norvasc generic equivalent
At presentation, NLS patients showed higher BP levels than LS patients. Moderate reductions in BP during the first week after admission were associated with short-term functional improvement in patients with acute ischemic stroke.
norvasc 80 mg
The primary outcomes were the mean change in BP from baseline and the proportion of patients achieving adequate BP control (=140/90 mmHg, or =130/80 mmHg in patients with diabetes mellitus) in the intent-to-treat (ITT) population. Secondary analyses included incidence of adverse events (ITT) and treatment adherence rate (completers).
Diabetes mellitus is associated with an elevation in the basal levels of cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+]i) of cardiac myocytes. This may be due in part to a glucose-induced elevation in [Ca2+]i. The present study examined this issue and explored the cellular pathways responsible for such a phenomenon. A total of 30 mM glucose, mannitol or choline chloride, but not urea, induced a time- and dose-dependent rise in the [Ca2+]i of cardiac myocytes. G protein inhibition by GDP beta S or pertussis toxin produced significant inhibition (> or = 80%) in the rise in [Ca2+]i. Incubation of cardiac myocytes in a calcium free medium or in media containing verapamil, nifedipine or amlodipine almost completely abolished the rise in [CA2+], while ryanodine produced only small reduction (10%) in the glucose-induced rise in [Ca2+]i. Rp-cAMP or H-89, inhibitors of the cAMP-protein kinase A pathway, produced a modest decrease in the rise in [Ca2+]i, while staurosporine (an inhibitor of PKC) and HOE 694 (an inhibitor of the Na(+)-H+ exchanger) had no effect on the rise in [Ca2+]i. The results indicate that the osmotic activity of glucose (cell shrinkage) activates G protein(s), most likely through a stretch receptor, which in turn stimulates calcium channels inhibitable by verapamil, nifedipine and amlodipine, thus permitting a calcium influx into the cardiac myocytes. The increased calcium entry may stimulate a calcium release from intracellular stores by a calcium-induced calcium release process. Thus, in cardiac myocytes direct activation of calcium channels, and to a small extent activation of the cAMP-protein kinase A, and calcium-induced calcium release mediate the high glucose-induced acute rise in their [Ca2+]i.
generic norvasc 10mg
Flap necrosis is generally regarded as the result of vasospasm, thrombosis, and infection.
norvasc 5mg tab
Calcium channel blockers (CCB) are known to modulate immune reactions, so the present study was performed to examine the effects of various CCBs that have shown different effects on transcription factors and on the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC).
norvasc drug card
Amlodipine was administered to 24 hypertensive liver transplant recipients. Thirteen patients intolerant of or unresponsive to amlodipine were randomized to a crossover study comparing bisoprolol with lisinopril.
norvasc drug information
The aim of this study was to compare the cost-utility of the first available single-pill triple combination antihypertensive therapy containing valsartan (V), amlodipine (A) and hydrochlorothiazide (H), with each of the same components dual combinations in patients with moderate to severe hypertension. A Markov model with eight health states was constructed. The short-term effect of antihypertensive treatment on blood pressure was extrapolated through the Hellenic SCORE and Framingham risk equations, estimating the long-term survival and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) saved. Costs and outcomes were evaluated over lifetime, divided into annual cycles and discounted at 3.0 % with 2013 as reference year. The analysis was conducted by the Greek third-party-payer perspective. The triple combination treatment cost was estimated at €16,525 compared to €15,480 for V/A, €14,125 for V/H and €11,690 for A/H. The QALYs saved with the triple combination were 12.76 vs. 12.64, 12.61 and 12.38 for double combinations respectively. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of the triple combination versus V/A and A/H was far lower than the Greek GDP per capita (€8,690/QALY and €12,695/QALY, respectively) and really close for V/H (€16,192/QALY), suggesting V/A/H combination to be cost-effective. Extensive sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of the results. The probability that the triple combination is cost effective was more than 90 % at a willingness-to-pay threshold of €18,000/QALY. This is the first study to evaluate the cost-utility of a single-pill triple combination. The single-pill V/A/H therapy is a cost-effective antihypertensive choice for the treatment of moderate to severe hypertension, compared to its dual components.
norvasc tablet picture
Photostability of amlodipine (AML) has been monitored in several pharmaceutical inclusion systems characterized by plurimolecular aggregation of the drug and excipients with high molecular weight. Several formulations including cyclodextrins, liposomes and microspheres have been prepared and characterized. The photodegradation process has been monitored according to the conditions suggested by the ICH Guideline for photostability testing, by using a light cabinet equipped with a Xenon lamp and monitored by spectrophotometry. The formulations herein tested have been found to be able to considerably increase drug stability, when compared with usual pharmaceutical forms. The residual concentration detected in the inclusion complexes with cyclodextrins and liposomes was 90 and 77%, respectively, while a very good value of 97% was found for microspheres, after a radiant exposure of 11,340 kJm(-2).
