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Nizoral (Ketoconazole)

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Nizoral is an extra-class medicine which is taken in treatment of infections such as throat yeast infections, vaginal yeast infections, fungal infections, esophagus. Nizoral is a helpful for patients with Cushing's syndrome, hair growth, prostate cancer, eumycetoma, tinea versicolor, leishmaniasis, high blood levels of calcium. Nizoral acts as an anti-fungal drug.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Grifulvin, Lamisil, Sporanox, Grifulvin V, Diflucan, Fluconazole, Sporanox PulsePak, Onmel, Amphocin, Voriconazole, Abelcet, Fungizone, Vfend, Onmel, Abelcet


Also known as:  Ketoconazole.


Nizoral is developed with a help of medical professionals to fight with infections (throat yeast infections, vaginal yeast infections, fungal infections, esophagus), Cushing's syndrome, women hair growth, prostate cancer, eumycetoma, tinea versicolor, leishmaniasis, high blood levels of calcium. Target of Nizoral is to control, ward off, reduce and terminate fungi growth.

Nizoral acts as an anti-fungal drug. Nizoral operates by reducing fungi growth spreads by infection.

Nizoral is also known as Ketoconazole, Fung.

Nizoral is imidazole.


You should take it by mouth with full glass of water.

Take Nizoral once a day at the same time.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Nizoral suddenly.


If you overdose Nizoral and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Generic Nizoral overdosage: feeling lightheaded, diarrhea, migraine, abnormal pain, ears ringing, nausea, rething.


Store at room temperature between 15 and 25 degrees C (59 and 77 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

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The most common side effects associated with Nizoral are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Nizoral if you are allergic to Nizoral components.

Do not take Nizoral if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding.

Do not use Nizoral if you take astemizole (Hismanal), cisapride (Propulsid), midazolam (Versed), triazolam (Halcion).

Be careful if you are taking oral diabetes medicine as glipizide (Glucotrol), chlorpropamide (Diabinese), glyburide (Glynase, Diabeta, Micronase), tolazamide (Tolinase), tolbutamide (Orinase); tacrolimus (Prograf); rifampin (Rimactane, Rifadin); warfarin (Coumadin); cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune); antacids; famotidine (Pepcid, AC Pepcid), cimetidine (Tagamet HB, Tagamet), ranitidine (Zantac 75, Zantac), nizatidine (Axid AR, Axid); digoxin (Lanoxicaps, Lanoxin); methylprednisolone (Medrol); phenytoin (Dilantin); rabeprazole (Aciphex), omeprazole (Prilosec), lansoprazole (Prevacid).

Be careful if you have liver disease, achlorhydria.

Avoid consuming alcohol.

Try to avoid machine driving.

It can be dangerous to stop Nizoral taking suddenly.

nizoral medication

The severity of ketoconazole-induced hepatotoxicity was closely related to the exposure level (AUC) of the drug.

nizoral pill

Gamma Knife surgery offers a high rate of tumor control and a reasonable rate of endocrine remission in patients with Cushing's disease. The cessation of cortisol-lowering medications around the time of GKS appears to result in a more rapid rate of remission. Delayed hypopituitarism and endocrine recurrence develop in a minority of patients and underscore the need for long-term multidisciplinary follow-up.

nizoral ketoconazole tablets

In a randomized trial we compared ketoconazole (400 mg once daily, 27 patients) and nystatin (3 X 10(6) units four times daily, 29 patients) for prevention of fungal infection in neutropenic patients undergoing marrow transplantation in a protective environment. Fewer weekly surveillance cultures contained Candida species in ketoconazole recipients than in nystatin recipients (70 [26%] of 274 vs. 151 [47%] of 322; P less than .001). When all fungi were considered, the difference in colonization was less but was still significant (117 [43%] of 274 vs. 173 [54%] of 322; P = .01), primarily due to increased colonization of the rectum with Torulopsis glabrata among ketoconazole recipients (P less than .001). No difference in the incidence of local mucosal infection was seen. Two disseminated fungal infections occurred, both in nystatin recipients. Compliance with ketoconazole was significantly better than was compliance with nystatin (96% vs. 68%; P less than .001), but similar effects on colonization were found in an analysis adjusting for compliance. Ketoconazole was better tolerated and more effective than nystatin in reducing colonization due to Candida species but was also associated with significantly increased rates of colonization with T. glabrata.

nizoral dose

Ketoconazole was administered in a case of hirsutismus over a period of 4 months with high doses of 800 mg/day, and bilateral papilledema developed. After cessation of the drug the condition disappeared. As far as we know this is the first reported papilledema complication due to Ketoconazole.

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Patients with solid tumor, head-neck cancer or hematological malignancy were recruited into the study. Demographic data on age, gender, type of cancer, preceding treatment with antibiotics, anti-fungal agents, chemotherapy, radiation or surgery and presence of dentures were recorded on admission. Oral examination and microbial swabs were obtained and yeast culture, identification and antifungal susceptibility performed.

