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Parlodel

Generic Parlodel is the most effective preparation in struggle against female diseases as persistent breast milk production, infertility, amenorrhea (lack of a menstrual period) and other disorders caused by prolactin-secreting tumors. Generic Parlodel can also be helpful for patients with Parkinson`s disease and its symptoms caused by low levels of dopamine in the brain. Generic Parlodel acts as up-to-date remedy reducing prolactin level.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Apokyn, Mirapex, Requip

 

Also known as:  Bromocriptine.

Description

Generic Parlodel is created using perfect medical formula which is a magnificent weapon against women problems such as persistent breast milk production, infertility, amenorrhea (lack of a menstrual period) and other disorders caused by prolactin-secreting tumors. Target of Generic Parlodel is to reduce prolactin level and help to produce breast milk and fertility in women.

Generic Parlodel acts as up-to-date remedy reducing prolactin level. When it is used for treatment of Parkinson disease, it works by stimulating dopamine receptors in some certain brain parts.

Parlodel is also known as Bromocriptine, Proctinal.

Generic Parlodel is a hormone (dopamine agonist).

Generic Parlodel can't lead to vaginal bleeding, uterine or breast cancer, breast tenderness.

Generic name of Generic Parlodel is Bromocriptine.

Brand name of Generic Parlodel is Parlodel.

Dosage

Generic Parlodel is available in the form of tablets (2.5 mg) which should be taken by mouth with meals or without it.

Take Generic Parlodel every day at the same time and remember that its dosage depends on patient's health state.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Parlodel suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Generic Parlodel and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store below 25 degrees C (77 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Parlodel are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Generic Parlodel if you are allergic to Generic Parlodel components.

Do not take Generic Parlodel if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant or breast-feeding.

Do not use Generic Parlodel in case of having uncontrolled high blood pressure, blood poisoning, having recently given birth or have coronary artery disease (chest pain) or any other severe heart disease.

In case you take Generic Parlodel while using birth control pills, remember that birth control pills become less effective

Patients under 15 years should be extremely careful with Generic Parlodel.

Avoid alcohol.

Be careful when you are driving machine.

It can be dangerous to stop Generic Parlodel taking suddenly.

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L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, which is converted into dopamine and norepinephrine, results in a restriction of the semantic network in priming experiments. Recent evidence suggests that flexibility of access to semantic networks in problem solving is mediated by the noradrenergic system. We wished to determine if dopaminergic agonists also affect this type of cognitive flexibility.

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A 42-year-old house wife presented with worsening headaches over 6 months in the absence of visual symptoms or symptoms suggestive of focal neurology. She was a life-long smoker. Systems review was unremarkable apart from secondary amenorrhoea and galactorrhoea of 6 months duration. Her serum prolactin was found to be 620 mU/l (60-400), FT4 12.6 nmol/l (9.8-23.1), TSH 1.38 mU/l (0.35-5.5), oestradiol < 73 pmol/l, LH and FSH of 4.4 and 12.6 mIU/l, respectively. She was on bromocriptine. A presumptive diagnosis of pneumonia, based on pyrexia and CXR findings, was made and she was started on IV antibiotics. Two days later she developed meningism and deterioration of conscious level. (Lumbar puncture results: no organisms, 312 neutrophils and 164 lymphocytes). CT scan revealed a 2.5-cm pituitary adenoma, with suprasellar extension. A repeat hormonal profile revealed FSH 1.4, LH < 0.3 mU/l, oestradiol < 73 pmol/l, prolactin 488 mU/l (60-400), and low random cortisol at 29 nmol/l. T1-weighted MRI revealed a large pituitary mass with evidence of haemorrhage. The patient subsequently underwent a transsphenoidal exploration with resection of the pituitary lesion. Whilst awaiting the histopathology results, CT of chest revealed a 1. 5-cm diameter rounded well defined density in the right lower lobe associated with hilar, pre- and right para-tracheal lymphadenopathy. The histopathology of the pituitary lesion, obtained piecemeal, revealed fragments of fibrous tissue infiltrated by sheets of acidophilic prolactin-positive cells, in keeping with a prolactinoma. In addition, other fragments with blood clot included highly atypical epithelial cells with mitotic figures. These were negative for prolactin but showed HMFG-and CEA-positivity, excluding them from a pituitary lineage. Transbronchial biopsy revealed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma, with evidence of lymphatic spread. The overall conclusion was of bronchogenic adenocarcinoma, metastasizing to a prolactinoma and complicated by apoplexy.

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Levodopa-induced dyskinesias result in considerable functional impairment for patients and formidable therapeutic challenges for physicians. A practical method of treating such dyskinesias is first to classify the levodopa dyskinesias according to their temporal profile after drug administration, namely, into predictable (interdose, biphasic and 'off-period') and unpredictable ('on-off') dyskinesias. Treatment of each type of dyskinesia requires a different and relatively specific therapeutic strategy. With progression of Parkinson's disease, the threshold for interdose dyskinesia lowers, while the threshold for antiparkinsonian efficacy is unchanged; therefore, the strategy is to maintain levodopa concentrations between these 2 thresholds and avoid high concentrations. Frequent small doses of liquid levodopa preparations may be indicated. Clozapine appears to increase the threshold for dyskinesia. However, its usefulness is limited primarily by dose-related sedation and by dose-unrelated agranulocytosis. Buspirone and fluoxetine may have specific antidyskinetic benefit. Surgical treatment may aid selected patients, although criteria for selection are not fully established. The biphasic dyskinesias occur just before and just after an oral dose of levodopa. They result when levodopa concentrations fall below or rise above the threshold for therapeutic efficacy; therefore, the strategy is to maintain concentrations as nearly constant as possible above that threshold. Dopamine agonists such as subcutaneous apomorphine combined with domperidone may be particularly helpful. Thalamic stimulation can also benefit selected patients. 'Off-period' dyskinesias occur at times of predicted low concentrations of levodopa. The treatment strategy is to provide sufficient levodopa or dopaminergic stimulation during those intervals. Dopamine agonists (e.g. bromocriptine at night) may help the characteristic early foot dystonia. Anticholinergic agents may also help. The unpredictable ('on-off') dyskinesias are first analysed to establish a pattern of response. Then, on the basis of that pattern, they are treated by maintaining levodopa concentrations or dopaminergic tone during the periods that would ordinarily be 'off.' Administration of liquid levodopa preparations, addition of dopaminergic agents, restriction of treatment during the morning hours as well as restriction of the majority of dietary protein in the evening meal may provide a period of predictable good function early in the day. Clozapine, even early in treatment, appears to reduce the incidence of these dyskinesias. Rescue with apomorphine during a malignant prolonged 'off' phase is particularly valuable.

