immunosuppressed condition like buy neem online IBD, in poultry.

neem leaf capsules 2017-05-14

This work reports on the antimicrobial activity of an ethyl acetate extract of neem (Azadirachta indica) cake (NCE) against bacteria affecting the quality of retail fresh meat in a broth model meat system. NCE (100 µg) was also tested by the agar disc diffusion method. It inhibited the growth of all tested microorganisms. The NCE growth inhibition zone (IZ) ranged 11.33-22.67 mm while the ciprofloxacin (10 µg) IZ ranged from 23.41-32.67 mm. There was no significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) between the antimicrobial activity of NCE and ciprofloxacin vs. C. jejuni and Leuconostoc spp. The NCE antibacterial activity was moreover determined at lower concentrations (1:10-1:100, buy neem online 000) in micro-assays. The percent growth reduction ranged from 61 ± 2.08-92 ± 3.21. The higher bacterial growth reduction was obtained at 10 µg concentration of NCE. Species-specific PCR and multiplex PCR with the DNA dye propidium monoazide were used to directly detect viable bacterial cells from experimentally contaminated meat samples. The numbers of bacterial cells never significantly (p ≤ 0.05) exceeded the inocula concentration used to experimentally contaminate the NCE treated meat. This report represents a screening methodology to evaluate the antimicrobial capability of a herbal extract to preserve meat.

neem juice buy 2016-06-14

The relationship between Tab Naprosyn P dose for each of four biorational insecticides (pyrethrins, neem extract, capsiacin extract, insecticidal soap) and mortality of the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) was determined using a laboratory bioassay. These insecticides were toxic to aphids and paired mixtures of the insecticides provided synergistic activity as measured by aphid mortality under the laboratory bioassay conditions. Capsiacin extracts were found to provide low levels of mortality alone but acted synergistically in mixtures with the other insecticides and provided higher than expected levels of mortality. Activity as determined in the laboratory for each insecticide was not evident under field-use conditions in five separate experiments. Under field conditions and using common application methods, these insecticides did not provide significant levels of control of aphids.

dabur neem tablet 2017-05-17

The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial Zocor Medication properties of 10 naturally available plant products against oral microorganisms causing caries and to check the efficacy of these products in-vitro and to use these in mouth washes and dentrifices.

neem dosage 2017-10-08

Oviposition site choice by female mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti (L) (Diptera: Culicidae), was affected by rearing them in water treated with 0.016% of the repellent Mozaway trade mark containing citronella and neem. Given a choice between a bowl of repellent-treated and a bowl of untreated water, Ae. aegypti reared in untreated water strongly preferred to oviposit on the clean water (93-98%) instead of repellent-treated water. This demonstrates effective deterrence of oviposition by dilute Mozaway trade mark. Those reared in repellent-treated water were less deterred: 38-46 4 Diflucan Pills % of their eggs were laid on the repellent-treated water and 54-62% on the clean water. Evidently the female mosquitoes reared in repellent-treated water were conditioned against oviposition site deterrence, as shown when choice tests were conducted 6 days post-emergence from the treated water. This demonstrates learning and memory in the mosquito Ae. aegypti, with implications for dengue vector surveillance and control.

neem 950 mg 2017-09-29

Using the one-way ANOVA with multiple comparison, Zocor Dosage Forms significantly less bacteria were found adhering to the samples treated with Neem followed by NaOCL, GT, MC, Saline.

neem tab 2016-06-12

Two ladybeetles, Cycloneda sanguinea and Harmonia axyridis, were exposed in the laboratory to eight fungicide formulations commonly used in citrus production in Florida. Both benomyl and the combination of copper and petroleum oil proved toxic to larvae of C. sanguinea that were exposed to concentrations corresponding to recommended field rates, either as leaf residues or in topical spray applications. Larvae of C. sanguinea also suffered significant mortality when exposed to neem oil as a leaf residue, but not after topical application. Larvae of H. axyridis exposed to these compounds completed development with the same success as control larvae in all trials. However, H. axyridis larvae exhibited slower development following exposure to leaf residues of ferbam applied at Crestor Dosage Range twice the recommended rate. Exposure to azoxystrobin as a leaf residue at twice the recommended concentration resulted in accelerated larval development in both species. No compounds appeared repellent to adult beetles of either species. Adult beetles of both species were observed resting on portions of filter paper treated with fosetyl-Al more often than on untreated, control portions. Azoxystrobin, ferbam and mefenoxam similarly arrested the movement of adult C. sanguinea, whereas benomyl and the copper and petroleum oil combination arrested the movement of adult H. axyridis. The differential sensitivity of the two coccinellid species is discussed in the context of the potential displacement of the indigenous C. sanguinea by the invasive H. axyridis.

