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Allergic rhinitis causes an impairment of the mucociliary function in the nose. It is hoped that treatment of perennial allergic rhinitis would be able to revert mucociliary function to normal. This study aims to compare pre and post treatment mucociliary transport time in 3 different treatment modalities. Ninety-two newly diagnosed patients with allergic rhinitis were randomised into 3 groups and started on different treatment regimes. At the end of 8 weeks, the group treated with only intranasal beclomethasone showed some, though not significant, improvement in the mucociliary function. There were no changes in the mucociliary function in the other two groups treated with beclomethasone and loratidine or loratidine alone.
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Spontaneous hypothermia is a symptom of likely multifactorial etiology. Even in cases conforming to the definition of Shapiro's syndrome, central nervous system anomalies are not unequivocal. No specific treatment for spontaneous hypothermia, whether periodic or not, can be recommended in the current state of knowledge.
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We found 40 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.
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We evaluated long-term treatment with the antiserotonergic agent cyproheptadine in the management of the galactorrhea-amenorrhea syndrome. Fifteen women with a mean initial serum prolactin of 37 +/- 7 ng/mL received 16 to 24 mg of cyproheptadine daily; they had a significant decrease in prolactin concentration at 8 and at 16 weeks (P less than 0.01). Gonadotropin responses were variable, but no significant changes were recorded during treatment. Ten of the 15 women had menstrual bleeding while receiving cyproheptadine, seven had decreased galactorrhea, and two had cessation of galactorrhea. The side effects of treatment were transient drowsiness and weight gain. We conclude that long-term treatment of the galactorrhea-amenorrhea syndrome with cyproheptadine is effective in lowering serum prolactin in patients with mildly elevated or normal levels. Its effect on fertility remains to be ascertained.
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To determine the action spectra and minimal urticaria dose (MUD) and to tailor a treatment regimen graded according to disease severity in a series of patients with SU.
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Bilastine is an orally administered, second-generation antihistamine used in the symptomatic treatment of seasonal or perennial allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and urticaria. In two well designed phase III trials, 14 days' treatment with bilastine was associated with a significantly lower area under the effect curve (AUEC) for the reflective total symptom score (TSS) than placebo in patients with symptomatic seasonal allergic rhinitis. Additionally, reflective nasal symptom scores were significantly lower in bilastine than placebo recipients in patients with a history of seasonal allergic rhinitis who were challenged with grass pollen allergen in a single-centre, phase II study. Neither bilastine nor cetirizine was effective in the treatment of perennial allergic rhinitis with regard to the mean AUEC for reflective TSS in another well designed phase III trial. However, results may have been altered by differences in some baseline characteristics and placebo responses between study countries. In another well designed phase III trial, compared with placebo, bilastine was associated with a significantly greater change from baseline to day 28 in the mean reflective daily urticaria symptom score in patients with chronic urticaria. There were no significant differences in primary endpoint results between bilastine and any of the active comparators used in these trials (i.e. cetirizine, levocetirizine and desloratadine). Bilastine was generally well tolerated, with a tolerability profile that was generally similar to that of the other second-generation antihistamines included in phase III clinical trials.
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The antiserotonin agent cyproheptadine (Periactin) was shown to be an effective antagonist of in vivo platelet aggregation induced in monkeys not only with serotonin but also with ADP.
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Subjects with ragweed-induced allergic rhinitis (aged 18-60 years) who demonstrated a predetermined severity of symptoms after priming with ragweed pollen in the Environmental Exposure Unit were randomized to receive a single dose of desloratadine, 5 mg; diphenhydramine, 50 mg; or placebo. A comprehensive battery of repeatable, automated neuropsychological tests was administered to subjects before treatment (symptomatic baseline) and 90 minutes after taking study medication.
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Cachexia occurs in the majority of cancer patients before death. It is the result of major metabolic changes produced by tumor-released substances as well as by cytokines and some endogenous peptides. The most significant clinical manifestation is profound anorexia. Aggressive parenteral nutrition has not been able to increase patient survival or produce any significant symptomatic improvement. Recent research, therefore, has focused on drugs that might result in symptomatic improvement, even if no significant nutritional changes are detected. Corticosteroids have been shown to increase appetite for a brief period of time, but they do not appear to improve caloric intake or nutritional status. In addition to appetite stimulation, corticosteroids also improve a number of other symptoms transiently. Progestational drugs have been found in a number of studies to increase appetite, caloric intake, and nutritional status. The most effective type and dose of progestational drugs have not been clearly established. Cyproheptadine, hydrazine sulfate, and cannabinoids have all been suggested to have beneficial effects on appetite; their effectiveness, however, needs to be confirmed in prospective, controlled trials. Some of these trials are currently under way. Current data suggest that megestrol acetate or other progestational agents could be useful--because of effects on not only appetite but also overall nutritional status--in patients who have profound anorexia as the main manifestation of cachexia, provided expected survival can be measured in weeks or months. In patients with shorter expected survival or those who have problems tolerating progestational drugs, a brief course of corticosteroids may provide short-term symptomatic effects. Future studies should focus on (1) improving understanding of both the pathophysiology of cancer cachexia and the interaction of some of the major syndromes of terminal cancer--e.g., pain, cachexia, and cognitive failure--and (2) characterizing the symptomatic effects of different drugs more completely.