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Aphasia is one of the most frequent and disabling consequences of stroke. Poor spontaneous recovery and the limited success of conventional speech therapy bring up the question of how current treatment approaches can be improved. Besides increasing training frequency-with daily sessions lasting several hours and high repetition rates of language materials ("massed training")-adjuvant drug therapy may help to increase therapy efficacy. In this article, we illuminate the potential of monoaminergic (bromocriptine, levodopa, d-amphetamine) and cholinergic (donepezil) substances for treating aphasia. For a final evaluation of combined massed training and adjuvant pharmacotherapy, randomized, placebo-controlled (multicenter) clinical trials with sufficient numbers of patients are needed. Furthermore, results of experimental animal studies of functional recovery in brain damage raise hopes that neurotrophic factors or stem cells might find a place in recovery from aphasia in the intermediate future.

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Vaginal cabergoline is a safe and effective method of therapy for hyperprolactinemia and it avoids the adverse events of oral administration.

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Three nulliparous women presented with secondary amenorrhea with no evidence of endocrinopathy and normal skull x-ray. Pulsatile gonadotropin secretion was reduced, but an adequate pituitary gonadotropin reserve was demonstrable with luteinizing hormone-release factor provocation. The administration of bromocryptine was associated with amplification of pulsatile secretion of gonadotropins and was followed, in two of the three, by ovulatory menstruation. It is suggested that bromocryptine should be considered for induction of menstruation in euprolactinemic secondary amenorrhea.

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D2R expression in APA was examined in 24 patients and was much less than that in the nontumorous adrenal cortex. D2R mRNA levels in APA were inversely correlated with CYP11B2 mRNA levels and the patient's plasma aldosterone concentration. Angiotensin II (AII)-stimulated aldosterone secretion and CYP11B2 mRNA expression in human adenocarcinoma cells (H295R) was attenuated by the D2 agonist, bromocriptine (BMC). BMC selectively attenuated AII-induced protein kinase C (PKC)-mu phosphorylation and its translocation to the cell membrane. PKCmu-specific short-hairpin RNA significantly decreased AII-induced CYP11B2 mRNA expression and aldosterone secretion. BMC also attenuated the AII-induced increase in cytoplasmic calcium, partially through an inhibition of cytoplasmic inositol 1,4,5 triphosphate production. Despite similar total PKCmu levels in APA and the nontumorous adrenal cortex, expression of phosphorylated PKCmu in APA was much higher.

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Prolactinomas are the most frequent pituitary adenomas. In patients with prolactinomas the primary cause of hyperprolactinemia is excessive and autonomic production of prolactin by lactotroph cells. In other conditions, except in case of macroprolactinemia, hyperprolactinemia is secondary to circumstances that stimulate secretion of prolactin by intrinsically normal lactotroph cells, or, rarely, that are the result of decreased clearance of prolactin. In general, cabergoline is the preferred treatment for micro- and macroprolactinomas, because it is more effective with respect to normalization of prolactin levels and reduction of prolactinoma size and because it has fewer side-effects compared to bromocriptine. Recently, it has been suggested that a standardized, individualized, stepwise, dose-escalating regimen of cabergoline may normalize prolactin levels and reduce prolactinoma size in patients who were otherwise considered to be dopamine agonist resistant. In general, the cardiac adverse effects of dopamine agonists reported in Parkinson's disease are not of clinical concern in the treatment of prolactinomas, which are treated with much lower doses. Nonetheless, there is uncertainty with respect to the dose and duration of cabergoline treatment, which requires echocardiographic follow-up. Although withdrawal of dopamine agonists may be considered in patients with prolactinomas well controlled by dopamine agonists, especially in postmenopausal women, recurrence of signs and symptoms may occur in a considerable portion of patients.

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Two patients with neuroleptic malignant syndrome without muscle rigidity are described.