neem with alcohol 2016-08-27

Neem (Azadirachta indica) is recognized as a medicinal plant well known for its antibacterial, antimalarial, antiviral, and antifungal properties. Neem nanoemulsion (NE) (O/W) is formulated using neem oil, Tween 20, and water by high-energy ultrasonication. The formulated neem NE showed antibacterial activity against the bacterial pathogen Vibrio vulnificus by disrupting the integrity of the bacterial cell membrane. Despite the use of neem NE in various biomedical applications, the toxicity studies on human cells are still lacking. The neem NE showed a decrease in cellular viability in human lymphocytes after 24 hours of exposure. The neem NE at Albenza Pediatric Dosage lower concentration (0.7-1 mg/mL) is found to be nontoxic while it is toxic at higher concentrations (1.2-2 mg/mL). The oxidative stress induced by the neem NE is evidenced by the depletion of catalase, SOD, and GSH levels in human lymphocytes. Neem NE showed a significant increase in DNA damage when compared to control in human lymphocytes (P<0.05). The NE is an effective antibacterial agent against the bacterial pathogen V. vulnificus, and it was found to be nontoxic at lower concentrations to human lymphocytes.

neem toothpaste review 2016-04-10

Regular brushing with neem toothpaste might act as an adjunct to maintenance of good oral hygiene, and thus improve oral Minipress Dosage Forms health.

neem capsules 2017-01-01

It was shown that Neem was highly efficient to 5.25% NaOCl in reducing Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans within the root canals when compared Cymbalta Buy with other extracts.

neem 475 mg 2017-04-16

The effect of four extracts from neem seeds (Azadirachta indica) containing 2000, 5000, 9000 and 10,000 ppm of azadirachtin A (AZA), quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and diluted to 1.25%; 2.5%; 5.0%; 10.0% and 12.8% was verified by in vitro tests with engorged females and larvae of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus. The results from the bioassays with the engorged females showed that the main toxic effect of the extracts was reduction of the reproductive parameters, with a sharp drop in the number of eggs laid and the hatching rate, mainly when the extracts were diluted to 10.0% and 12.8%. The product effectiveness (PE) calculations for all the solutions tested showed that the AZA solution at 10,000 ppm (N10) was the most effective. However, statistical analysis of the PE data obtained for the proportional AZA concentrations in the different diluted extracts showed significance (P<0.05) of the effects included in the model (extract dilution, principle effect (classificatory) of the assay (extract) and the interaction between the two), indicating significant variations due to the dilution, the test and the interaction between the two factors in the tests with engorged females. For solutions N2, N5, and N9, it was not possible to estimate LC(90) values in the dilution range tested. The lowest LC(50) was observed for extract N5, and although extract N10 was the only extract for which the LC(90) could be estimated within the range tested, the LC(50) was higher than for N5 and N9. These results suggest that substances other than AZA present in the extracts influenced the efficacy, especially up to a certain LC range. In the tests with larvae, no mortality was observed, indicating zero Mysoline 10 Mg effectiveness of all the extracts tested. The results of the tests with engorged females showed that the neem extracts had acaricide activity, inhibiting egg laying and the larval hatching rate. Complementary studies are necessary to develop new methods to isolate and/or identify other substances besides AZA contained in this plant, to enable using products made from it as acaricides.

neem gel 2017-07-04

The most serious insect pest problems affecting the cultivation Moduretic Buy Online of mushroom [Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach] in Turkey are mushroom flies (sciarids, cecids and phorids). Mushroom phorid fly, Megaselia halterata (Wood), is the most common insect pest species during April-October. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential for eight botanical materials (two commercial neem-based products and six hot-water plant extracts) to control M. halterata populations in three successive growing periods.

neem reviews 2016-06-20

Persistence of azadirachtins (A+B) and of the other limonoids (nimbin, salannin, deacetylnimbin, and deacetylsalannin) on peach leaves and fruits was studied using a commercial formulation (form. C) compared with an experimental formulation (form. E) prepared with coformulations allowed in organic culture. Field experiments were carried out using three concentrations: 1x, 5x, and 10x the dose recommended by the manufacturer. The EU maximum residue level (MRL) in fruits and vegetables for azadirachtin A is 1 mg/kg with a preharvest interval (PHI) of 3 days. At the recommended dose, azadirachtin A residue on fruits was not detectable (LOQ < 0.8 microg/kg). After field treatment at the 5x concentration, azadirachtoids were found with 22% in the epicuticular waxes and the remaining 78% on the fruit surface. No residues were found in the fruit pulp. The experimental formulation (E) produced lower residues on leaves and fruit compared with the commercial formulation (C), although formulation E showed greater stability. This is probably due to the amount of the active ingredients that diffuse into the epicuticular wax layer thus enhancing photostability Mestinon Timespan Cost of azadirachtoids.

dabur neem capsules 2015-08-28

The whitish tender leaves of Palmyrah are used for making handicrafts. The problem with these articles is discolouration with time and become more brittle due to fungal attack. This could Ceftin Reviews be prevented by some protective coating. Instead of expensive and harmful chemicals we decided to test natural plant essential oils to control fungal attack. Palmyrah leaf article decay fungi were isolated from two different sites of Jaffna peninsula. In this investigation Antifungal Activity of different plant essential oils from neem (Azadirachta indica), castor (Ricinus communis), citronella (Cymbopogon sp) and camphor (Cinnamomum camphora) obtained from local market have been evaluated against isolated fungi. For screening of Antifungal activity, tests and controls were set to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and Percentage of Growth Inhibition.