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The in vitro activities of amphotericin B, miconazole, ketoconazole, 5-fluorocytosine, and potassium iodide (KI) were studied on human and wild-type isolates of Basidiobolus and Conidiobolus species. Of the antifungal agents tested, the imidazole derivatives, especially ketoconazole, were the most active against the agents of entomophthoromycosis. Transmission electron microscopy showed severe morphological alteration of Basidiobolus sp. exposed to 0.78 micrograms of ketoconazole per ml. The MIC and minimal fungicidal concentration of ketoconazole was often lowered in the presence of 10% fetal calf serum or antibiotic medium no. 3. Half of the Basidiobolus isolates and all Conidiobolus isolates were inhibited by amphotericin B at 0.39 micrograms/ml. None of the strains tested were inhibited or killed at maximum concentrations of 5-fluorocytosine and KI. The in vitro resistance of these fungi to KI at high concentrations suggests that the reported favorable treatment with KI may not be due to its direct effect on these fungi but rather to other, undefined factors in combination with KI. These data suggest that ketoconazole may be of use in the treatment of entomophthoromycosis, particularly in cases which are not responsive to KI.

nizoral oral dosage

The aromatase inhibitory properties of the antifungal ketoconazole were compared with those of aminoglutethimide. In rat granulosa cells ketoconazole and aminoglutethimide showed IC50 values for aromatase inhibition of 2 X 10(-6) and 6 X 10(-7) M respectively. In the rat, in vivo, ketoconazole was 5 times less potent than aminoglutethimide. In young women, 400 mg of ketoconazole only marginally lowered plasma levels of estradiol-17 beta. It is concluded that ketoconazole is not a compound of choice for clinical use as an aromatase inhibitor.

nizoral gel

A total of 20 new phenylenedithiourea derivatives was synthesized by reaction of phenylenediisothiocyanates with aromatic amines as aminobenzoic, aminosalicylic acid and their derivatives. Their chemical structures were confirmed by elemental analysis, IR spectrometry and 1H NMR. The compounds were screened for in vitro antifungal, antibacterial activities and some of them have strong antifungal activities comparable to the activity observed for ketoconazole.

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Sterol 14-demethylase P450 (CYP51) is an essential enzyme for sterol biosynthesis by eukaryotes. We have cloned rat and human CYP51 cDNAs [Aoyama, Y., Noshiro, M., Gotoh, O., Imaoka, S., Funae, Y., Kurosawa, N., Horiuchi, T., and Yoshida, Y. (1996) J. Biochem. 119, 926-933]. The cloned rat CYP51 cDNA was expressed in Escherichia coli with modification of the N-terminal amino acid sequence, and the expressed protein (CYP51m) was purified to gel-electrophoretic homogenity. The spectrophotometrically determined specific content of CYP51m was 16 nmol/mg protein and the apparent molecular weight was estimated to be 53,000 on SDS-PAGE. Soret peaks of the oxidized and reduced CO-complex of CYP51m were observed at 417 and 447 nm, respectively. The purified CYP51m catalyzed the 14-demethylation of lanosterol and 24,25-dihydrolanosterol upon reconstitution with NADPH-P450 reductase purified from rat liver microsomes. The apparent K(m) and V(max) values for lanosterol were 10.5 microM and 13.9 nmol/min/nmol P450, respectively, and those for 24, 25-dihydrolanosterol were 20.0 microM and 20.0 nmol/min/nmol P450, respectively. The lanosterol demethylase activity of the reconstituted system of CYP51m was inhibited by ketoconazole, itraconazole and fluconazole with apparent IC(50) values of 0.2, 0.7, and 160 microM, respectively.

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The history of corticosteroid use in clinical medicine has been colorful, noisy, and always controversial. Therapeutic corticosteroid indications that initially seemed rational have frequently been refuted on closer, rigorous clinical trial inspection. Although it may be prudent to provide stress-dose steroids to children with septic shock who are clinically at risk for adrenal insufficiency (chronic or recent steroid use, purpura fulminans, etomidate or ketoconazole administration, hypothalamic, pituitary, adrenal disease), the safety and efficacy of stress-dose steroids as general adjunctive therapy for pediatric septic shock have not been established. Glucocorticoid administration does add potential risk to critically ill children. In particular, although adjunctive corticosteroids may hasten resolution of unstable hemodynamics in septic shock, this may occur at the metabolic cost of hyperglycemia. Clinical practice that fosters innovative therapy (off-label use) over research probably represents bad medical and social policy. Accordingly, pediatric critical care researchers have a responsibility to generate pediatric-specific evidence-based medicine for adjunctive corticosteroid therapy for severe sepsis in children.

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A Trichophyton mentagrophytes infection of guinea pigs induced by an occlusive procedure is described. The method of evaluation permits comparison of efficacy of antifungal agents which are not tested simultaneously. Activity was demonstrated following topical application of clotrimazole, miconazole, tolnaftate or griseofulvin and oral administration of griseofulvin. Oral ketoconazole had little effect in this dermatophyte model.

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The in vitro antimycotic activity and the in vivo antimycotic activity (in a rabbit model) of itraconazole against P. orbiculare were compared to the corresponding activities of ketoconazole. Fluconazole's in vitro antimycotic activity and in vivo antimycotic activity against P. orbiculare were tested in the same models. The MIC values of itraconazole against P. orbiculare were 0.1-0.2 micrograms/ml compared to 0.02-0.05 micrograms/ml for ketoconazole. For fluconazole, the MIC values were 12.5-50.0 micrograms/ml against P. orbiculare. In a rabbit model, orally administered itraconazole (5 mg/kg) afforded protection against experimental pityriasis (tinea) versicolor in four out of five rabbits. Ketoconazole (1 mg/kg) was effective in all four animals. The in vivo results with fluconazole were in contrast to its low in vitro activity. Fluconazole (5 mg/kg) afforded protection against experimental pityriasis (tinea) versicolor in five out of six animals.

nizoral 100 mg

Most active antidandruff shampoos exhibit a strong activity against the yeast Malassezia ovalis. The present study was undertaken to compare the prolonged antifungal effect of three proprietary shampoos containing either 2% ketoconazole, 1.5% zinc pyrithione or 2.5% selenium sulphide. Superficial squames were harvested from the scalp in the days following a 6-week antifungal shampoo treatment. Counts of yeasts highlighted by a fluorochrome were made using computerized image analysis. Data show the increased duration of yeast reduction for the ketoconazole shampoo over the two other formulations. The lingering effect of ketoconazole is explained by the combination of its antifungal and pharmacokinetic properties.