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Dogs with spontaneous pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism were divided into two groups, one with normal plasma concentrations of alpha-MSH (normal alpha-MSH dogs, n = 26) and the other with high plasma concentrations of alpha-MSH (high alpha-MSH dogs, n = 14), on the presumption that high alpha-MSH concentrations indicated a parent cell of pars intermedia origin. The urinary corticoid/creatinine ratios of the high alpha-MSH dogs were significantly higher than those of the normal alpha-MSH dogs. The percentage decrease of the corticoid/creatinine ratios following dexamethasone administration was significantly higher in the normal alpha-MSH dogs than in the high alpha-MSH dogs. Dexamethasone resistance occurred in both the normal alpha-MSH dogs (4 out of 26) and the high alpha-MSH dogs (7 out of 14), indicating a relative rather than an absolute difference. The short-term effect of orally administered bromocriptine, at a dose (10 micrograms/kg body weight) known to be effective in lowering prolactin concentrations in dogs, was investigated by measuring concentrations of cortisol, ACTH and alpha-MSH in plasma at 4, 6 and 8 h after administration. Significant decreases were observed for cortisol in both groups and for alpha-MSH only in the high alpha-MSH dogs. The effect of 5 days of bromocriptine administration (10 micrograms at 12-h intervals) was assessed by measurements of urinary corticoid/creatinine ratios. Considering both groups as a whole, only the corticoid/creatinine ratios of the high alpha-MSH dogs decreased significantly on the first day of treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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To study the redistribution of amino acids to the mammary gland during lactation we used lactating and virgin rats fed liquid diets. Virgin rats were divided in two groups: one group was fed daily a diet containing the same amount of protein that was consumed the previous day by lactating rats (high protein diet-fed rats), and the other virgin group was fed the normal liquid diet (control). The hepatic availability of amino acids was significantly higher in the lactating rats than in the other two groups, but the uptake and fractional extraction of amino acids by the liver were lower in lactating rats than in the high protein-fed virgin controls. When primary hepatocyte cultures were used, the uptake of 2-amino-[1-14C]isobutyric acid (AIB) and the activity of system A were found to be significantly higher in the hepatocytes from virgin rats fed the high protein diet than in those obtained from the lactating and control virgin groups. No difference was observed between the control virgin rats and the lactating rats. The kinetic of AIB showed that the Vmax/Km ratio was significantly lower in hepatocytes from lactating rats than in those from the high protein diet-fed virgin rats. Addition of prolactin to the incubation medium decreased the uptake of AIB in hepatocytes from both groups of virgin rats. Moreover, uptake of AIB was greater in bromocriptine-treated lactating rats and in lactating rats that had had their pups removed for the preceding 24 h compared with values for the lactating rats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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The P-glycoprotein (Pgp) reversing agent, reserpine, induces MDR1 mRNA and PGP protein in human colon carcinoma cells (Schuetz, E. G., Beck, W. T., and Schuetz, J. D. (1996) Mol. Pharmacol. 49, 311-318) and in H35 rat hepatoma cells. Reserpine's interference with cellular dopamine utilization suggested that dopamine and dopaminergics might be important physiological regulators of PGP expression. Initial studies demonstrated that the H35 cells express the D2 dopamine receptor. Pgp protein and pgp2/mdr1b mRNA was increased (maximum of 10- and 8-fold, respectively) by the potent D2 dopamine receptor agonists bromocriptine, R(-)-propylnorapomorphine hydrochloride, and quinpirole, and Pgp protein induction was blocked by D2 receptor antagonists spiperone and clozapine. D2 receptor agonist induction of pgp2/mdr1b mRNA was paralleled by transcriptional activation of the pgp2/mdr1b promoter but blocked by pretreatment with the D2 dopamine receptor antagonists, spiperone, eticlopride, and clozapine. Co-transfection of a D2 dopamine receptor expression vector enhanced bromocriptine's transcriptional activation of the pgp2/mdr1b promoter. The G-protein, Galphai2, is required for bromocriptine transcriptional activation because the G-protein inhibitor, pertussis toxin, suppressed bromocriptine's activation of pgp2/mdr1b transcription and co-transfection of a dominant negative Galphai2 abrogated bromocriptine activation of pgp2/mdr1b. Gi proteins can transduce signals by activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and because Raf-1 is a known activator of MDR1, we tested for Raf-1 involvement. Co-transfection of a dominant negative Raf-1 failed to block bromocriptine induction of pgp2/mdr1b, and bromocriptine treatment caused no phosphorylation of the MAP kinase kinase substrates p42 and p44, demonstrating that the MAP kinase pathway was not involved. These are the first studies demonstrating transcriptional activation of an MDR gene by dopamine receptor agonists and that this activation occurs by a signal transduction pathway requiring the D2 dopamine receptor coupled to a functional G-protein.

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The goal of pharmacogenomic testing for anti-Parkinson's disease drugs should be conservative and aimed at selecting determined drugs for determined patients. However, much additional research is still needed to obtain reliable pre-prescription tests.

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Acromegaly patients were identified in two commercial claims databases for this retrospective analysis. Study subjects had ≥2 medical claims with acromegaly (ICD-9-CM code 253.0) and ≥1 claim for pharmacotherapy (bromocriptine, cabergoline, octreotide SA, octreotide LAR, lanreotide, or pegvisomant) in the study timeframe (1 January 2002-31 December 2013). Patients were considered newly treated if they were continuously enrolled for ≥6 months before first observed treatment and had no claim for pharmacologic treatment during that time. Outcomes included various pharmacotherapies, including combination treatments, and differences between lines of therapy.

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This study therefore investigated the effects of timed daily administration of bromocriptine, a potent dopamine D2 receptor agonist, on a) ventromedial hypothalamic catecholamine activity, b) MS and c) hepatic protein levels of key regulators of liver inflammation and glucose and lipid metabolism in a non-seasonal model of MS - the hypertensive, obese SHR rat.

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Since a pharmacological dose of prolactin has previously been reported to enhance calcium absorption and bone calcium turnover, the role of endogenous prolactin in the regulation of calcium metabolism was investigated in the balance studies of Wistar rats between days 17 and 20 of first (P1) and fourth (P4) pregnancy and between days 12 and 15 of lactation (L). Each group was divided into 3 subgroups: one subgroup was given 0.9% NaCl (control); one was given 0.3 mg bromocriptine/100 g body weight ip twice daily for 3 days (to suppress prolactin secretion); and one was given bromocriptine and 0.25 mg prolactin/100 g body weight sc daily for 3 days. All three groups received 1 mL/100 g body weight of 1.25 mM calcium gluconate containing 2 mCi (1 Ci = 37 GBq) 45Ca daily for 3 days. Compared with the two pregnant controls, the L group had higher food consumption and higher fecal calcium excretion and lower urinary calcium excretion (% intake). Bromocriptine administration increased total calcium excretion from 59% intake to 84 and 66% intake in P1 and P4, respectively, suggesting that endogenous prolactin decreased total calcium excretion. On the other hand, exogenous prolactin had no effect on the calcium balance of P1 but increased the total calcium excretion in P4 from 57 to 66% intake. In contrast, the calcium balance of lactating rats was not altered by suppression of endogenous prolactin secretion or exogenous prolactin. Considering bone 45Ca content as representing bone Ca turnover, a lower value of bone 45Ca content indicated an accelerated bone Ca turnover. It was found that bromocriptine had no effect in P1 but decreased bone Ca turnover rate in the P4 and L groups, indicating an accelerating effect of endogenous prolactin on bone Ca turnover in the P4 and L groups. Exogenous prolactin, on the other hand, decreased bone Ca turnover rate in every group. Muscle Ca turnover was affected by bromocriptine and exogenous prolactin in the same manner as bone 45Ca contents. Interestingly, the biphasic action of prolactin was demonstrated in both calcium absorption and bone calcium turnover. It could be concluded that during pregnancy and lactation, endogenous prolactin increases food consumption, fractional calcium absorption, and bone calcium turnover, apparently to increase calcium availability for fetal development and milk calcium secretion.

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The duration of NMS spanned from 1 to 119 days. Nine percent of patients died and 20% resolved with serious sequelae. Patients receiving low-potency neuroleptics had a poorer outcome (p = .01). Fever was related to longer duration of illness (p = .03). Anticholinergics and bromocriptine were effective and without fatalities, but dantrolene was not useful in this sample of children and adolescents.