We have investigated the influence on the excitability of lumbar motoneurons of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), substance P and thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH), three substances which coexist in the same bulbospinal descending pathway and end in large part around motoneurons. We have also studied the effect of clonidine, an alpha 2 noradrenergic agonist. This was done in spinalized rats (T5) treated three weeks before with 5-7-dihydroxytryptamine. Under those circumstances 5-HTP (I.P.), 5-HT (intrathecally) TRH (I.P. or I.T.) and substance P (I.T.) all elicited a strong excitation of motoneurons as measured by integrated EMG of the hindlimb muscles. Substance P reduced by almost half the subsequent response to 5-HTP, 1 hour and 24 hours later. TRH given acutely did not modify the response to 5-HTP but given chronically for twenty one days by means of Alzet minipump, markedly increased the response to 5-HTP. Clonidine by itself decreased the excitability of motoneurons and antagonized the excitatory effect of 5-HTP and TRH. In a pilot trial, cyproheptadine, a 5-HT antagonist was shown to decrease the manifestations of spasticity in patients with a partial spinal lesion. Clonidine also appears to be of potential use in the treatment of spasticity.
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The authors present a case report of history and treatment. Paroxetine levels were measured on Days 3 and 7 after admission, with rising values of the drug. The patient received a course of cyproheptadine and lorazepam, to which he was unresponsive, and he was transferred to the Medical Intensive Care Unit for heavy sedation.
A 23-year-old white male patient was originally admitted to receive intravenous chemotherapy for acute myelogenous leukemia. He had a history of intravenous amphetamine abuse, hepatitis B virus infection, hepatitis C virus infection, depression, and bipolar disorder. The patient's routine medications before admission included methadone, fluoxetine, voriconazole, transdermal nicotine patch, lorazepam, and quetiapine. The patient developed persistent neutropenia and complications from chemotherapy, including mild mucositis. Despite treatment with levofloxacin, acyclovir, and voriconazole, the patient developed high fevers. Levofloxacin was discontinued and aztreonam and vancomycin were started. After a blood culture revealed that the bacteria were likely vancomycin resistant, vancomycin was discontinued and linezolid was initiated. Nine hours later, the patient began complaining of severe pain in his abdomen. After a total of four doses of linezolid, the patient reported further discomfort. Two days after linezolid initiation, a health care team member identified the interaction between fluoxetine and linezolid as the cause of the patient's symptoms, and linezolid was discontinued. All symptoms resolved within 48 hours. While resolution generally occurs within 24-48 hours after discontinuing the offending agent, the time to resolution may be delayed if the agent has a long half-life or active metabolites, in which case admission to an intensive care unit is recommended. Cyproheptadine and chlorpromazine may also be used to treat symptoms.
Second-generation antihistamines were developed to provide symptomatic relief from allergic disorders without the unwanted side effects of first-generation antihistamines, including somnolence. Recent research has indicated that not all second-generation antihistamines are comparable with respect to somnolence and other cognitive processes.
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Ibudilast shows a better curative effect than loratadine in the improvement of the total scores on clinical symptom and signs(P<0.05). Scores of symptoms and signs in Ibudilast group after 3, 7, 14 days decreased significantly by means of square analysis of single factor (P<0.01). No complication was observed.
Clinician- and patient-rated total and individual nasal symptom scores after 7 and 14 days of therapy and overall evaluations were significantly lower (P < .001) in the FP ANS and FP ANS plus loratadine groups compared with the loratadine only and placebo groups. Loratadine was not statistically different from placebo in clinician and patient symptom score ratings nor in overall clinician and patient evaluations. FP ANS plus loratadine and FP ANS monotherapy were comparable in efficacy in almost all evaluations; for some patient-rated symptoms the combination was found superior. Mean score changes in the Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire from baseline to day 14 showed significantly greater improvement (P < .001) in quality of life in the FP ANS group than in the group of patients receiving loratadine only or placebo and no significant benefit was demonstrated in the FP ANS plus loratadine group over the FP ANS monotherapy group. No serious or unusual drug-related adverse events were reported. Combining loratadine with FP ANS did not alter the adverse events profile or frequency.