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Candida albicans (48%) was the most frequently isolated species, followed by Candida kruzei (16.1%), Candida glabrata (13.5%), Candida kefyr (7.4%), Candida parapsilosis (4.8%), Candida tropicalis (1.7%) and other species (8.5%). Resistance varies depending on the species and the respective antifungal agents. Comparing the MIC90 for all the strains, the lower MIC90 was observed for caspofungin (0.5 µg/ml). The MIC90 for all Candida species were 64 µg/ml for fluconazole, 0.75 µg/ml for amphotericin B, 4 µg/ml for ketoconazole, 4 µg/ml for itraconazole, and 2 µg/ml for voriconazole.

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This study reveals no significant effect of KCZ on the incidence of OHSS during ART cycles; however, also no significant negative effects of KCZ on the number and maturity of oocytes or on fertilization rate.

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Adhesion of synchronised yeast-phase Candida albicans cells to tissue culture plastic, and the susceptibility of planktonic and adherent cells to antifungal agents, was investigated using a modified tetrazolium (XTT) assay. MIC data demonstrated that ketoconazole and amphotericin B were highly active against planktonic C. albicans yeast-phase cells. XTT tetrazolium assays permitted comparisons of MIC values with XTT formazan IC50 and IC80 (percentage inhibitory concentrations); IC50 and IC80 values for amphotericin B and ketoconazole were similar. Furthermore, IC50 and IC80 values for 24 h incubation with antifungal agent were typically higher than corresponding IC50 and IC80 values for 48 h incubation. Furthermore, in comparison to values for planktonic Candida cells, adherent cells were typically less susceptible to amphotericin B and ketoconazole. For example, with increasing incubation time following the initial adhesion period, cells became progressively less susceptible to amphotericin B and ketoconazole: 24 h (P < 0.05) and 48 h (P < 0.001). Furthermore, other azoles showed the same activities compared with ketoconazole against both planktonic and adherent cells. Overall, the data demonstrate the usefulness of the XTT tetrazolium assay in describing comparisons of the susceptibility profiles for both planktonic and adherent synchronous yeast phase C. albicans in vitro.

nizoral tablet treatment

Ketoconazole is a potent CYP3A inhibitor used to assess the contribution of CYP3A to drug clearance and quantify the increase in drug exposure due to a strong inhibitor. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models have been used to evaluate treatment regimens resulting in maximal CYP3A inhibition by ketoconazole but have reached different conclusions. We compare two PBPK models of the ketoconazole-midazolam interaction, model 1 (Chien et al., 2006) and model 2 implemented in Simcyp (version 11), to predict 16 published treatment regimens. With use of model 2, 41% of the study point estimates of area under the curve (AUC) ratio and 71% of the 90% confidence intervals were predicted within 1.5-fold of the observed, but these increased to 82 and 100%, respectively, with model 1. For midazolam, model 2 predicted a maximal midazolam AUC ratio of 8 and a hepatic fraction metabolized by CYP3A (f(m)) of 0.97, whereas model 1 predicted 17 and 0.90, respectively, which are more consistent with observed data. On the basis of model 1, ketoconazole (400 mg QD) for at least 3 days and substrate administration within 2 hours is required for maximal CYP3A inhibition. Ketoconazole treatment regimens that use 200 mg BID underestimate the systemic fraction metabolized by CYP3A (0.86 versus 0.90) for midazolam. The systematic underprediction also applies to CYP3A substrates with high bioavailability and long half-lives. The superior predictive performance of model 1 reflects the need for accumulation of ketoconazole at enzyme site and protracted inhibition. Model 2 is not recommended for inferring optimal study design and estimation of fraction metabolized by CYP3A.

nizoral 1 review

Ketoconazole is an imidazole derivative used to treat systemic and superficial mycoses by inhibiting sterol synthesis in fungi. The drug impairs steroid hormone synthesis by blocking mitochondrial P450-dependent enzyme systems. Because of its potent inhibitory effects on adrenal steroidogenesis, ketoconazole is valuable in controlling hypercortisolism. We investigated the effects of long-term treatment of this drug on three patients who had residual or recurrent Cushing's disease after surgical treatment. Ketoconazole was administered orally and adjusted according to individual response and 24-hour urinary free cortisol excretion levels. All three patients had good clinical and biochemical responses to ketoconazole therapy without adverse effects. The 24-hour urinary free cortisol levels were kept around 114.8+/-52.4 microg/24 h, 143.0+/-59.9 microg/24 h, and 122.9+/-79.9 microg/24 h, respectively (reference range, 35 to 120 microg/24 h). All three patients had follow-up magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography of the pituitary gland, which revealed no significant changes in the sellar region. Daily ketoconazole doses ranged from 200 to 1200 mg per day. Follow-up periods were 65, 86, and 83 months, respectively. In conclusion, ketoconazole is valuable in the long-term treatment of residual or recurrent Cushing's disease when surgical treatment is contraindicated or unsuccessful.