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Heavy cocaine use has been reported to lead to dopamine depletion in the brain, which in turn may be responsible for strong cocaine craving after withdrawal. Bromocriptine, a dopaminergic agonist, was used on that basis to prevent relapses in the withdrawal period. In an uncontrolled trial of 25 heavy cocaine users, measurements of pre- and post-bromocriptine serum prolactin levels-as indicators of inhibitory dopaminergic control-did not suggest dopamine depletion. Moreover, in 13 of these 25 patients, an assessment scale for craving and for other subjective discomforts indicated some improvement in only a slight majority, which is probably inseparable from placebo effect.

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Gene expression of all three variants of the murine prolactin receptor was enhanced by aortic banding. Upregulated prolactin receptor was distributed in the proximal tubular cells of the pars recta in the deep inner cortex and the outer stripe of the outer medulla. Prolactin has been reported to be a natriuretic hormone that inhibits proximal tubular Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity, resulting in reduced sodium reabsorption and the acceleration of natriuresis. Inhibition of endogenous prolactin secretion by bromocriptine administration decreased the urine sodium excretion in both aortic banding and control mice. On the other hand, excess exogenous prolactin administration enhanced urine potassium excretion in aortic banding mice. Furthermore, a high-sodium diet accelerated urinary sodium excretion, which was also significantly decreased by inhibition of endogenous prolactin secretion in aortic banding mice.

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Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with a substantially increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Bromocriptine-QR (B-QR), a quick release sympatholytic dopamine D2 receptor agonist, is a FDA-approved therapy for T2DM which may provide CVD risk reduction. Metformin is considered to be an agent with a potential cardioprotective benefit. This large placebo controlled clinical study assessed the impact of B-QR addition to existing metformin therapy on CVD outcomes in T2DM subjects.

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In mammals, dopamine 2-like receptors are expressed in distinct pathways within the central nervous system, as well as in peripheral tissues. Selected neuronal D2-like receptors play a critical role in modulating locomotor activity and, as such, represent an important therapeutic target (e.g. in Parkinson's disease). Previous studies have established that proteins required for dopamine (DA) neurotransmission are highly conserved between mammals and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. These include a fly dopamine 2-like receptor (DD2R; Hearn et al. PNAS 2002 99(22):14554) that has structural and pharmacologic similarity to the human D2-like (D2R). In the current study, we define the spatial expression pattern of DD2R, and functionally characterize flies with reduced DD2 receptor levels. We show that DD2R is expressed in the larval and adult nervous systems, in cell groups that include the Ap-let cohort of peptidergic neurons, as well as in peripheral tissues including the gut and Malpighian tubules. To examine DD2R function in vivo, we generated RNA-interference (RNAi) flies with reduced DD2R expression. Behavioral analysis revealed that these flies show significantly decreased locomotor activity, similar to the phenotype observed in mammals with reduced D2R expression. The fly RNAi phenotype can be rescued by administration of the DD2R synthetic agonist bromocriptine, indicating specificity for the RNAi effect. These results suggest Drosophila as a useful system for future studies aimed at identifying modifiers of dopaminergic signaling/locomotor function.

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Mixed PRL- and GH-secreting pituitary adenomas are relatively common because somatotrophs and lactotrophs share the common somato-mammotroph progenitor lineage. Conversely, the occurrence of a prolactinoma evolving into clinically and biochemically active acromegaly is a rare phenomenon.

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Organotypic cultures, in defined medium, of pituitary primordia obtained from 15-day-old rat fetuses were performed in order to study the in vitro differentiation of melanotrophic cells. The morphological and ultrastructural features of the transplants resembled those of the gland developing in vivo. In situ hybridization on semi-thin sections, using a 35S-labelled oligonucleotide probe, revealed pro-opiomelanocortin-mRNA-containing cells on the first day of culture in the anterior lobe and after 2-3 days in the intermediate lobe. Immunoperoxidase labelling of adjacent sections showed that the same cells reacted with antibodies against alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha MSH), gamma 3MSH and adrenocorticotropic hormone in both lobes. The pro-opiomelanocortin-mRNA-containing cells formed progressively conspicuous areas in the intermediate lobe, which was almost uniformly labelled after 6 days. In the anterior lobe, these cells remained scattered in small cell groups, and colloidal gold immunolabelling showed the progressive disappearance of alpha MSH labelling from the secretory vesicles in cells exhibiting morphological features of adult corticotrophic cells. Both the alpha MSH content of the explants and alpha MSH release into the culture medium increased with time. Treatment with the dopamine agonist bromocriptine induced a strong dose-dependent decrease in alpha MSH secretion, which was significant after 3 days in culture, indicating that dopamine D2 receptors are able to regulate hormonal release of melanotrophic cells at early stages. This system constitutes a suitable model for further studies of factors controlling cell differentiation and cellular interactions involved in histogenesis.

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Bovine brain cortex phospholipids (BC-PL) have a partially dopaminergic effect on the human CNS. This leads to modifications in gonadotropins (FSH, LH and prolactin) pituitary incretion in normal subjects. The Authors have developed an acute test for phospholipids (300 and 600 mg by fast i.v. injection) to be performed in patients suffering from secondary normoprolactinemic amenorrhea possibly of diencephalic origin (hypothesis: hypothalamus function test). In these subjects no change in FSH and LH incretion was observed, whereas blood prolactin levels appeared remarkably reduced. In a small group of patients affected by hyperprolactinemia brain cortex phospholipids produced a more rapid and more marked reduction in blood prolactin (similar to that caused by bromocriptine) in functional conditions in comparison to the organic ones.

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The association of cyclophosphamide, somatostatin, bromocriptin, retinoids, melatonin, and ACTH is well tolerated and effective in treatment of low-grade NHL at advanced stage.

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The authors report sixteen consecutive cases of erythromelalgia, an infrequent disease in which local heat, redness, and pain develop in the hands and/or feet in recurrent attacks. The disease was essential in nine patients; in the remaining seven, the cause was a myeloproliferative syndrome (polycythemia vera in 3 cases and thrombocythemia in 1 case) or a drug (bromocriptine, nicardipine, and nifedipine, one case each). Acetylsalicylic acid was effective in only six of the nine essential cases. Intravascular platelet activation and aggregation with plugging of the arterioles has been suggested as the mechanism of erythromelalgia in patients with myeloproliferative disorders. Other, as yet unelucidated pathophysiologic events underlie the juvenile-onset forms, which usually fail to respond to acetylsalicylic acid.