norvasc reviews hypertension
The aim of this study was to observe the effect of an 8-week treatment with amlodipine, alone or in combination with hormone replacement therapy (HRT), on blood pressure (BP), serum osteocalcin, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (B-ALP) and urine deoxypiridinoline in postmenopausal osteoporotic women with mild-to-moderate arterial hypertension. Both conventional clinical BP measurements and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) were used. Twenty hypertensive menopausal women with osteoporosis were randomly divided in two groups according to the treatment regimens: amlodipine and amlodipine + HRT. Neither treatment regimen significantly changed bone formation or bone resorption markers. There were no significant differences in levels of serum and urinary calcium and phosphorous or serum cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol after treatment with amlodipine alone or in combination with HRT. Triglycerides were significantly decreased and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol was significantly increased after amlodipine treatment. Both treatment regimens significantly decreased conventionally measured BP to a similar extent. Amlodipine given alone lowered the midline estimating statistic of rhythm (MESOR; mean 24-level) of systolic BP and induced phase advances of the circadian rhythms of systolic, diastolic and mean BP. When combined with HRT, amlodipine lowered the MESOR and reduced the amplitude of systolic BP without any phase change. In conclusion, amlodipine is effective in reducing BP in postmenopausal women. The maintenance of a normal circadian BP pattern is also influenced by supplementation with 17beta-estradiol. The 8-week treatment with amlodipine alone and in combination with HRT is not associated with a marked influence on bone metabolism.
Clinical trials of telmisartan/amlodipine at doses of 40-80 mg/5-10 mg (T40-80/A5-10) in free, fixed-dose and single-pill combinations were identified through electronic searches (MEDLINE and congress abstracts) up to and including June 2012, and from the Boehringer Ingelheim (BI) trial database. All identified trials were reviewed for data on hypertensive patients with obesity, diabetes, or both. Post-hoc subgroup analyses were carried out using the BI database to determine the relevant information if it was not previously reported.
We conclude that candesartan may improve vascular inflammation independent of its effect on hypertension in diabetes, thus suggesting its efficacy in diabetic patients.
norvasc user reviews
In this retrospective analysis, data pooled from two Phase III/IV open-label Asian studies were used to quantify the additional blood pressure efficacy achieved when titrating amlodipine from 5 mg to 10 mg in mild/moderate hypertensive patients, and compared to data pooled from three Western studies. The primary efficacy end point was the change from baseline in sitting systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) to the specified time point (4-8 weeks, depending on the trial). For the Asian analysis (n=174), both mean SBP and DBP were significantly decreased at the final visit (SBP -13.3 mmHg, 95% confidence interval [CI] -15.5 to -11.0; DBP -9.2 mmHg, 95% CI -10.6 to -7.8; both P<0.0001). These results were similar to the Western analysis (n=369; SBP -11.5 mmHg, 95% CI -13.1 to -10.0; DBP -6.3, 95% CI -7.1 to -5.5; both P<0.0001). In summary, titration of amlodipine from 5 mg to 10 mg significantly decreased both SBP and DBP in Asian patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension.
norvasc brand name
We prospectively evaluated the antihypertensive effect and tolerability of three different antihypertensive agents, losartan (angiotensin II receptor blocker), amlodipine (calcium channel blocker), and lisinopril (angiotensin-coverting enzyme inhibitor), in patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension. After a 2-week washout period, 121 patients were randomly allocated to three different groups for 12 weeks. Medications were titrated upward as necessary to achieve the goal office-recorded sitting diastolic blood pressure (SiDBP) (defined as SiDBP <90 mmHg or SiDBP > or = 900 mmHg but with a > or = 10 mmHg drop from baseline). Efficacy and tolerability were assessed after 4, 8, and 12 weeks of therapy with each regimen. At 12 weeks, significant differences in SiDBP compared with data of baseline were noted in all three groups ( P < 0.001 in all comparisons). Similarly, significant differences in the sitting systolic blood pressure compared with baseline data were also seen for all three groups ( P < 0.001 in all comparisons). The number of patients reaching goal SiDBP were comparable for the three groups: 25 patients (62.5%) in the losartan group, 27 patients (67.5%) in the amlodipine group, and 22 patients (59.5%) in the lisinopril group (not significant). Amlodipine produced a more pronounced reduction in SiDBP than the other two medications, although without statistical significance. Patients receiving lisinopril showed a high incidence of coughing (31.7%). Low leg edema was noted only in the amlodipine group (7.5%). Compared with the amlodipine and lisinopril groups, the losartan group seemed to have relatively fewer episodes (7.5%), and fewer patients (three cases) experienced adverse effects. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that losartan has the same antihypertensive effect, but has superior tolerability compared with the other two drugs. Coughing was a common side effect of lisinopril therapy in our population.