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Eight healthy female subjects were each given (a) ketoconazole 400 mg orally, (b) ketoconazole 400 mg as a single vaginal pessary, (c) ketoconazole 800 mg as two vaginal pessaries, and (d) ketoconazole 1200 mg as three vaginal pessaries. The area under the plasma concentration time curve (AUC) after the oral dose was 51.41 +/- 10.99 mg l-1 h (mean +/- s.d.) and the half-life of ketoconazole was 2.98 +/- 1.41 h. The AUCs after vaginal administration were 0.27 +/- 0.14, 0.52 +/- 0.25, and 0.43 +/- 0.22 mg-1 l h following the 400, 800 and 1200 mg pessaries respectively. Systemic absorption of single doses of vaginally administered ketoconazole appears to be negligible in the absence of vaginal infection. There were no local or systemic side effects related to ketoconazole in these healthy volunteers.

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To determine the human cytochromes mediating biotransformation of the imidazopyridine hypnotic, zolpidem, and the clinical correlates of the findings.

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Prospective, nonrandomized open trial.

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Sixteen subjects were randomized in an open-label, two period crossover design study. Subjects received a single dose of co-artemether (day 1) either alone or in combination with multiple oral doses of ketoconazole (400 mg on day 1 followed by 200 mg o.d. for 4 additional days). Serial blood samples were taken and assayed for artemether and its main active metabolite dihydroartemisinin (DHA), and lumefantrine.

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nizoral cream generic 2017-10-05

The triazole Bay R 3783 was compared with fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, and amphotericin B in rodent models of superficial and systemic candidiasis, meningocerebral cryptococcosis, and pulmonary aspergillosis. Overall, Bay R 3783 was comparable or slightly superior to fluconazole and markedly superior to itraconazole and ketoconazole in both survival and buy nizoral online short-term organ load experiments in models of candidiasis and cryptococcosis but was less effective than amphotericin B. Of the antifungal agents tested, only Bay R 3783 and itraconazole showed any efficacy in the model of pulmonary aspergillosis.

nizoral dosage directions 2017-06-21

Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed male malignancy and the second most common cause of male cancer death in the U.S. The principles of management of newly diagnosed metastatic prostate cancer have changed little in the last 50 years. Medical therapy continues to have no standard role in the management of localized disease. The various hormonal monotherapy approaches targeting androgen deprivation yield comparable results in the treatment of advanced disease. Supplementing an LHRH agonist (but not orchiectomy) with an antiandrogen may improve survival in men with minimal disease, but the economic cost and the risk for significant impairment of quality of life are quite high. The benefit of combined androgen blockade for patients with more extensive disease remains unclear, with support for this approach waning in recent years. New chemotherapeutic agents and combinations of such, as well buy nizoral online as agents with entirely new mechanisms of action, recently have shown encouraging results in the treatment of HRPC. Much additional research is needed to improve our armamentarium against this epidemic disease.

nizoral 1 review 2016-06-23

Trichosporon cutaneum (syn. T. beigelii), a saprophytic fungal organism normally found in the soil, is increasingly being recognized as a cause of life-threatening systemic illness in immunosuppressed patients. Of 42 cases reported in the literature, 27 (64%) have died, including all four occurring after bone marrow transplantation. We report here a 44-year-old man who developed an invasive pulmonary infection and fungemia with T. cutaneum following bone marrow transplantation. The infection was manifest by severe respiratory distress and hypoxemia despite a clear chest X-ray, and was diagnosed by the identification of fungal hyphae on a percutaneous lung aspirate and by culture of the organism from the blood. Despite buy nizoral online the previous reports indicating that there is a high mortality rate in this situation, the patient recovered following treatment with amphotericin B, miconazole and ketoconazole. T. cutaneum needs to be recognized as a potentially serious but treatable pathogen in severely immunosuppressed patients, including bone marrow transplant recipients.

nizoral dandruff reviews 2016-11-12

The case of a 39-year-old patient with ectopic Cushing's syndrome due to a metastatic carcinoid tumor is presented. Palliative therapy consisting of 800 mg ketoconazole and 0.3 mg SMS 201-995/die resulted in clinical buy nizoral online remission and correction of hypokalemia and hypercortisoluria. Combined therapy was clearly superior to monotherapy with ketoconazole or SMS 201-995, respectively. Side effects were not observed, the tumor masses remained unchanged throughout the observation period of now 19 months.

nizoral oral medication 2016-08-05

In buy nizoral online this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: amorolfine, butenafine, ciclopirox, fluconazole, itraconazole, terbinafine, tioconazole, and topical ketoconazole.