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Recently, we showed cysteamine-duodenal lesions without gastric acid, since they were induced also in gastrectomized rats, as in naive rats, and they were inhibited buy parlodel online by the novel stomach pentadecapeptide BPC 157 as well as standard antiulcer drugs (i.e. cimetidine, ranitidine, omeprazole, bromocriptine, atropine). Therefore, as an advantage of considering cysteamine as a directly acting cytotoxic agent and mentioned agents as direct cytoprotective agents, the present focus was on the ulcerogenic effect of cysteamine and protective effect of gastroduodenal antiulcer agents outside upper gastrointestinal tract (i.e. in colon). Intrarectal administration of the cysteamine (200 or 400 mg/kg b.w) produced severe colon lesions (i.e. transmural inflammation with serosal involvement) in rats (30 min-72 h-experimental period), apparently distinctive from smaller lesions after non-specific irritant enema [diluted HCl solution, pH 3.8 (adjusted to pH of cysteamine solution (pH 3.8)]. All of the tested antiulcer agents were applied simultaneously with cysteamine enema (8 cm from the anus, in a volume of the 1.0 ml/rat) intraperitoneally (i.p.), intragastrically (i.g.) or intrarectally (i.r.). Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (10 microg or 10 ng/kg b.w.), given in either regimen, previously shown to have, besides others, a particular beneficial activity just in the intestinal mucosa, inhibited these cysteamine colon lesions (assessed after 30 min, 60 min, 180 min, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h following cysteamine in a dose of either 200 or 400 mg/kg i.r.). Cysteamine-colon lesions were also attenuated by standard antiulcer agents (mg/kg b.w.), given i.p., i.g., or i.r., such as ranitidine (10), cimetidine (50), omeprazole (10), atropine (10), together with methylprednisolone (1), and sulphasalazine (50, i.r.), assessed 30 min following application of 200 mg of cysteamine. Finally, standard cysteamine duodenal lesions (assessed 24 h after a subcutaneous application of 400 mg/kg of cysteamine) were also attenuated by these agents application (given in the same doses, i.p., 1 h before cysteamine), with only exception to sulphasalazine. Thus, the extended cysteamine specific ulcerogenic effect, cysteamine colon/duodenum lesion-link and an extenuation of agents protection from upper to lower part of gastrointestinal tract (i.e. stomach pentadecapeptide BPC 157, standard antiulcer agents, cimetidine, ranitidine, atropine, omeprazole) and vice versa (remedies for inflammatory bowel disease) evidenced in the present study may be potentially important for both further experimental and clinical research.

parlodel tablet uses 2017-03-26

A non-neoplastic syndrome of inappropriate secretion of TSH (ITSHS) was diagnosed in a hemithyroidectomized and clinically euthyroid 44-yr-old man, who also exhibited limping (Perthes' disease), genu valgum, pes supinatus and lateral nystagmus. Computed tomography demonstrated an enlarged sella turcica due to empty sella. Baseline serum T3, T4, free T3, free T4 and TSH fluctuated between 179 and 274 ng/dl, 6.0 and 13.2 micrograms/dl, 4.2 and 6.0 pg/ml, 7.6 and 15.3 pg/ml, and 4.3 and 33.0 microU/ml, respectively. Serum alpha-TSH subunit was repeatedly normal (0.36-0.69 ng/ml) over the follow-up period (greater than 3 yr). No changes in serum liver enzymes and lipids were observed after thyroid hormone administration, whereas red blood cell glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) and urinary OH-proline were slightly enhanced during 120 micrograms/day L-T3 regimen. This also resulted in an inappropriately normal glucagon-stimulated cAMP levels. Tachycardia was buy parlodel online experienced only during L-T3 and very high L-T4 dose treatments. Therefore, the patient showed some evidence for thyroid hormone peripheral refractoriness. Patient's TSH was physiologically responsive to agents (thyrotropin releasing hormone, methimazole, the dopamine antagonists domperidone and sulpiride) known to elicit its release into circulation, while it responded paradoxically to those which normally inhibit TSH secretion. In fact, the infusion of somatostatin (320 micrograms/h) or dopamine (4 micrograms/Kg/min), and the oral administration of bromocriptine or nomifensine (two dopamine agonists) or corticosteroids (dexamethasone) provoked an unexpected elevation of both unstimulated and TRH-stimulated TSH levels.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

parlodel dosage 2016-05-09

Twenty-four hyperprolactinaemic women were treated for 6 months with the new, non-ergot, long-acting dopamine agonist, CV 205-502. The treatment resulted in normalization of PRL secretion in 17 of the 24 women at once-daily doses of 0.05 to 0.15 mg of the drug. Sixteen of these women as well as 4 of those who remained hyperprolactinaemic had regular menstrual bleeding. Five of the patients had previously discontinued bromocriptine therapy because of adverse effects but had no problems tolerating CV 205-502. Of three bromocriptine-resistant women, two responded partially while one also remained unresponsive to CV 205-502 treatment. Mild to moderate galactorrhoea was recorded at baseline in 19 of the 24 women. After 6 months' treatment mild galactorrhoea was still present in six patients, four of whom had attained normal PRL levels. Side-effects were mild and transient. CV 205-502 seems to be a buy parlodel online valuable compound in the management of patients with hyperprolactinaemia.

parlodel dose 2016-11-06

It was tested the influence of 1 tablet Parlodel on the concentration of hypophyseal-ovarian and hypophyseal-adrenal hormones. It was established, that 1 tablet Parlodel reduces the level of testosterone and cortisol of all tested persons at the second hour of the investigation. The influence of 1 tablet Parlodel is stronger with young buy parlodel online girls showing higher initial levels of prolactin and testosterone.

