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Prandin (Repaglinide)
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Prandin

Prandin is an efficacious medical preparation in fight against type 2 diabetes. Prandin acts by controlling and decreasing glucose (sugar in blood).

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Glucophage, Actos, Glucotrol, Avandia, Starlix, Metformin, Insulin aspart, Glipizide, Glimepiride, Januvia, Victoza, Pioglitazone, Glyburide, Tradjenta, Amaryl, Welchol, Lantus, Levemir, Onglyza, Sitagliptin, Farxiga, Humalog, Novolog, Bydureon, Glucotrol, Toujeo

 

Also known as:  Repaglinide.

Description

Prandin is created with extremely active ingredients with aim to make Prandin ideal remedy against type 2 diabetes. Target of Prandin is to control sugar level in blood.

Prandin acts by controlling and decreasing glucose (sugar in blood). You can use it in case exercise and diet does not help.

Prandin is also known as Repaglinide, Eurepa, GlucoNorm, NovoNorm, Rapilin.

Prandin is an oral anti-diabetic drug. It can be taken together with anti-diabetic medication as Glucophage.

Prandin is not taken to treat type 1 diabetes.

You can normally take insulin while using Prandin.

Dosage

It is better to take Prandin orally every day at the same time.

Usual Prandin dosage is 0.5mg - 4mg, which is taken 2-4 times a day before meal.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Prandin suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Prandin and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Prandin overdosage: troublesome, retching, flushing, migraine, short breath, weakness, sweating, coma, fainting, muscle pain, hunger, pain of stomach, tremors, extreme fatigue, dizziness, seizure, slow heartbeat, dyspepsia, feeling cold, lack of appetite, fast heartbeat.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Prandin are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Prandin if you are allergic to Prandin components.

Be careful with Prandin if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Prandin is not taken to treat type 1 diabetes.

You can normally take insulin while using Prandin.

Do not use Prandin in case of having type 1 diabetes, diabetic ketoacidosis, liver disease, poor adrenal, pituitary function.

Try to be careful with Prandin in case of using such medication as sulfa drugs (Gantanol); isoniazid; niacin (Nicobid); water pills (thiazide diuretics HydroDIURIL, Dyazide); beta blockers (blood pressure medications as Tenormin, Inderal); barbiturates (sedatives as Nembutal, Seconal); calcium channel blockers (blood pressure medications as Procardia, Cardizem); Rifampin (Rimactane, Rifadin); oral contraceptives; ketoconazole (Nizoral); chloramphenicol (Chloromycetin); nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (Voltaren, Motrin, Advil, Naprosyn); blood thinners (Miradon, Dicumarol); steroids as prednisone; furosemide as Lasix; clarithromycin as Biaxin; thyroid medications as Synthroid; phenytoin as Dilantin; Probenecid (ColBENEMID, Benemid); estrogens (Premarin); aspirin; erythromycin (PCE, Eryc, Ery-Tab); MAO inhibitors (antidepressants Parnate, Marplan, Nardil); glucose lowering agents (Micronase, Glucotrol); carbamazepine (Tegretol); major tranquilizers (Stelazine, Mellaril).

You can use Prandin in case exercise and diet does not help.

Prandin can be taken together with anti-diabetic medication as Glucophage.

Try to avoid unhealthy food.

Avoid consuming alcohol.

Do not stop taking Prandin suddenly.

prandin reviews

The IGF2BP2 rs1470579 and rs4402960 polymorphisms may be associated with the development of T2DM, and these polymorphisms may affect the therapeutic efficacy of repaglinide in Chinese T2DM patients.

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A total of 47 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients were randomized 1:1 to receive a 4-week treatment with repaglinide or gliclazide. The standard mixed meal tolerance test was performed before and after the treatment. Plasma glucose (PG), insulin concentration, and lipid profiles were measured. The area under insulin concentration curve (AUC(ins)) and the early-phase insulin secretion index (ΔI(30)/ΔG(30)) were calculated.