nizoral tablet treatment 2016-06-10

The objectives of this investigation were to study the physico-chemical properties of hot-melt extruded (HME) films for onychomycosis and to determine the stability of the model antifungal drug incorporated within these films. The influence of etching and instrument variables on the bioadhesion of these drug delivery systems for the human nail was also studied. Six 250 g batches (F1-F6) of hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) and/or poly(ethylene oxide) films containing ketoconazole (20%) were extruded using a Killion extruder (Model KLB-100). The thermal properties of HME films were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to examine the surface morphology of the films and X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to investigate the crystalline properties of the drugs, physical mixtures as well as the HME films. Stability studies were performed on the films stored at 25 degrees C/60%RH. The bioadhesive properties of these films were investigated on the human nail (ex vivo) using a Texture Analyzer. The nail samples tested were either non-treated (control) or treated with an etching gel. The parameters measured were peak adhesion force (PAF) and area under the curve (AUC). The Hansen solubility parameter was calculated using a combination of Hoy and Hoftyzer/Van Krevelen methods to estimate the likelihood of drug-polymer miscibility. SEM provided direct physical evidence of the physical state of the drug within the films. The theoretical post-extrusion content buy nizoral online of ketoconazole remaining in the six film batches ranged from 90.3% (+/-2.2) to 102.4% (+/-9.0) for up to 6 months and from 83.9% (+/-3.6) to 91.6% (+/-3.0) for up to 12 months. Bioadhesion studies of HPC film tested on 'etched' nails recorded significantly higher PAF and AUC than that of the non-treated 'control' nails. Ketoconazole was found to be relatively stable during the extrusion process. Melting points corresponding to the crystalline drugs were not observed in the processed films. The Hansen solubility parameters predicted miscibility between the polymers and the drug. The predictions of the solubility parameters were in agreement with DSC, XRD and SEM results. Bioadhesion measurements of the film on the human nail substrate were generally higher for the etched nails than that of the control nails.

nizoral generic 2017-01-05

Recently, the steroidal CYP17 inhibitor Abiraterone entered phase II clinical trial for the treatment of androgen-dependent prostate cancer. As 17alpha-hydroxylase-17,20-lyase (CYP17) catalyzes the last step in androgen biosynthesis, inhibition of this target should affect not only testicular but also adrenal androgen formation. Therefore CYP17 inhibitors should be advantageous over existing therapies, for example with GnRH analogues. However, steroidal drugs are known for side effects which are due to affinities for steroid receptors. Therefore we decided to synthesize non-steroidal compounds mimicking the natural CYP17 substrates pregnenolone and progesterone. The synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of 15 novel and highly active non-steroidal CYP17 inhibitors are reported. The compounds were prepared via Suzuki-cross-coupling, Grignard reaction and CDI-assisted S(N)t-reaction with imidazole and their inhibitory activity was examined with recombinant buy nizoral online human CYP17 expressed in Escherichia coli. Promising compounds were further tested for their selectivity against the hepatic enzyme CYP3A4 and the glucocorticoid-forming enzyme CYP11B1. All compounds turned out to be potent CYP17 inhibitors. The most active compounds 7 and 8 were much more active than Ketoconazole showing activity comparable to Abiraterone (IC(50) values of 90 and 52nM vs. 72nM). Most compounds also showed higher selectivities than Ketoconazole, but turned out to be less selective than Abiraterone. Docking studies using our CYP17 protein model were performed with selected compounds to study the interactions between the inhibitors and the amino acid residues of the active site.

dandruff nizoral reviews 2017-06-09

Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a neoplasm of multifocal origin which manifests primarily as multiple vascular nodules in the skin and other organs. Its association with HIV has been reported in America, Africa, and Europe. Extremely rare in HIV-infected women and children, the condition is reported more commonly in homosexual males. It is suspected that female hormones may protect women against KS. The first case of AIDS-associated KS in a 35-year old Indian female prostitute is reported for its rarity and clinico-epidemiological implications in the Indian setting. The woman presented with multiple painless non-pruritic nodules of varying colors on the right leg with swelling since two months. There was no history of trauma, discharge from the lesions or any treatment taken, nor any history of blood transfusion, IV drug use, or sexually transmitted disease. On examination, present mainly on the right leg were multiple, nontender papulonodules, reddish to purplish in color, 2-10 mm in diameter, and adherent to skin and underlying structures but not to the bone. Few discrete similar lesions were seen on the right forearm and left side of chin and left leg. Telangiectasia was noted on the anteromedial part of the right knee and ears and molluscum contagiosa on the front of the chest, while bilateral non-pitting oedema was apparent up to the knee. Inguinal and supraclavicular lymph glands were palpable. A raised purplish plaque was seen on the hard palate and in front of the left upper lateral incisor on the gingiva with candidiasis of the dorsum of the tongue, and there was congestion of the right lower palpebral conjunctiva, while a systemic examination proved normal. The diagnosis of KS was confirmed by histopathology, electron microscopy, seropositivity, and Pepti-LAV test and viral culture. Antibodies were found to HIV-1 and HIV-2, and HLA DR5,7 was positive on oligotyping. On treatment, initially, very few skin lesions flattened almost totally after intralesional injection of vincrysticine. Alpha interferon 200 IU sublingually daily showed amelioration in palatal, gingival, chin, forearm, and right leg lesions within a fortnight. The patient is receiving tab ketoconazole orally, 200 mg bid for oral and esophageal candidiasis and tab cimetidine as an immunomodulator. Since buy nizoral online cutaneous lesions of KS are radiosensitive, local radiotherapy for leg lesions is contemplated.

nizoral reviews 2017-04-14

After ketoconazole therapy, area under the concentration versus time curve of midazolam increased 5-fold after intravenous midazolam administration (P < or = .001) and 16-fold after oral midazolam administration (P < or = .001). Intrinsic clearance decreased by 84% (P = .003). Total bioavailability increased from 25% to 80% (P < .001). The intestinal component of midazolam bioavailability increased to a greater extent than the hepatic component (2.3- buy nizoral online fold [P = .003] and 1.5-fold [P < or = .001], respectively). In the control phase, female subjects had greater midazolam clearance values than the male subjects.