buy parlodel online 2015-09-28

Arthritis is produced in male rats within 9-10 days after a single injection of Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) at the base of the tail. When bromocriptine, a dopaminomimetic that suppresses PRL secretion, was given in form of long-acting microcapsules (CBLA) 3 days before FCA, the hind limb swelling was significantly reduced by 70%. Here, we showed that plasma PRL levels were significantly elevated (by 150% over controls) during the 6-day period after FCA, particularly at night. Further, within 1-4 days after FCA inoculation, marked increases in ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity occurred in bone marrow, thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes (by 190%, 160%, 80% and 75% over control values, respectively). In FCA-treated rats, the circadian rhythm of thymic ODC showed that an important enhancement of activity occurred during the dark phase, which correlated with the peak of PRL secretion (between 2200-0400 h). Finally, pretreatment with CBLA significantly inhibited the induction of ODC buy parlodel online in response to FCA in thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes (by 65%, 80%, and 45%, respectively) and inhibited it more weakly in the bone marrow. This in vivo study leaves little doubt about the existence of a PRL-dependent immuno-stimulatory mechanism, probably involved in the pathogenesis of adjuvant arthritis.

parlodel tabs 2015-01-02

The authors reported a patient with a large prolactinoma (PRL 1,716 ng/ml) who was treated with bromocriptine for two years and followed up for a subsequent 36 months. After the start of the therapy, the tumor size was dramatically reduced, and finally the disappearance of the tumor was confirmed by high resolution coronal CT. The serum prolactin level and pituitary function were normalized. The tumor has not regrown and the blood prolactin level has remained normal for 36 months since the buy parlodel online discontinuation of bromocriptine administration. This is a very rare case report on the eradicative effect of bromocriptine on such a large prolactinoma. Another characteristic of this case was that the prolactin reserve was maintained not only before the therapy but also during the early stage of the therapy.

parlodel y alcohol 2016-09-09

1. Eleven monkeys were administered N-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP): eight were treated with bromocriptine for one week and then CY 208-243 (four monkeys) or saline ( buy parlodel online four monkeys) was added to the bromocriptine treatment. 2. Addition of CY 208-243 increased the therapeutic response observed with the ergot alone without inducing dyskinesia. 3. Following MPTP, [3H]-SCH 23390 specific binding to D-1 receptors as well as [3H]-spiperone and [3H]-N-n-propylnorapomorphine specific binding to D-2 receptors increased in posterior striatum compared to control animals, whereas [3H]-SKF 38393 binding to D-1 receptors tended to decrease. 4. Dopamine receptor density was unchanged in anterior striatum of untreated MPTP-monkeys. 5. In the posterior striatum, both dopaminergic treatments decreased towards control values [3H]-SCH 23390, [3H]-spiperone and [3H]-N-n-propylnorapomorphine binding whereas they did not significantly change [3H]-SKF 38393 specific binding. [3H]-SKF 38393 specific binding increased in anterior striatum of bromocriptine-treated MPTP-monkeys, compared to untreated MPTP-animals, and this increase was abolished in animals treated with bromocriptine+CY 208-243. 6. The present study shows that in MPTP-monkeys, treated or not with DA agonists, the D1 and D2 receptor changes are concentrated in the posterior striatum and that denervation appears to cause a shift from the high to the low affinity agonist state of D1 receptors but not for the D2 subtype.

parlodel generic name 2017-07-01

This study demonstrates the response of human pituitary cell monolayers to a wide buy parlodel online variety of hormonal stimuli. Appropriate release of luteinizing hormone (LH) and prolactin (PRL) was used as a verification of cell function. Cells that had been in culture for 20 days, with no hormonal additions, were exposed to LH-releasing hormone (LH-RH) continuously for 14 days. This resulted in an immediate fivefold increase in secretion of LH followed by a depression in LH production over the remaining 10-day period. After an 8-day period without hormonal additions, the same cultures again demonstrated a threefold increase in response to retreatment with LH-RH. In two similar studies, cells that had been in culture for 28 and 31 days were treated with bromocriptine, pergolide, dopamine, or thyrotropin-releasing factor (TRF). TRF elicited an increase of PRL in the medium by nearly double the control values. The addition of dopamine, pergolide, or bromocriptine resulted in a depression of PRL during the treatment period. This study has shown that human pituitary cells maintained in long-term monolayer culture respond predictably to a wide range of hormonal stimuli.

parlodel drug uses 2016-11-01

The results of this study suggest that buy parlodel online the use of fertility medications does not adversely affect the risk of breast cancer among BRCA mutation carriers. Given the small sizes of the exposed subgroups, these findings should be interpreted with caution and confirmatory studies are required.

parlodel drug 2016-07-18

A 16-year-old boy presented with a four-month history of polyuria-polydipsia and a diplopia which had reverted after treatment. The neuroimaging studies performed had been strongly suggestive of an optic nerve glioma, while endocrinological investigation (beta-hCG 420 IU/L) has lead to the correct diagnosis later confirmed at the immunohystochemical analysis performed at biopsy. The high serum level of hCG was unaffected by bromocriptine nor octreotide, while the PRL level (80.0 microg/L) was buy parlodel online reduced only by bromocriptine. Among the several tumor markers which may be secreted by such lesions, ours is the first reported case of an elevation of serum LDH for a primary intracranial germinoma. Moreover, the elevated value of serum leptin reported by us might be due to the insensitivity of the hypothalamic structures to endogenous leptin.

parlodel medicine 2015-05-09

To report on a 10 year follow up of buy parlodel online patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease, particularly with respect to mortality and the effect of early treatment with bromocriptine.

parlodel 5mg tablets 2015-07-31

An acromegalic patient with nontoxic autonomous goiter was sequentially treated with octreotide and bromocriptine. Before therapy, serum GH, PRL and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels were increased. Free T3 and free T4 were within the normal range with suppressed TSH levels, whereas 123Iodine-uptake of thyroid was 5.6% after 24 h. During treatment with octreotide and bromocriptine, serum GH, PRL, and IGF-I became normal and free T3 and free T4 were slightly but significantly decreased, but TSH levels remained very low. After thyroidectomy, thyroglobulin, free T3 and free T4 were further decreased, and the TSH levels were recovered to normal. These findings suggested that octreotide buy parlodel online and bromocriptine inhibit the release of thyroid hormones from the autonomous thyroid gland directly or indirectly through the decline in IGF-I.