norvasc max dose
Stable patients with coronary disease and > or =3 anginal attacks per week despite maximum recommended dosage of amlodipine (10 mg/day) were randomized to 1,000 mg ranolazine or placebo twice a day for 6 weeks. Primary end point was the frequency of angina episodes per week during the double-blind treatment phase. Efficacy was also assessed by nitroglycerin consumption per week and the Seattle Angina Questionnaire (SAQ). Adjustment for multiple testing of secondary end points used a hierarchic closed testing procedure. Efficacy was assessed in subgroups based on baseline angina frequency, concomitant long-acting nitrate use, gender, and age. Safety was assessed by adverse events and electrocardiogram evaluations.
norvasc 7 mg
Treatment of hypertension in the elderly reduces the incidence of cardiovascular events. Some classes of antihypertensive drugs, including long-acting dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers such as amlodipine, can be prescribed in the presence of comorbid conditions. The results of clinical trials support the use of long-acting dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers in the elderly; amlodipine has been shown to be effective and well tolerated in the elderly population.
norvasc 10mg medication
Among a total of 228 patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension, adherence to treatment was measured by means of both the Medication Event Monitoring System (MEMS) and pill count. Patients were followed-up for seven visits over a period of 1 year. At each visit to the physician's office, patient's adherence was assessed by both methods.
norvasc 10mg generic
Once-daily amlodipine was effective in the treatment of mild to moderate hypertension in this patient population and demonstrated a low frequency of adverse events, a high degree of tolerability, and improved well-being. Morning rather than evening dosing appeared to confer a slight advantage.
norvasc tablets 10mg
Two different tablets containing amlodipine besylate (CAS 111470-99-6) (Vazkor 10 mg tablet as test preparation and 10 mg tablet of the originator product as reference preparation) were investigated in 18 healthy male volunteers in order to compare the bioavailability and prove the bioequivalence between both treatments after oral single dose administration. The study was performed according to an open-label, randomized, two-period cross-over design with a wash-out phase of 21 days. Blood samples for pharmacokinetic profiling were taken up to 144 h post-dose, and amlodipine plasma concentrations were determined with a validated LC-MS/MS method. Maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax) of 6,183.7 pg/ml (test) and 5,366.7 pg/ml (reference) were achieved. Areas under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-infinity)) of 267,231.0 pg x h/ml (test) and 266,061.7 ng x h/ml (reference) were calculated. The median tmax was 5.6 h (test) and 6.1 h (reference). Plasma elimination half-lives (t 1/2) were 46.46 h (test) and 45.34 h (reference). Both primary target parameters AUC(0-infinity) and Cmax were tested parametrically by analysis of variance (ANOVA); 90% confidence intervals were between 93.20%-107.16% (AUC(0-infinity) and 103.36%-123.13% (Cmax). Bioequivalence between test and reference preparation was demonstrated since for both parameters AUC and Cmax the 90% confidence intervals of the T/R-ratios of logarithmically transformed data were in the generally accepted range of 80%-125%.
norvasc recommended dosage
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of an ACE inhibitor (fosinopril) and a calcium antagonist (amlodipine) on the urinary albumin and transferrin excretion and their relationship to the blood pressure in essential hypertension. Twenty-four never-treated patients (mean age, 46.4 +/- 8.9 years) with a diastolic blood pressure between 90 and 114 mm Hg and normal renal function, randomly received amlodipine or fosinopril and, if the diastolic blood pressure was not normalized, doxazosin was added to the therapy. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and 24-h urine collection for albumin and transferrin measurements were performed before and after 3 and 6 months of therapy. Diastolic blood pressure was normalized in 23 patients (96%). Before treatment, microalbuminuria was present in 50% of patients. In the amlodipine and fosinopril group, antihypertensive therapy significantly decreased blood pressure and, only in the fosinopril group, albuminuria. Transferrinuria did not change significantly in both groups. Fosinopril lowered albuminuria in all patients, whereas amlodipine only in half of patients. Albuminuria, but not transferrinuria, was significantly correlated to the ambulatory blood pressure. This correlation was more pronounced for systolic than for diastolic pressure. In essential hypertensive patients with normal renal function, a high prevalence of microalbuminuria can be observed. Albuminuria appears to correlate with ambulatory blood pressure, particularly with systolic pressure. Intrarenal hemodynamic changes seem to play a more important role than systemic blood pressure decrease in the reduction of albuminuria. Transferrinuria does not seem a useful marker to follow-up nondiabetic hypertensive patients with early signs of glomerular dysfunction.
norvasc maximum dosage