The interactions of cefdinir, a new orally-active third-generation cephalosporin, with cell-free beta-lactamase preparations were studied in comparison with some other beta-lactams. Cefdinir was very resistant to narrow-spectrum Ambler's class A beta-lactamases, as it was for other oximino beta-lactams: cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefixime and cefuroxime. Cefaclor showed a low but significant hydrolysis by these beta-lactamases. These class-A enzymes include the widespread plasmid mediated TEM-1, TEM-2, SHV-1 and also the enzymes of Gram-positive penicillinases, such as that produced by S. aureus. The hydrolysis of cefdinir was hardly detectable by the Ambler's class C beta-lactamases (cephalosporinases) produced by E. coli, E. cloacae and M. morganii. A similar conclusion is shown for cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefixime and cefuroxime: for these beta-lactamases, the hydrolysis of cefaclor was high. The P. vulgaris cephalosporinase differs from the previous cephalosporinases in that it hydrolyses cefotaxime, cefuroxime and cefaclor efficiently. However, the hydrolysis of cefdinir remains too low to be detected. Cefdinir, as other third-generation cephalosporins, showed some hydrolysis by the novel extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL): SHV-2, TEM-3, TEM-5, MEN-1 and other ESBL.
The pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic characteristics of cefdinir as described in this paper, as well as the results of the clinical trials program, support the use of this agent in the treatment of a wide variety of pediatric infectious diseases.
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To compare the effects of cefdinir (14 mg/kg per day) and amoxicillin (90 mg/kg per day) antimicrobial therapy on the nasopharyngeal flora of children with acute otitis media.
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A total of 80.2% enterococci tested were resistant to vancomycin and 99.6% to multiple-drugs. There was a significant association between haemolytic potential and vancomycin resistance (chi(2), 0.00). Enterococci isolates from healthy equids were significantly (chi(2), 0.04) less resistant to vancomycin than the isolates from clinically sick animals. Besides vancomycin sensitivity, isolates were also tested for 18 more antimicrobial drugs; maximum numbers of isolates were sensitive to imipenem (75%) followed by tetracycline (60%), amoxicillin+clavulanic acid (54%), and minimum for cefdinir (4%).
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This study assessed the characteristics of pathogens identified in clinical isolates from patients with urinary tract infection (UTI) and their in vitro sensitivity to commonly used antibiotics in the clinical setting in China.
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The S. pyogenes cells in the stationary growth phase alone were strongly stained with fluorescein isothiocyanate-concanavalin A (FITC-ConA), and this staining was reduced by pretreatment with amylase. Although the components of sugars in glycocalyx produced by S. pyogenes cells are unknown, we suggested that the materials stained by FITC-ConA were consistent with the presence of ConA-reactive sugars in glycocalyx produced by S. pyogenes cells.
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Azithromycin is an azalide with potent activity against Haemophilus influenzae including ampicillin-resistant strains. We evaluated the efficacy of azithromycin, clarithromycin and three beta -lactams when used for 1 day only and for 3 days for the treatment of a murine model of bronchopneumonia, using three strains of H. influenzae, two of which were ampicillin resistant. MICs of azithromycin (1-2 mg/L) and clarithromycin (4-8 mg/L) were similar for the three strains. The MICs of cefdinir and cefcapene for beta-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) H. influenzae were 32 times higher than those for beta-lactamase-positive ampicillin-resistant and ampicillin-susceptible strains. The viable counts in the infected tissues of azithromycin-treated mice with bronchopneumonia caused by the susceptible strain TUM8, beta-lactamase-positive strain TUH36 and BLNAR strain TUH267 were less than the counts obtained with the other antibiotics used, irrespective of MIC. At a dose of 50 mg/kg, the area under the concentration curve and the half-life of azithromycin in the lungs were respectively three times higher and six times longer than those of clarithromycin. Our results indicate that azithromycin may be useful for both ampicillin-susceptible and ampicillin-resistant bronchopneumonial infections caused by H. influenzae.