nizoral pills price 2015-02-14

Using serial examination and oral cytology, 50 adult patients undergoing induction therapy for acute leukemia were studied for oral colonization with candida species. Ninety percent of patients were found to be colonized with Candida, with most of these colonizations present by day 14. The 30 patients exhibiting colonization with pseudohyphae received ketoconazole 400 mg daily by mouth. Of 20 patients in this group treated for 5 or more days, Candida organisms were eradicated in nine. Sixteen patients from the buy nizoral online above group with persistent colonization on ketoconazole were treated by independent clinical decision for sustained fever and neutropenia with Amphotericin B, but only one responded by elimination of colonization. Seven of the 15 patients who did not initially receive ketoconazole developed Candida dissemination in contrast to two of 30 who received ketoconazole initially (P = 0.003, Fisher's exact test). No patient who initially had or acquired a negative cytology developed oral or disseminated candidiasis. Clinical oral candidiasis occurred in three patients, all of whom were receiving amphotericin B. Approximately 90% of these patients have or develop oral colonization with Candida organisms as identified by oral cytology. Those with colonization, both with and without pseudohyphae present, are at risk for dissemination. Amphotericin B does not eliminate colonization remaining after treatment with 400 mg of ketoconazole daily. More effective diagnostic and therapeutic strategies are needed to identify and eliminate Candida organisms and to prevent disseminated candidiasis in this population of patients.

nizoral online 2015-11-15

Ten cases of sporotrichosis associated with armadillo hunting detected in the State buy nizoral online of Rio Grande do Sul were diagnosed by mycological methods. The susceptibility tests of Sporothrix schenckii isolates to antifungal agents itraconazole, ketoconazole and terbinafine showed that all the isolates were susceptible.

nizoral shampoo review 2017-09-18

The in vitro metabolism of cortisol in human liver fractions is highly complex and variable. Cytosolic metabolism proceeds predominantly via A-ring reduction (to give 3 alpha,5 beta-tetrahydrocortisol; 3 alpha,5 beta-THF), while microsomal incubations generate upto 7 metabolites, including 6 beta-hydroxycortisol (6 beta-OHF), and 6 beta-hydroxycortisone (6 beta-OHE), products of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A subfamily. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to examine two of the main enzymes involved in cortisol metabolism, namely, microsomal 6 beta-hydroxylase and cytosolic 4-ene-reductase. In particular, we wished to assess the substrate specificity of these enzymes and identify compounds with inhibitory potential. Incubations for 30 min containing [3H]cortisol, potential inhibitors, microsomal or cytosolic protein (3 mg), and co-factors were followed by radiometric HPLC analysis. The Km value for 6 beta-OHF and 6 beta-OHE formation was 15.2 +/- 2.1 microM (mean +/- SD; n = 4) and the Vmax value buy nizoral online 6.43 +/- 0.45 pmol/min/mg microsomal protein. The most potent inhibitor of cortisol 6 beta-hydroxylase was ketoconazole (Ki = 0.9 +/- 0.4 microM; n = 4), followed by gestodene (Ki = 5.6 +/- 0.6 microM) and cyclosporine (Ki = 6.8 +/- 1.4 microM). Both betamethasone and dexamethasone produced some inhibition (Ki = 31.3 and 54.5 microM, respectively). However, substrates for CYP2C (tolbutamide), CYP2D (quinidine), and CYP1A (theophylline) were essentially non-inhibitory. The Km value for cortisol 4-ene-reductase was 26.5 +/- 11.2 microM (n = 4) and the Vmax value 107.7 +/- 46.0 pmol/min/mg cytosolic protein. The most potent inhibitors were androstendione (Ki = 17.8 +/- 3.3 microM) and gestodene (Ki = 23.8 +/- 3.8 microM). Although both compounds have identical A-rings to cortisol, and undergo reduction, inhibition was non-competitive.

nizoral dose 2017-10-24

In healthy volunteers, coadministration of ketoconazole increased the bitopertin area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) from 0 to 312 h (AUC0-312h) 4.2-fold (90 % confidence interval [CI] 3.5-5.0) and erythromycin increased the AUC from time zero to infinity (AUC0-inf) 2.1-fold (90 % CI 1.9-2.3). The peak concentration (C max) increased by <25 % in both studies. Simulated bitopertin profiles using PBPK buy nizoral online modelling showed good agreement with the observed AUC ratios in both studies. The predicted AUC0-inf ratios for the interaction with ketoconazole and erythromycin were 7.7 and 1.9, respectively.

nizoral 100 mg 2015-11-24

A case report and literature buy nizoral online review are provided.

nizoral 400 mg 2016-03-25

Q-DIPS gives up-to-date information, in dynamic tables, describing Geodon Overdose Emedicine which specific P450 isozymes metabolise a given drug, as well as which drugs may inhibit or induce a given isozyme. To better answer common clinical questions and help to rapidly evaluate the risk of interactions, it is possible to obtain an overview of substances causing interactions with a specific drug or to focus on drugs taken by a patient ("clinical case"). For each question, key references, relevant quantitative data and quality indices are easily accessible. Two modules allowing input with commercial names and the anatomical therapeutic chemical classification were also included. On the basis of enzymatic and pharmacokinetic data generated in vitro or collected in vivo, the extrapolation module integrates quantitative models to predict the impact of a treatment on enzymatic activities. The simplest model predicted a strong but fluctuating inhibition of CYP3A4 by ketoconazole, whereas the impact of fluconazole was lower. Validations with published in vivo data suggested an appropriate prediction of the risk.

nizoral t gel 2017-05-12

The present study was carried out to identify the cytochrome P450 isoenzyme(s) involved in the N Coumadin Medication Errors -dealkylation of haloperidol (HAL).