neem capsule benefits 2016-03-03

A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of aqueous extracts of six plant species, namely Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (neem), Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br., Lawsonia alba Lam., Allium cepa L., A. sativum L. and Zingiber officinale Roscoe, and a systemic fungicide carbendazim 50% (w/w) WP, to manage the corm-rot disease of Gladiolus (Gladiolus grandiflorus L.) caused by a fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. gladioli (Massey) Snyd. & Hans. Fusarium inoculation showed 80% disease incidence with 54 disease lesions per corm. Recommended dose of the chemical fungicide carbendazim significantly reduced the disease incidence to 13% and number of lesions to six per corm. Plant extract treatments exhibited variable effects on the incidence and severity of the disease. In general, all the test plant extracts managed the corm-rot disease to some extent. Aqueous bulb extracts of A. sativum and A. cepa and the rhizome extract of Z. officinale showed better disease management potential than that of the recommended dose of carbendazim. Fusarium inoculation significantly declined shoot growth. In general, carbendazim, as well as aqueous extracts, enhanced shoot growth to variable extents as compared to the Fusarium control.

dabur neem tablets 2016-04-09

The aim of this study was to find out the role and mechanism of action of neem oil as a postcoital fertility blocker in mouse.

neem tablets 2016-04-19

Urea-formaldehyde (UF), polymerized in situ in aqueous media, is a rigid polymer that can be used in the controlled release of bioactive molecules. During the process of polymerization, liquid neem seed oil (NSO) was encapsulated at three different loadings, which was then replaced by diclofenac sodium (DS), the presence of which was confirmed by FTIR spectra. The nanocapsules thus prepared were evaluated for percentage loading of the drug, particle size and release characteristics. Thermal analysis and x-ray data were obtained to understand the physical nature of the encapsulated drug. The surface characteristics of the nanocapsules were studied using a scanning electron microscope. Particles in the size range around 500 nm were obtained. The percentage loading efficiency of NSO was approximately 90-95, whereas for DS, the loading efficiency was only 50-60%. Complete release of the drug from the matrices occurred in 24 h, whereas, at 8 h only 60% of the drug was released.

neem pills 2017-07-05

On the 9th day of the 4th spray the larval count in the plot treated with 3% E. agallocha formulation drastically came down to 0.23 larva/plant, compared to 1.63 in the ethanol control plot and 1.60 in the unsprayed plot. Blocks sprayed with 3% E. agallocha formulation yielded 35.8 quintals/hectare (q/ha) of healthy pods compared to Ekalux® (pod yield: 60.7 q/ha), 3% Vijay Neem® (60.22 q/ha), yield plot (6 q/ha) and ethanol control (7 q/ha). In C. cajan, 1% E. agallocha, 3% Nimbecidine® and 0.07% indoxacarb were equally potent in reducing the larval population of H. armigera and the non-target pest Spilosoma obliqua to 0%, from the 9th day (3rd spray). Indoxacarb plot recorded the maximum yield of 16.1 q/ha with 2.4% pod damage. Plots sprayed with 1% E. agallocha yielded 14.7 q/ha with 2.32% pod damage. The effect of 3% Nimbecidine® spray (14.35 q/ha) was comparable to E. agallocha formulation. Unsprayed and ethanol control plots yielded 12.41 and 11.2 q/ha of pods with an average pod damage of 4.7%.

neem leaf capsules 2015-09-16

A total of 30 subjects were enrolled in this study. Gingival tissue samples were obtained from patients diagnosed with the chronic periodontitis. The tissue extracts were treated with the said drug solutions and inhibition of MMP-2 and MMP-9 was analyzed. Enzymatic activity was detected by electrophoresis. The data was subjected to Student's paired t-test.

neem juice buy 2016-07-04

The study was conducted to determine the effects of dried foliage of Acacia senegal and Neem (Azadirachta indica) tree supplementations on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, growth, and carcass parameters in short-eared Somali goats. Twenty male intact short-eared Somali goat yearlings with an average live weight of 16.2 ± 1.08 (Mean ± SD) were assigned to four treatment groups, which comprised a basal diet of hay alone (T1) and supplementation with the tree foliages. Supplements consisted Neem tree (T2), A. senegal (T3) and the mixture of the two (1:1 ratio; T4) dried foliages. The crude protein (CP) content of Neem tree foliage, A. senegal, and their mixture were 16.92, 17.5 and 17.01 % of dry matter (DM), respectively. Total DM intake and digestibility of DM and organic matter were significantly (P < 0.001) higher for the supplemented groups. CP digestibility was significantly higher (P < 0.01) for goats supplemented with Neem tree (72 %) and A. senegal (67 %). The final body weights were higher (P < 0.05) for the goats supplemented with A. Senegal. An average daily body weight (BW) gain was higher (P < 0.01) in supplemented groups. The hot carcass weight was higher in the group supplemented with A. senegal (8.3 kg) among the supplemented groups, all of which are higher than the control (4.9 kg). It is concluded that the supplementation with tree foliage, especially with A. senegal tree foliage, on grass hay encouraged a better utilization of nutrients and animal performance as compared to goats fed on a basal diet of grass hay only.