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Three hundred and ninety-one patients were treated. The treatment groups were well matched with regard to demographic characteristics and types of infection. Abscess(es) (26%), wound infection (24%), and cellulitis (21%) were the most common infections. At the TOC visit, the clinical cure rate for both treatment groups was 89% (151/170 for cefdinir and 154/174 for cephalexin) in clinically evaluable patients (95% CI for difference in cure rates [-6.7 to 7.3]). In the intent-to-treat analysis, cure rates were 83% for cefdinir vs. 82% for cephalexin. Clinical cure rates for infections caused by methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant (MRSA) Staphylococcus aureus were 93% (37/40) and 92% (35/38) for cefdinir vs. 91% (29/32) and 90% (37/41) for cephalexin (p > 0.999 comparing treatment groups for MSSA; p > 0.999 for MRSA). The usefulness questionnaire demonstrated that cefdinir was more highly rated in the mean composite score (87.4 vs. 83.6, p = 0.04), with the difference primarily due to the respondents' preference for the convenience of taking the study medication (mean score 93.5 vs. 74.1 for cephalexin, p < 0.001). The study had the following limitations: the requirement for culture at baseline likely skewed the enrollment of patients towards those with abscesses; the results of culture in patients with USSSIs are often nonspecific; in some patients entering the study with a diagnosis of cellulitis, the cellulitis was associated with an abscess; and, incision and drainage (I&D), spontaneous drainage, and needle aspiration are likely to have contributed to clinical response for purulent infections, and in particular MRSA-associated infections. Both study drugs were well tolerated. The most common treatment-related adverse events were diarrhea (10% cefdinir, 4% cephalexin, p = 0.017), nausea (3% and 6%, respectively, p = 0.203), and vaginal mycosis (3% and 6% of females, respectively, p = 0.500).
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Between June 2006 and April 2007, I measured T serotypes and antibiotic susceptibilities of 367 strains of Streptococcus pyogenes isolated from children with pharyngotonsillitis in Asahikawa. Prevalent serotypes were 12 (33.8%), 1 (22.9%), and 28 (12.5%). The MIC90s of beta-lactams were 0.008 microg/ml in penicillin G, cefcapene, cefditoren, cefteram, cefdinir and faropenem, and 0.015 microg/ml in amoxicillin. Of 367 isolates, macrolide-resistant (erythromycin > 0.5 micro/ml) strains account for 42 (11.4%).
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Against H. influenzae, the antibacterials most likely to achieve optimal in vivo exposures in children are cefpodoxime, ceftibuten, and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid.
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Deciding whether an antibiotic is necessary, when to begin therapy and selecting an optimal drug is an everyday challenge in clinical practice. In vitro susceptibility testing which determines the minimum concentration necessary for a particular antibiotic to inhibit or kill most strains of a bacterial species and pharmacodynamic modeling are useful but have limitations. The need for antibiotic therapy for acute otitis media (AOM) has been recently questioned. However, explanations for uniformly positive results with many antibiotic and placebo comparative trials include overdiagnosis of AOM at study entry, inclusion of patients with mild or uncomplicated AOM and broad criteria for the definition of clinical success. Recurrent and persistent AOM does not have as favorable a natural history as uncomplicated AOM; children below 2 years of age benefit most from antibiotic therapy. Selecting the best choice among the many antibiotics that can be used to treat AOM has become more complex over the last decade due to escalating antibiotic resistance among the pathogens that cause this infection. Broader spectrum antibiotics such as cefdinir, the newly introduced third generation cephalosporin, have their most prominent use in the treatment of persistent and recurrent AOM. In the early 1950s and 1960s penicillin clearly was the best available agent for the treatment of group A streptococcal (GAS) infections. In the 1970s the situation began to change as cephalosporin antibiotics became available. Superior eradication rates with cephalosporins such as cefdinir have now been well-documented. The leading hypothesis to explain the widening gap in efficacy between penicillin and cephalosporins relates to two major concepts: the presence of copathogens and differential alteration of the normal microbial ecology in the throat as a consequence of the selected therapy. There are positive and negative consequences to early initiation of antibiotic therapy for GAS tonsillopharyngitis. Penicillin has persisting good efficacy in patients older than the age of 12 years and in those who have been ill for >2 days. Shortening therapy for GAS tonsillopharyngitis offers a therapeutic advantage. Cefpodoxime proxetil and cefdinir have a 5-day indication for the treatment of GAS tonsillopharyngitis. Antibiotics with lower side effect profile, infrequent dosing, good palatability in suspension formulation and efficacy with short duration of treatment may lead to better outcomes because noncompliance often results in failed therapy, persistence of infection and morbidity.