These results demonstrate that desloratidine is a safe and effective systemic antihistamine--with complex antiallergic effect--for the therapy of seasonal allergic rhinitis and rhinoconjunctivitis. It can reduce nasal congestion with greater magnitude than other known antihistamines.
Loratadine, a novel histamine H1-receptor antagonist, is effective in the treatment of patients with seasonal and perennial rhinitis and some allergic skin disorders. Histamine and other chemical mediators are synthesized and immunologically released by human peripheral blood basophils and tissue mast cells (Fc epsilon RI+ cells).
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In this prospective, randomized, double-blind, 3-way crossover trial, patients with ACU (n = 30) received placebo, 5 mg of desloratadine, and 20 mg of desloratadine every day each for 7 days separated by 14-day washout periods. At the end of each treatment, patients underwent cold provocation with the TempTest 2.0/2.1 system, and urticarial reactions were assessed by using digital 3-dimensional time-lapse photography and thermography; the critical temperature threshold (CTT) and critical stimulation time threshold (CSTT) were measured. Adverse events (AEs) reported during the study were assessed.
Among 706 patients with primary headaches included in the study, 637 cases with a single type of headache (migraine 76% - with and without aura in 10% and 67% respectively; tension-type headache 24%) were selected (mean age at clinical interview: 12 years). Acetaminophen and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (in particular ibuprofen) were commonly used to treat attacks, by 76% and 46% of cases respectively. Triptans were used overall by 6% of migraineurs and by 13% of adolescents with migraine, with better efficacy than acetaminophen and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Preventive drugs were used by 19% of migraineurs and by 3% of subjects with tension-type headache. In migraineurs, flunarizine was the most frequently used drug (18%), followed by antiepileptic drugs (7%) and pizotifen (6%), while cyproheptadine, propanolol and amitriptyline were rarely used. Pizotifen showed the best perceived efficacy and tolerability. Melatonin and nutraceuticals were used by 10% and 32% of subjects, respectively, both for migraine and tension-type headache, with good results in terms of perceived efficacy and tolerability. Non-pharmacological preventive treatments (i.e. relaxation techniques, biofeedback, cognitive-behavioral therapy, acupuncture) were used only by 10% of cases (migraine 9%, tension-type headache 15%).
As of 1989, the psychotropic drugs that have been reported to inhibit female orgasm include antipsychotic agents (thioridazine, trifluoperazine and fluphenazine), the combination drug perphenazine/amitriptyline, antidepressants (phenelzine, isocarboxazid, tranylcypromine, amoxapine, clomipramine, imipramine, nortriptyline and desipramine) and anxiolytic agents (diazepam, flurazepam and alprazolam). The management of psychotropic-drug-induced female anorgasmia includes discontinuation of the offending drug, reduction of the dosage level, a wait for spontaneous remission while the patient remains on the agent and substitution of another medication. The use of bethanechol chloride and cyproheptadine has been successful in resolving anorgasmia while patients continue to receive antidepressants.
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In a multicenter, parallel-group, double-masked, randomized study, two questionnaires were administered to a clinical study population to identify which specific symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis patients perceived as most important to relieve (personal preferences) and to learn whether any relationship existed between patient preferences and the severity of their symptoms during treatment with antihistamines. The group was composed of 256 males and 313 females. Their mean age was 32.4 years, and mean duration of seasonal allergic rhinitis was 14.5 years, with mean age of onset of 17.7 years. After receiving placebo for 1 week, patients were randomly allocated to receive an antihistamine (fexofenadine or loratadine) for 2 weeks. Patient preferences for relief of individual allergy symptoms (rhinitis; sneezing; itchy, watery, red eyes; itchy nose, palate, or throat) and related conditions (fatigue, physical limitations) were scored using 2 different questionnaires before treatment (0-to-10 category rating scale for assessing the 4 symptoms of allergic rhinitis) and after receiving placebo for 1 week (Feeling Thermometer). Symptom severity was reported in patient diaries after 1 and 2 weeks of antihistamine treatment and was measured by patient self-assessment. All symptoms were considered by the patients to be important to relieve, the most important being itchy, watery, red eyes and rhinorrhea. The severity of allergy symptoms was consistently related to the importance of symptoms identified before treatment. Therefore, including patient preferences in medical evaluations might be a useful tool in evaluating the success of their treatment.