nizoral medication 2017-02-10

Identification of the isolates were determined by Cardura Xl Prices the API 20 C AUX kit and antifungal susceptibilities of the species to fluconazole, amphotericin B, ketoconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, and caspofungin were determined by the agar-based E-test method.

nizoral ketoconazole tablets 2016-07-25

The present study aimed to determine the in vitro Avapro 300 Generic susceptibility of clinical isolates of Candida against azoles and the frequency of the Trailing effect.

nizoral pills dosage 2017-04-04

The effects of ketoconazole and methylprednisolone on endogenous cortisol were studied in eight normal subjects. Intravenous methylprednisolone sodium succinate was given alone in doses of 15 or 30 mg. The methylprednisolone dose was reduced by 57% when ketoconazole was administered chronically for 1 week to seek equivalent methylprednisolone AUCs by compensating for the expected reduction in methylprednisolone clearance. Ketoconazole decreased clearance by 46% and increased mean residence time by 37%. The ratio of the cortisol AUC during each drug treatment compared with baseline conditions was used to assess the net extent and duration of cortisol suppression. This cortisol AUC ratio was reduced from 0.45 (methylprednisolone) to 0.39 ( Zetia Drug Interactions methylprednisolone plus ketoconazole), suggesting that ketoconazole modestly enhanced (P less than 0.01) cortisol suppression. Based on the reduction in methylprednisolone clearance and cortisol AUC by ketoconazole, a 50% lower dose of methylprednisolone during concomitant therapy with ketoconazole is recommended.

nizoral tablet dosage 2015-05-18

We conducted a prospective follow-up study Buspar Missed Dose from October 2004 to the end of June 2005 (series 1) and then from September 2006 to June 2011 (series 2) during which all new suspected cases of dermatophytosis in a judoka from Pôle France Orléans were examined at the Orléans Dermatology Department. For each consultation, we prepared a map of lesions and mycological samples, and patients received standardized treatment.

nizoral oral dosage 2016-09-27

Seventy-two patients with seborrheic dermatitis were treated once daily with 2% ketoconazole cream (n = 36) or 1% hydrocortisone cream (n = 36) on a double-blind basis for 4 weeks. For the global evaluation, no significant difference could be seen between the two groups. The clinical response was 80.5% in the ketoconazole group and 94.4% in the hydrocortisone group. For the different symptoms combined (scaling, redness, itching, and papules), no significant difference was seen between the two groups when the total scores at week 2 and at week 4 were compared with the initial scores. The incidence of side effects in both groups was comparably low.

nizoral gel 2016-07-26

The dose-dependent first-pass metabolism of midazolam, a cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A substrate, was separately estimated in the intestine and liver after administration into a jejunal loop of rats with differently modulated enzyme activity. Modulation of CYP3A enzyme activity of Sprague-Dawley rats was performed by pretreating the rats with inducers such as dexamethasone or by co-administering ketoconazole (an inhibitor) with midazolam. Bioavailabilities of midazolam administered into the jejunal loop at a dose of 10 micromol were 12% in untreated (control) rats, and 2% in dexamethasone-pretreated rats. Co-administered ketoconazole (2 micromol) significantly increased the bioavailability to 53% and 7%, respectively, in these rats. The intestinal first-pass metabolism of midazolam administered into the jejunal loop at a dose of 50 nmol in untreated and dexamethasone-pretreated rats, estimated by the mesenteric blood-collecting method in-situ, was 25% and 49% of absorbed amount, respectively. The intestinal first-pass metabolism of midazolam was reduced when ketoconazole (0.5 micromol) was co-administered or when the dose of midazolam was increased to 0.5 micrommol in these rats. Assuming that the contribution of intestinal first-pass metabolism could be negligible when midazolam was administered at a much higher dose of 10 micromol, the estimated hepatic first-pass metabolism of midazolam at a dose of 10 micromol in untreated rats, dexamethasone-pretreated rats, untreated rats given ketoconazole, and dexamethasone-pretreated rats given ketoconazole was, respectively, 86, 97, 46, and 92% of the amounts absorbed. In conclusion, the dose-dependent intestinal first-pass metabolism and the hepatic first-pass metabolism of midazolam in rats with differently modulated CYP3A activities was quantitatively estimated by in-vivo and in-situ absorption studies.

nizoral generic name 2016-02-13

Thirty-five dermatologists enrolled 256 patients to assess the safety and efficacy of ketoconazole 2 percent cream, applied once daily, in the treatment of tinea pedis, tinea cruris, and tinea corporis. Of these, 232 were eligible for efficacy evaluation based on mycologic evidence. Symptoms were assessed after four and eight weeks of treatment; relapse was assessed four weeks after the end of treatment. Total symptom scores decreased significantly during the treatment period. A marked or excellent response to treatment was observed in 82 percent of the cases. At the end of treatment 113 patients had all of their symptoms scored as absent or mild. Of these, three patients relapsed (2.7 percent) and had at least one symptom scored as moderate or severe at the follow-up visit. Only 7.2 percent (six of eighty-three) of the patients with negative findings on potassium hydroxide examination at the end of treatment showed positive findings at the follow-up visit. Three patients reported local irritant reactions to ketoconazole, two of whom discontinued treatment.

nizoral dosage 2015-04-24

To determine if ketoconazole, an inhibitor of testosterone synthesis, can prevent postoperative spontaneous erections in patients undergoing penile surgery.