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During the last 10-15 years, cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C8 has emerged as an important drug-metabolizing enzyme. CYP2C8 is highly expressed in human liver and is known to metabolize more than 100 drugs. CYP2C8 substrate drugs include amodiaquine, cerivastatin, dasabuvir, enzalutamide, imatinib, loperamide, montelukast, paclitaxel, pioglitazone, repaglinide, and rosiglitazone, and the number is increasing. Similarly, many drugs have been identified as CYP2C8 inhibitors or inducers. In vivo, already a small dose of gemfibrozil, i.e., 10% of its therapeutic dose, is a strong, irreversible inhibitor of CYP2C8. Interestingly, recent findings indicate that the acyl-β-glucuronides of gemfibrozil and clopidogrel cause metabolism-dependent inactivation of CYP2C8, leading to a strong potential for drug interactions. Also several other glucuronide metabolites interact with CYP2C8 as substrates or inhibitors, suggesting that an interplay between CYP2C8 and glucuronides is common. Lack of fully selective and safe probe substrates, inhibitors, and inducers challenges execution and interpretation of drug-drug interaction studies in humans. Apart from drug-drug interactions, some CYP2C8 genetic variants are associated with altered CYP2C8 activity and exhibit significant interethnic frequency differences. Herein, we review the current knowledge on substrates, inhibitors, inducers, and pharmacogenetics of CYP2C8, as well as its role in clinically relevant drug interactions. In addition, implications for selection of CYP2C8 marker and perpetrator drugs to investigate CYP2C8-mediated drug metabolism and interactions in preclinical and clinical studies are discussed.

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Combined metformin and repaglinide therapy resulted in superior glycemic control compared with repaglinide or metformin monotherapy in patients with type 2 diabetes whose glycemia had not been well controlled on metformin alone. Repaglinide monotherapy was as effective as metformin monotherapy.

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SC administration of CsA (30 mg/kg) to rats produced marked elevations in the levels of renal impairment parameters such as urinary protein, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), serum creatinine (SCr), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). It also caused histologic injury to the kidneys. Oral administration of RG (0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg) markedly decreased all the aforementioned changes. In addition, CsA caused increases in the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreases in superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GSR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and glutathione in kidney homogenate, which were reversed significantly by both doses of RG.

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Nowadays, diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension are considered as the most common causes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). In this paper, other than presenting the role of DM in ESRD, glucose metabolism and the management of hyperglycemia in these patients are reviewed. Although in several large studies there was no significant relationship found between tight glycemic control and the survival of ESRD patients, it is recommended that glycemic control be considered as the main therapeutic goal in the treatment of these patients to prevent damage to other organs. Glycemic control is perfect when fasting blood sugar is less than 140 mg/dL, 1-h postprandial blood glucose is less than 200 mg/dL, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is 6-7 in patients with type 1 diabetes and 7-8 in patients with type 2 diabetes. Administration of metformin should be avoided in chronic renal failure (CRF) because of lactic acidosis, the potentially fatal complication of metformin, but glipizide and repaglinide seem to be good choices.

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Contributions of diabetes-induced alteration of physiological parameters including gastric emptying rates, intestinal transit time, drug metabolism in liver and kidney functions were incorporated into the model. Plasma concentration-time profiles and pharmacokinetic parameters of seven drugs (antipyrine, nisoldipine, repaglinide, glibenclamide, glimepiride, chlorzoxazone, and metformin) in non-diabetic and diabetic patients were predicted using the developed model. The PBPK model coupled with a Monte-Carlo simulation was also used to predict the means and variability of pharmacokinetic parameters.

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In type 2 diabetes mellitus, impairment of insulin secretion is an important component of the disease. Meglitinide analogues are a class of oral hypoglycaemic agents that increase insulin secretion, in particular, during the early phase of insulin release.

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In a randomized crossover study with two phases, nine healthy subjects took 600 mg gemfibrozil and 100 mg itraconazole (first dose 200 mg) twice daily or placebo for 3 days. On day 3, they ingested a single 30-mg dose of nateglinide. Plasma nateglinide and blood glucose concentrations were measured for up to 12 h.