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The effect of calcium polycarbophil on the absorption of cefdinir, cephalosporin derivative, was evaluated in both in vitro and in vivo studies. In the in vitro study, the release of cefdinir from a cellulose membrane in the presence or absence of metal cations was measured using the dissolution test procedure. In the in vivo study, volunteers and a randomized crossover design with two phases were used. In the first phase, the volunteers received 200 mg of cefdinir alone (Study 1); in the other phase, they received 200 mg of cefdinir and 1200 mg of fine calcium polycarbophil granules concomitantly (Study 2). The cefdinir concentrations in the samples or serum were measured by an UV-VIS spectrophotometer or high-performance liquid chromatography. Release in the presence of iron ions was slower than that in the absence of metal ions, however no difference was observed between release in the presence of calcium ions and that in the absence of metal ions. No difference was observed in AUC(0-10), C(max) and t(max) between Study 1 and Study 2. The absorption of cefdinir was not affected by co-administration of calcium polycarbophil. Moreover, the in vitro study on the release of drugs from a cellulose membrane may predict the absorption of a drug caused by the formation of chelate complexes between the drug and metal ions.
The paucity of data only allow us to observe that the examined antibiotics do not have substantially reduced activity against respiratory pathogens studied in the presence of physiologic concentrations of some fractions of surfactant. Cefepime alone already exerted a small effect, and ciprofloxacin at 2 MIC, even in the presence of phospholipids, retained its bactericidal activity.
This study investigated the differences between the standard guidelines and the practice patterns of otolaryngologists in managing "penicillin-allergic" patients. A major goal was to identify factors influencing an otolaryngologist's choice of antibiotic.
The effect of iron ion on the absorption of cefdinir, a new oral cephalosporin derivative, was evaluated in healthy male volunteers in a randomized three-way crossover study. The subjects received 200 mg cefdinir alone, 200 mg cefdinir and two tablets of iron ion concomitantly, and two tablets of iron ion preparation 3 hours after 200 mg cefdinir administration. The area under the concentration curve [AUC(0-12)] of cefdinir with concurrent iron was significantly smaller than that with cefdinir alone (mean +/- SD, 0.78 +/- 0.38 versus 10.3 +/- 1.35 micrograms.hr/ml). While there were no differences in AUC(0-3) between drug alone and drug with iron 3 hours later, the AUC(3-12) with delayed iron was significantly smaller than that of cefdinir alone (4.60 +/- 1.54 versus 8.03 +/- 1.72 micrograms.hr/ml). These findings suggest that the mechanism of interaction between cefdinir and iron ion preparation is the formation of a chelation complex and that this complex probably restricts gastrointestinal absorption.
The data show differences between the current recommendations and the behavior of otolaryngologists. Pediatric otolaryngologists were more familiar with the guideline-recommended therapy, likely from their frequent exposure to patients requiring a β-lactam. Nevertheless, most otolaryngologists could benefit from increased awareness of the current literature. Patients may be receiving less than optimal medication management due to a misidentification of those at risk of life- threatening allergic cross-reactions.
A 58-year-old woman, who had write infull (ITP) and angina, developed a rash similar to an insect bite on the left Achilles tendon one week before visiting our hospital. The rash evolved into pustule. Three or 4 days later she had redness and swelling on her left leg, which was pain full.She went to a clinic, where she was given cefdinir (CFDN) and referred to our hospital.When she came to our hospital, she had an abscess on her left heel, and linear redness and heat along lymph ducts in her left leg and lymph node swelling in her left groin.We diagnosed bacterial lymphangitis, and gave her cefcapene (CFPN-PI) and gentamicin (GM) ointment. Six days later, she recovered.Later abscess culture yielded an organism which was suspected to be Nocardia sp. We identified the organism as Nocardia brasiliensis and diagnosed abscess-type cutaneous nocardiosis. We administered sulfametthoxazole / trimethoprim for one week and checked her whole body on CT, which revealed no lesions.This case was considered to be cutaneous nocardiosis, for which beta-lactam antimicrobial drug or external application of GM ointment would be effective, and abscess-type cutaneous nocardiosis, which recovered with medical treatment for a general bacterial infection was suggested.
Lower ADL and body weight were noted to suffer significantly more HI infection and severe pneumonia. Furthermore, stroke patients tended to suffer more HI infection. Dementia patients suffered significantly more severe pneumonia. Residents of rooms close to the room of original patient showed symptoms earlier than patients in more distant rooms. While the numbers of patients with HI infection were 15 (60%) and 10 (40%) before and after the first isolation of HI, 5 out of 15 patients (33%) and one out of 10 patients (10%) progressed to severe pneumonia, respectively. Although these results did not have statistical significance, they suggests that rapid assessment and therapy of HI infection tended to prevent aggravation. Non-typeable strains were detected and were all beta-lactamase nonproducing ampicillin resistant (BLNAR) without susceptibilities to cefaclor (CCL) and cefdinir (CFDN). Preceding the epidemic, an outbreak of the common cold syndrome was recognized.