parlodel brand name 2015-09-26

In 30 normal subjects, the mean (+/- SEM) plasma concentration of PRL was 5.90 +/- 0.40 ng/ml and that of PTH was 0.51 +/- 0.03 ng/ml. There was no significant difference in plasma hormone levels according to age or sex. Ten cases of primary hyperparathyroidism showed PRL concentrations (8.90 +/- 1.80 ng/ml) significantly (P less than 0.01) higher than those of the normal subjects. After adenomectomy, the PRL concentration decreased (5.35 +/- 0.50 ng/ml). However, this decrease was only significant in the 5 of 10 patients who had preoperative plasma PRL levels of 10 ng/ml or more (P less than 0.01). The increase in PRL concentration in 10 cases of secondary hyperparathyroidism with normal glomerular function was also significant (14.25 +/- 3.9 ng/ml; P less than 0.001). Fourteen patients with prolactinoma showed PTH plasma levels (1.25 +/- 0.15 ng/ml) significantly higher than those of normal subjects (P less than 0.001). Eight of the 14 patients received 7.5 mg/24 h of bromocriptine for 3 months; their mean plasma PTH level decreased significantly from 1.60 +/- 0.35 to 0.50 +/- 0.11 ng/ml (P less than 0.01). In 9 cases of secondary hyperprolactinemia, the increase in PTH (0.80 +/- 0.16 ng/ml) was significant compared to the plasma PTH levels in the normal group (P less than 0.05). These results show that an excess of plasma PRL is associated with an excess of plasma PTH and buy parlodel online vice versa. The mechanisms of these relationships remain unclear.

parlodel 1 mg 2015-09-15

The therapeutic efficacy of the combination of cyproheptadine and bromocriptine was studied in 15 Avapro Prices patients with active acromegaly showing incomplete GH suppression in response to bromocriptine therapy alone. The mean basal plasma GH was 31.3 +/- 5.5 micrograms/L, and it decreased to 19.0 +/- 3.9 micrograms/L during the single bromocriptine therapy (10 to 20 mg for 2 to 21 months). When cyproheptadine (12 to 16 mg for 8 to 52 months) was added to bromocriptine therapy, plasma GH decreased further (9.4 +/- 3.0 micrograms/L: vs pretreatment, P less than 0.001; vs bromocriptine treatment, P less than 0.005), and GH normalization was obtained in 8 patients. The plasma somatomedin-C levels in these 8 patients (0.3-1.8 U/ml) were within the normal range during the combination therapy. Plasma GH responses to TRH or GHRH were markedly suppressed in 6 patients during the combination therapy compared to pretreatment or during bromocriptine treatment. In addition, a clear reduction in the tumor size was observed in 4 of 7 previously untreated patients during the combination therapy. In conclusion, cyproheptadine has therapeutic efficacy in acromegalic patients who showed incomplete GH suppression in response to treatment with bromocriptine alone. Following the cyproheptadine and bromocriptine combination therapy tumor shrinkage was observed in some patients.

parlodel drug classification 2016-03-12

Application of dibutyryl-cAMP at the concentration Seroquel Xr Reviews of 1 to 8 mmol/l resulted in an inhibition of apoptosis, followed by an increase in the number of cultured cells. Ultrastructural studies showed evident apoptotic lesions in the cells.

parlodel buy 2015-01-05

We Stromectol Online Canada searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (27 July 2010) and the reference lists of identified studies.

parlodel user reviews 2017-03-23

A 28-year-old man with a thyroid stimulating hormone/prolactin (TSH/PRL)-secreting pituitary macroadenoma is discussed in relation to dopamine D2 and somatostatin receptor single-photon emission tomography (SPET). The patient presented with decreased vision in the left eye as a result of a temporal visual field defect and with mild hyperthyroidism. Medical therapy was tried. A test dose of both octreotide and bromocriptine resulted in an acute reduction in serum levels of TSH, alpha-subunits and PRL, whereas there was no response to TRIAC. Somatostatin and dopamine D2 receptors were present on the tumour as visualised by SPET with the ligands indium-111 diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA)-octreotide (111In-SMS) and iodine-123 iodobenzamide (123I-IBZM), respectively. Therefore, treatment with octreotide 150 micrograms t Chloromycetin Medicine .i.d. subcutaneously and bromocriptine 10 mg b.i.d. orally was given for > 12 and > 6 weeks, respectively. Following this treatment the visual defects disappeared, although tumour size, as measured by CT scanning, and serum TSH levels did not decrease. SPET with 111In-SMS and 123I-IBZM after therapy revealed no change or a possible increase in somatostatin receptor binding potential and a possible decrease in dopamine D2 receptor binding potential. The lack of long-term effects of the medical treatment is discussed. It is concluded that a high somatostatin and dopamine D2 receptor binding potential in vivo in a TSH/PRL-producing adenoma does not necessarily predict a successful outcome of medical treatment.

parlodel and alcohol 2017-07-02

A successful pregnancy resulting from in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer in which bromocriptine was utilized for ovulation induction is reported. Suppression of transient hyperprolactinemia during induction of ovulation Clomid 5 Mg is suggested.

parlodel maximum dose 2017-12-17

This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of transient hyperprolactinemia in infertile women with luteal phase deficiency. One hundred fifty-one luteal phase deficiency patients and 11 controls had serum prolactin (PRL) measured daily for 3-4 days near ovulation. Thirty-three subjects (21.9%) had transient hyperprolactinemia, with PRL above 20 ng/mL for 1 or 2 days, and were studied further. The blood samples of these 33 subjects and of the controls were also analyzed for LH and FSH. Plasma progesterone was measured on the fourth, seventh, and tenth days after ovulation in both groups. The mean (+/- SD) of the mid-cycle integrated LH surge (125.0 +/- 23.0 mIU/mL; N = 26) and the sum of three plasma progesterone levels (23.8 +/- 4.5 ng/mL; N = 21) in the luteal phase deficiency women were significantly (P less than .001) lower than those of the controls (LH 158. Celexa 30mg Reviews 7 +/- 13.8 mIU/mL; progesterone 33.8 +/- 6.5 ng/mL). All 33 luteal phase deficiency subjects with transient hyperprolactinemia were treated with bromocriptine at a dose ranging from 1.25-5 mg/day to maintain mid-cycle PRL levels between 5-15 ng/mL. Both the integrated LH surge and the sum of three progesterone levels increased significantly (P less than .05) during bromocriptine treatment, to 142.6 +/- 22.4 mIU/mL (N = 20) and 28.2 +/- 6.2 ng/mL (N = 18), respectively. Fourteen of the 33 patients conceived. The cumulative probability of conception was 31% for six cycles and 45% for 12 cycles of treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

parlodel tablet price 2017-02-13

Non-tumour causes of hyperprolactinaemia, including prolactin-elevating drugs, must be excluded. There is a general view that such drugs are unlikely to raise serum PRL above 3000 mU/I, but the literature is confusing. We report 8 patients receiving treatment with Cialis Tablet neuroleptic drugs, whose serum PRL concentrations were grossly elevated.