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During a 2-year follow-up any LVD is detectable in a large majority of patients with DM without overt cardiac disease. Older age and higher HbA1c predict LVD. All-cause death or hospitalization occurred in 15% of patients, cardiovascular cause was uncommon. Independent predictors of events were older age, pathologic lipid profile, high HbA1c, claudicatio and repaglinide therapy. Echo-assessed LVD at baseline was not prognosticator of events.

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Our aim was to study, at the same glycemic control, how treatment with either the insulin secretagogue repaglinide or exogenous insulin aspart affects endogenous insulin secretion, plasma insulin and IAPP (islet amyloid polypeptide) levels, GH-IGF (growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor) axis and plasma lipoprotein concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes. Five patients, age 65.0+/-4.1 years (mean+/-SE), body weight 82.5+/-5.0 kg, BMI (body mass index) 27.7+/-1.5 kg/m(2) were treated for 10 weeks with repaglinide or insulin aspart in a randomized, cross-over study. At the end of each treatment a 24-h metabolic profile was performed. Blood glucose, C-peptide, free human insulin, free total (human and analogue) insulin, proinsulin, IAPP, IGF-I, IGFBP-1 (IGF binding protein-1), GHBP (growth hormone binding protein) and plasma lipoprotein concentrations were measured. Similar 24-h blood glucose profiles were obtained with repaglinide and insulin aspart treatment. During the repaglinide treatment, the meal related peaks of C-peptide and free human insulin were about twofold higher than during treatment with insulin aspart. Proinsulin, GHBP were higher and IAPP levels tended to be higher during repaglinide compared to insulin aspart. Postprandial plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides and apolipoprotein B concentrations were higher on repaglinide than on insulin aspart treatment. Our results show that, at the same glycemic control, treatment with exogenous insulin aspart in comparison with the insulin secretagogue repaglinide result in a lower endogenous insulin secretion, and a tendency towards a less atherogenic postprandial lipid profile.

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A simple, fast and sensitive HPLC method employing dual-channel coulometric detection for the determination of repaglinide in human plasma is presented. The assay involved extraction of repaglinide by ethyl acetate and isocratic reversed-phase liquid chromatography with dual-channel coulometric detection. The mobile phase composition was 50mM disodium hydrogen phosphate/acetonitrile (60:40, v/v), pH of the mobile phase 7.5 set up with phosphoric acid. For all analyses, the first cell working potential was +380mV, the second was +750mV (vs. Pd/H(2)). Calibration curve was linear over the concentration range of 5-500nmolL(-1). Rosiglitazone was used as an internal standard. The limit of detection (LOD) was established at 2.8nmolL(-1), and the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) at 8.5nmolL(-1). The developed method was applied to human plasma samples spiked with repaglinide at therapeutical concentrations. It was confirmed that the method is suitable for pharmacokinetic studies or therapeutic monitoring.

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medline was searched for entries indexed from January 1966 to November 2002; search terms included the names of OAMs and serum lipids, limited to English language and human subjects. We selected clinical studies in type 2 diabetes of OAM monotherapy that included serum lipid data, treated all patients in a treatment group with the same drug, used therapeutic OAM doses not higher than the maximum recommended in the USA, compared therapy with baseline or placebo and specified statistical tests used. One unblinded investigator selected studies for inclusion. Data reported include number of patients, study length, OAM dose, serum lipid data at baseline and endpoint, p-values and statistical tests.

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Deregulated protein and Ca2+ homeostasis underlie synaptic dysfunction and neurodegeneration in Huntington disease (HD); however, the factors that disrupt homeostasis are not fully understood. Here, we determined that expression of downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator (DREAM), a multifunctional Ca2+-binding protein, is reduced in murine in vivo and in vitro HD models and in HD patients. DREAM downregulation was observed early after birth and was associated with endogenous neuroprotection. In the R6/2 mouse HD model, induced DREAM haplodeficiency or blockade of DREAM activity by chronic administration of the drug repaglinide delayed onset of motor dysfunction, reduced striatal atrophy, and prolonged life span. DREAM-related neuroprotection was linked to an interaction between DREAM and the unfolded protein response (UPR) sensor activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6). Repaglinide blocked this interaction and enhanced ATF6 processing and nuclear accumulation of transcriptionally active ATF6, improving prosurvival UPR function in striatal neurons. Together, our results identify a role for DREAM silencing in the activation of ATF6 signaling, which promotes early neuroprotection in HD.