We evaluated the in-vitro and in-vivo antibacterial activities of R-95867 and CS-834, a new oral carbapenem which is an ester-type prodrug of R-95867. Against Gram-positive bacteria, R-95867 was as active or two to 256 times more active than cefpodoxime, cefdinir, cefditoren and ofloxacin, while its activity was similar to or two to eight times lower than that of imipenem. Against most Gram-negative bacteria it was as active or two to 1024 times more active than the other compounds tested. Against Helicobacter pylori it was two to 64 times more active than orally active anti-H. pylori agents, i.e. amoxycillin, clarithromycin and lansoprazole. It also showed potent bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. R-95867 induced a spherical form in E. coli and showed high affinity for PBP 2 in E. coli. Against systemic infections in mice caused by various bacteria, CS-834 showed an excellent protective effect and its in-vivo efficacy correlated well with the in-vitro activity of R-95867. These results suggest that CS-834 may be effective in the therapy of various bacterial infections.
Previous studies suggest that the unexplained sudden and severe onset of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and/or tics may be infection or immune precipitated. Beta lactam antibiotics may be neuroprotective beyond their antimicrobial efficacy. We examine the preliminary safety and efficacy of cefdinir in reducing obsessive-compulsive and/or tic severity in children with new-onset symptoms.
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The solid-state properties, dissolution profile and antimicrobial activity of inclusion complexes of cefdinir (CEF) with beta-cyclodextrin (betaCD) and hydroxypropyl beta-cyclodextrin (HPbetaCD) were investigated. The phase solubility profiles of cefdinir with betaCD and HPbetaCD were classified as A(L)-type, which indicates the formation of 1:1 stoichiometry inclusion complexes. Stability constants with 1:1 molar ratio obtained from the phase solubility diagrams were 120.38+/-1.07 and 58.60+/-1.20 M(-1) for betaCD and HPbetaCD, respectively. Binary systems of CEF with betaCD and HPbetaCD prepared by kneading method were characterized by Fourier transformation-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD). The aqueous solubility of CEF was enhanced by 101% for betaCD and 23.4% for HPbetaCD, respectively. The dissolution profiles of inclusion complexes were determined and compared with those of CEF alone and their physical mixtures. The dissolution rate of CEF was increased by betaCD and HPbetaCD inclusion complexation moderately. However, the antimicrobial activity of CEF was increased significantly (p<0.001) by betaCD and HPbetaCD inclusion complexation against S. aureus and E. coli. In all these studies, HPbetaCD had superior antimicrobial activity than that of betaCD while betaCD had greater effect on solubility enhancement of CEF.
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Oral second and third generation cephalosporins are undergoing continuing research and development in the arena of pediatric infectious disease in an attempt to fill voids created by existing agents in the quest for the "ideal" antimicrobial. This paper reviews the in vitro antimicrobial activity (pharmacodynamics) and pharmacokinetics of cefdinir, an extended spectrum oral cephalosporin, with an emphasis on those aspects relevant to the pediatric patient population.
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Microdilution MIC assays were performed using CLSI-approved methods. S. pneumoniae 19A strains were identified by quellung reaction.
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Short-course therapy for acute otitis media (AOM) improves adherence and may reduce secondary bacterial resistance.
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A total of 661 patients were randomized to treatment. They were 90% female, with a median age of 44 years. There were no clinically important differences between groups in terms of demographic characteristics or symptoms on admission. The most frequently isolated pathogens in admission urine cultures were Escherichia coli (383 patients), Proteus mirabilis (20 patients), Staphylococcus saprophyticus (14 patients), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (9 patients). Of the admission pathogens with documented susceptibility results, significantly more were resistant to cefaclor (6.7%) than to cefdinir (3.7%; P < 0.003). Significantly more admission isolates of E. coli were resistant to cefaclor (5.1%) than to cefdinir (2.0%; P < 0.007). A total of 383 patients were assessable for efficacy, 196 in the cefdinir group and 187 in the cefaclor group. Clinical cure rates and microbiologic response rates for cefdinir and cefaclor were statistically equivalent at 5 to 9 days posttherapy (test-of-cure visit), using a 95% CI approach. The rate of treatment-related adverse events was higher in cefdinir-treated patients (20.2%) than in cefaclor-treated patients (13.0%; P = 0.025), mainly due to the greater frequency of diarrhea in the former group. However, only 4 patients (1.2%) discontinued cefdinir treatment due to diarrhea.