nizoral cream dosage 2016-04-08

Prophylaxis with azole was associated with reduced rates of candidemia (RR 0.30, 95% CI 0.10-0.82), mortality attributable to Candida infection (RR 0.25, 95% CI 0.08-0.80), and overall mortality (RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.45-0.81). Time to event analysis showed a significantly lower probability of fungal infections in treated patients. There was no evidence of statistical heterogeneity between studies, and publication bias assessment gave a negative results. There was, however, wide variability in the definition and reporting of some relevant clinical outcomes (e.g., confirmed or suspected infections, colonization) and pooling of these outcome measures was not feasible.

nizoral tablets 2017-04-05

trans-Ketoconazole was identified and quantified as impurity of cis-ketoconazole, an antifungal compound, by capillary zone electrophoresis-electrospray-mass spectrometry (CZE-ESI-MS). The chirality of this impurity was demonstrated separating their enantiomers by adding heptakis-(2,3,6-tri-O-methyl)-beta-cyclodextrin to the separation buffer in capillary electrophoresis (CE) with UV detection. However, MS detection was hyphenated to the CE instrument for its identification. As both compounds are diastereomers, they have the same m/z values and are needed to be separated prior to the MS identification. A 0.4M ammonium formate separation buffer at pH 3.0 enabled the separation of the impurity from cis-ketoconazole. Under these conditions, the optimization of ESI-MS parameters (composition and flow of the sheath-liquid, drying temperature, drying gas flow, and capillary potential) was carried out to obtain the best MS sensitivity. CZE-ESI-MS optimized conditions enabled the identification of trans-ketoconazole as impurity of cis-ketoconazole. In addition, the quantitation of this impurity was achieved in different samples: cis-ketoconazole standard and three different pharmaceutical formulations (two tablets and one syrup) containing this standard. In all cases, percentages higher than 2.0 were determined for the impurity. According to ICH guidelines, these values required the identification and quantitation of any impurity in drug substances and products.

nizoral shampoo reviews 2015-10-08

The cytochrome P450 mitochondrial enzyme 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1alpha-hydroxylase (1alpha-hydroxylase) of renal tubule cells hydroxylates the major circulating form of vitamin D (25(OH)D3) to the active systemic hormone 1,25(OH)2D3. Local production of 1,25(OH)2D3 appears to occur also at other sites where 1alpha-hydroxylase is expressed for autocrine/paracrine regulation. To reduce risks of hypercalcemia during treatment with vitamin D, we have previously suggested use of non-1alpha-hydroxylated vitamin D analogues to target tissues where 1alpha-hydroxylase is expressed, including the parathyroid glands in secondary hyperparathyroidism. The present study was undertaken to examine expression of 1alpha-hydroxylase in breast cancer and to investigate whether a non-1alpha-hydroxylated vitamin D analogue displayed biological function. In addition, expression of the 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 24-hydroxylase (24-hydroxylase) and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) was investigated.

nizoral tab 2015-03-23

After administration of 250 mL of water or 500 mL of Ensure plus [both containing 10 mg/mL polyethylene glycol (PEG) 4000 as nonabsorbable marker], intestinal aspirates were collected from the fourth part of the duodenum of 12 healthy adults and from the mid-jejunum of four Labradors. Pooled samples were analyzed for PEG, pH, buffer capacity, osmolality, surface tension, pepsin, total carbohydrates, total protein content, bile salts, phospholipids, and neutral lipids. The shake-flask method was used to measure the solubility of dipyridamole and ketoconazole in pooled human and canine intestinal contents and in fasted-state-simulating intestinal fluid (FaSSIF) and fed-state-simulating intestinal fluid (FeSSIF) containing various bile salts and pH-buffering agents.

nizoral generic shampoo 2016-02-13

Trypanosoma cruzi is the protozoan agent that causes Chagas' disease, a major health problem in Latin America. Better drugs are needed to treat infected individuals. The sterol biosynthesis pathway is a potentially excellent target for drug therapy against T. cruzi. In this study, we investigated the antitrypanosomal activities of a series of compounds designed to inhibit a key enzyme in sterol biosynthesis, oxidosqualene cyclase. This enzyme converts 2,3-oxidosqualene to the tetracyclic product, lanosterol. The lead compound, N-(4E,8E)-5,9, 13-trimethyl-4,8, 12-tetradecatrien-1-ylpyridinium, is an electron-poor aromatic mimic of a monocyclized transition state or high-energy intermediate formed from oxidosqualene. This compound and 27 related compounds were tested against mammalian-stage T. cruzi, and 12 inhibited growth by 50% at concentrations below 25 nM. The lead compound was shown to cause an accumulation of oxidosqualene and decreased production of lanosterol and ergosterol, consistent with specific inhibition of the oxidosqualene cyclase. The data demonstrate potent anti-T. cruzi activity associated with inhibition of oxidosqualene cyclase.

nizoral pills medication 2016-12-27

Paranasal Aspergillus granuloma is an invasive infection, seen mainly in tropical countries, involving the paranasal sinuses, orbit and brain. Previously surgical excision has been followed by a high relapse rate, 80% in some series, and mortality. This study involved the use of post-operative therapy with oral itraconazole in doses of 200-300 mg daily. Twenty-two patients were treated for a mean period of 19.7 weeks. Of 19 patients for whom follow-up data were available, 12 (62%) were rated as being in complete remission in a mean period of 17.2 months after the end of therapy. Only one patient developed progressive disease during itraconazole therapy. No serious adverse effect was seen. Use of itraconazole shows promise as a means of preventing relapse after surgery in this progressive infection.