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Postprandial plasma glucose (PPG) excursion is a significant determinant of overall metabolic control as well as an increased risk for diabetic complications. Older persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) are more likely to have moderate cognitive deficits and neurophysiologic and structural changes in brain tissue. Considering that poor metabolic control is considered a deranging factor for tissue/organ damage in diabetics, the authors hypothesized that PPG excursion is associated with a decline in cognitive functioning and that a tighter control of PPG may prevent cognitive decline.

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Intrasperm calcium concentration ([Ca2+]is) is known to play a vital role in regulating motility and viability of ejaculated spermatozoa. K ATP channel blockers are reported to block K ATP channels, leading to depolarization of the cell membrane. This activates the voltage-gated calcium channels, resulting in enhanced Ca2+ influx, which eventually elevates the intracellular [Ca2+] level. Hence, it can be hypothesized that drugs acting on K ATP channels could possess the ability to elevate [Ca2+]is. Sulfonylureas such as glibenclamide or gliclazide, as well as meglitinide analogues such as repaglinide, produced a dose- and time-dependent decrease in viability, each requiring 7.5 mM, 10 mM and 6.5 mM, respectively, to produce death of all sperm cells immediately upon addition to ejaculated human semen samples. The reduction in sperm viability was accompanied by an elevation of [Ca2+]is and was affected by removal of extracellular Ca2+. Significantly (P < 0.05) less time was required to elevate [Ca2+](is) and produce complete loss of sperm viability when any of these drugs were added to sperm cells simultaneously with selected agents affecting Ca2+ homeostasis. Thus, the spermicidal activity of these drugs attributed to elevation of [Ca2+]is and their synergism can be potentially exploited for developing contact spermicidal formulations.

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Existing oral insulin secretagogues, sulphonylureas, are associated with hyperinsulinaemia, risk of hypoglycaemia and weight gain. Furthermore, they are not able to offer durable glycaemic control in patents with type 2 diabetes and are associated with progressive decline of beta-cell function. New insulin secretagogues offer an exciting opportunity. Repaglinide, the first prandial glucose regulator, now has convincing data that, compared to sulphonylurea use, it has a lower risk of hypoglycaemia. When used in a flexible dosing regime in a large cohort of patients, it is associated with better glycaemic control, a reduction in HbA1c, weight loss and improved quality of life compared to sulphonylureas. Early data shows the possibility of an effective combination with night time isophane insulin with significant falls in HbA1c and lower doses of insulin required. Nateglinide is an amino acid derivative. It again acts directly on the pancreatic beta-cell. Because of its very short duration of action, and the fact that it appears to secrete insulin in a glucose-dependent manner, it appears to secrete insulin in the closest way to that seen in a person without diabetes. Early data, both in monotherapy and in combination with metformin, show that it is an effective agent in terms of lowering HbA1c, has a low risk of hypoglycaemia and potentially less risk of significant weight gain. These characteristics mean that it may be the ideal agent to be used very early in the disease process, or even in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance, in whom early-phase insulin response is already lost. However these concepts, at the present time, are unproven.

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This study demonstrates the potential of combining computational and in vitro approaches to determine the affinity of compounds for hPEPT1 and, in turn, provides insights into key molecular interactions with this transporter.

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In the past few years, oral antihyperglycaemic agents have been considered as an alternative to insulin therapy in the treatment of gestational diabetes. There is still little information available on the safety of these drugs during pregnancy, but there have been several studies published regarding their use. Here we report on the case of a woman who took repaglinide up to the seventh week of pregnancy. Delivery occured with no complications and the newborn showed no malformations. Further studies are required to confirm the safety of repaglinide during pregnancy.