parlodel medication 2017-08-25

Oral bromoergocriptine (BEC) is currently the treatment of choice in women with hyperprolactinemia secondary to a prolactinoma. However, undesirable side effects (of variable type and intensity) are frequently present in these women due to both local irritation and to a direct effect upon the central nervous system. The present work was undertaken as a pilot study to assess the therapeutic effectiveness of vaginally administered BEC and to corroborate if the side effects are less frequent and of minor intensity when compared to oral BEC. Initially, 16 women were included, but two of them did not accept to continue in the study; thus, a total of 14 women with hyperprolactinemia (> or = 40 ng/ml) were divided in two groups: Group A encompassed five women, aged 27 to 36 years old, two with normal menstrual cycles and three with oligomenorrhea; all had primary or secondary sterility during 3 to 12 years and galactorrhea from 6 months to 3 years; in only one patient a brain computerized axial tomography (CAT) was performed which showed the existence of a macroprolactinoma. All received oral BEC (2.5-5 mg/day, except one patient with 10 mg/day). Group B included nine women, aged 26 to 36 years old, four had normal menstrual cycles and five had oligomenorrhea; all had primary or secondary sterility during the last 2 to 7 years and eight out of nine, also had galactorrhea during 1 to 8 years; in four of them a CAT was performed showing a Propecia Cost Generic pituitary microadenoma.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

parlodel pills 2015-02-09

The direct effect of short-term bromocriptine administration on human prolactin cell adenomas in vitro was studied by light and electron microscopy and correlated with the effect on hormone release. The light microscopic and, for the first time, ultrastructural characteristics of adenomatous prolactin cells in control and treated cultures were analyzed morphometrically and the changes induced by bromocriptine were quantified. Following 72 h treatment which lowered levels of prolactin release, there was a marked reduction in cell size, cytoplasmic volume and cytoplasmic volume densities of endoplasmic reticulum and Zovirax 600 Mg Golgi apparatus. In contrast, the percentage of cytoplasm occupied by lysosomes increased. There was no consistent change in number and diameter of secretory granules. These findings indicate that prolactin cell involution is a direct effect of bromocriptine and suggest that reduction in endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex is largely responsible for the decreased cell size. Lysosomal degradation of cytoplasmic components may play a role in this process.

parlodel alcohol 2017-10-28

To determine whether prolactin secreting and non-functioning pituitary tumours respond differently in terms of shrinkage to bromocriptine, we prospectively studied ten consecutive patients (five with prolactinomas and five with non-functioning tumours) complicated by extra-sellar extensions. No patient had Moduretic Reviews received prior radiotherapy or bromocriptine and the mean dose and duration of bromocriptine treatment were identical in the two groups of patients. Objective evidence of tumour shrinkage was provided by serial half-field visual evoked potentials (VEPs) and computerised tomography (CT). All five prolactinomas were shown to shrink as assessed by improvement in VEP and four of the five as assessed by CT. In contrast, only one of the five patients with non-functioning tumours showed any improvement in VEP or CT. Macroprolactinomas frequently shrink rapidly when treated with bromocriptine, whereas non-functioning tumours seldom show such a dramatic response.

parlodel generic 2016-09-28

The role that estrogen plays in the regulation of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is not known. A radioimmunoassay specific for rat CRF was utilized to measure the CRF-like immunoreactivity (CRF-ir) in the hypothalamus of ovariectomized rats treated with estradiol for periods up to 12 weeks. Compared to ovariectomized controls, estradiol treatment resulted in significantly reduced CRF-ir after 3 and 12 weeks, although no significant change was seen after 8 weeks. Anterior pituitary (AP) weight was greatly increased by estradiol treatment at all time points studied. Bromocriptine treatment for the last 3 weeks of the 12-week period, or removal of estradiol for 3 weeks after 9 weeks of treatment did not reverse the changes in CRF-ir even though significant regression of tumor size was achieved. There was no correlation between AP weight and CRF-ir in individual animals. These data show that chronic treatment with estrogen reduced hypothalamic CRF-ir content. Neither a direct estrogenic effect or an indirect effect mediated through alterations in the adenohypophysis could be ruled out.

parlodel dosage hyperprolactinemia 2016-02-07

Accelerated arousal was seen in 47.0% of cases (8/17) in 4-40 days. In 41.2% of cases (7/17), Glasgow outcome score (GOS) was improved to 4/5 in 90 days. Improvement in hemiparesis by at least 1 BMC score was seen in 55.6% of cases (5/9) in 40 days. Aphasia was improved in 80% of cases (4/5) in 7-30 days. Moderate improvement in cognitive impairment was seen in 66.7% of cases (2/3) in 14-20 days. Improvement in memory was observed in 50% of cases (1/2) in over 30 days. No cases were withdrawn from the study because of adverse reactions of the drug. There was no mortality in the study group.

parlodel drug study 2017-12-16

Members of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/ERBB) system are essential local regulators of mammary gland development and function. Emerging evidence suggests that EGFR signaling may also influence mammary gland activity indirectly by promoting the release of prolactin from the pituitary gland in a MAPK and estrogen receptor-α (ERα)-dependent manner. Here, we report that overexpression of the EGFR ligand betacellulin (BTC) causes a lactating-like phenotype in the mammary gland of virgin female mice including the major hallmarks of lactogenesis. BTC transgenic (BTC-tg) females showed reduced levels of prolactin in the pituitary gland and increased levels of the hormone in the circulation. Furthermore, treatment of BTC-tg females with bromocriptine, an inhibitor of prolactin secretion, blocked the development of the lactation-like phenotype, suggesting that it is caused by central release of prolactin rather than by local actions of BTC in the mammary gland. Introduction of the antimorphic Egfr allele Wa5 also blocked the appearance of the mammary gland alterations, revealing that the phenotype is EGFR-dependent. We detected an increase in MAPK activity, but unchanged phosphorylation of ERα in the pituitary gland of BTC-tg females as compared with control mice. These results provide the first functional evidence in vivo for a role of the EGFR system in regulating mammary gland activity by modulating prolactin release from the pituitary gland.