Ceftobiprole (previously known as BAL9141), an anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus cephalosporin, was very highly active against a panel of 299 drug-susceptible and -resistant pneumococci, with MIC(50) and MIC(90) values (microg/ml) of 0.016 and 0.016 (penicillin susceptible), 0.06 and 0.5 (penicillin intermediate), and 0.5 and 1.0 (penicillin resistant). Ceftobiprole, imipenem, and ertapenem had lower MICs against all pneumococcal strains than amoxicillin, cefepime, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, cefuroxime, or cefdinir. Macrolide and penicillin G MICs generally varied in parallel, whereas fluoroquinolone MICs did not correlate with penicillin or macrolide susceptibility or resistance. All strains were susceptible to linezolid, quinupristin-dalfopristin, daptomycin, vancomycin, and teicoplanin. Time-kill analyses showed that at 1x and 2x the MIC, ceftobiprole was bactericidal against 10/12 and 11/12 strains, respectively. Levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, vancomycin, and teicoplanin were each bactericidal against 10 to 12 strains at 2x the MIC. Azithromycin and clarithromycin were slowly bactericidal, and telithromycin was bactericidal against only 5/12 strains at 2x the MIC. Linezolid was mainly bacteriostatic, whereas quinupristin-dalfopristin and daptomycin showed marked killing at early time periods. Prolonged serial passage in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of ceftobiprole failed to yield mutants with high MICs towards this cephalosporin, and single-passage selection showed very low frequencies of spontaneous mutants with breakthrough MICs towards ceftobiprole.
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A total of 2767 children with severe acute malnutrition were enrolled. In the amoxicillin, cefdinir, and placebo groups, 88.7%, 90.9%, and 85.1% of the children recovered, respectively (relative risk of treatment failure with placebo vs. amoxicillin, 1.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04 to 1.68; relative risk with placebo vs. cefdinir, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.27 to 2.11). The mortality rates for the three groups were 4.8%, 4.1%, and 7.4%, respectively (relative risk of death with placebo vs. amoxicillin, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.07 to 2.24; relative risk with placebo vs. cefdinir, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.22 to 2.64). Among children who recovered, the rate of weight gain was increased among those who received antibiotics. No interaction between type of severe acute malnutrition and intervention group was observed for either the rate of nutritional recovery or the mortality rate.
A total of 330 children (average age 13.1 months) with AOM were studied. At TOC, 256 children had clinical cure, 69 had clinical failure, and 5 were lost to follow-up. High-dose amoxicillin/clavulanic acid-treated children had a better cure rate (86.5%) than cefdinir-treated patients (71.0%; p = 0.001). Cefdinir was correlated with less frequent cure outcomes as children increased in age between 6 and 24 months. The odds ratios for clinical cure per increasing month of age estimated from a logistic regression model for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid high dose and cefdinir treatment groups was 0.992 (95% CI 0.932, 1.056), p > 0.05 and 0.932 (95% CI 0.881, 0.986), p = 0.01. The differences in the odds ratios are significant at p < 0.002, indicating a stable clinical cure rate across the ages of children studied for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and decreasing clinical cure rates as children increased in age for cefdinir.
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This article reviews structure-activity relationships and biological properties of a new oral cephem, cefidinir (CFDN). It also describes a hypothesis concerning the absorption mechanism from the intestine. Antibacterial activities and the oral absorption efficiencies were studied with regard to 3-vinyl cephalosporins with various 7-acyl side chains. From the study, 2-(2-aminothiazol-4-yl)-2-hydroxyiminoacetyl group was selected and various 3-substituents were screened. As a result, it was found that the vinyl compound, CFDN, showed excellent antibacterial activity and good oral absorption in rats. In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities, the affinity for PBPs and the stability to beta-lactamases revealed that CFDN had well balanced antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and good biological properties. The pharmacokinetics of CFDN in healthy volunteers showed that serum concentration and half life were good enough to make CFDN an effective therapeutic agent. The mechanism of intestinal absorption of CFDN and related oral cephems are discussed and a hypothesis for molecular recognition by the carrier protein in the intestine is proposed.