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CYP3A4 and CYP2C8 were found to be responsible for the conversion of repaglinide into its two primary metabolites, M4 (resulting from hydroxylation on the piperidine ring system) and M1 (an aromatic amine). Specific inhibitory monoclonal antibodies against CYP3A4 and CYP2C8 significantly inhibited (> 71%) formation of M4 and M1 in HLM. In a panel of HLM from 12 individual donors formation of M4 and M1 varied from approximately 160-880 pmol min-1 mg-1 protein and from 100-1110 pmol min-1 mg-1 protein, respectively. The major metabolite generated by CYP2C8 was found to be M4. The rate of formation of this metabolite in HLM correlated significantly with paclitaxel 6alpha-hydroxylation (rs = 0.80; P = 0.0029). Two other minor metabolites were also detected. One of them was M1 and the other was repaglinide hydroxylated on the isopropyl moiety (M0-OH). The rate of formation of M4 in CYP2C8 Supersomes was 2.5 pmol min-1 pmol-1 CYP enzyme and only about 0.1 pmol min-1 pmol-1 CYP enzyme in CYP3A4 Supersomes. The major metabolite generated by CYP3A4 was M1. The rate of formation of this metabolite in HLM correlated significantly with testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation (rs = 0.90; P = 0.0002). Three other metabolites were identified, namely, M0-OH, M2 (a dicarboxylic acid formed by oxidative opening of the piperidine ring) and M5. The rate of M1 formation in CYP3A4 Supersomes was 1.6 pmol min-1 pmol-1 CYP enzyme but in CYP2C8 Supersomes it was only approximately 0.4 pmol min-1 pmol-1 CYP enzyme.

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The aim of the present study was to load the post-prandial glucose regulator, repaglinide (REP), on spray dried mucoadhesive microparticles (MPs) comprising anionic polysaccharides. The formulation parameters of the polysaccharides-REP spray dried powders (SDP) namely, polysaccharide type and drug to polymer (D/P) ratio, were optimized for % release after 5 min (R%5 min) and time required for 80% release (T80%). The suitability of the selected formulae for nasal application was evaluated by ex vivo mucoadhesion, in vitro cytocompatability and tolerability studies. A pharmacodynamic study in diabetic rats was conducted. Results showed that both polysaccharide type and amount greatly influenced the chosen responses. REP was highly incorporated in mucoadhesive MPs with proven safety on the rat nasal mucosa. The selected REP loaded powders exhibited a significant two to threefold increase in total decrease in blood glucose compared to the nasal and intravenous solutions.

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To compare the effect of Repaglinide vs Glimepiride on glucose- and meal-induced insulin secretion and on meal-test induced postprandial glucose excursions.

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prandin max dose 2017-02-21

The object of this study was to analyze drug interactions between repaglinide, a short-acting insulin secretagogue, and five other drugs interacting with CYP3A4: ketoconazole, rifampicin, ethinyloestradiol/levonorgestrel (in an oral contraceptive), simvastatin, and nifedipine. In two open-label, two-period, randomized crossover studies, healthy subjects received repaglinide alone, repaglinide on day 5 of ketoconazole treatment, or repaglinide on day 7 of rifampicin treatment. In three open-label, three-period, randomized crossover studies, healthy subjects received 5 days of repaglinide alone; 5 days of ethinyloestradiol/levonorgestrel, simvastatin, or nifedipine alone; or 5 days of repaglinide concomitant with ethinyloestradiol/levonorgestrel, simvastatin, or nifedipine. Compared to administration of repaglinide alone, concomitant ketoconazole increased mean AUC0-infinity for repaglinide by 15% and mean Cmax by 7%. Concomitant rifampicin decreased mean AUC0-infinity for repaglinide by 31% and mean Cmax by 26%. Concomitant treatment with CYP3A4 substrates altered mean AUC0-5 h and mean Cmax for repaglinide by 1% and 17% (ethinyloestradiol/levonorgestrel), 2% and 27% (simvastatin), or 11% and 3% (nifedipine). Profiles of blood glucose concentration following repaglinide dosing were altered by less than 8% by both ketoconazole and rifampicin. In all five studies, most adverse events were related to hypoglycemia, as expected in a normal population given a blood glucose regulator. The safety profile of repaglinide was not altered by pretreatment with ketoconazole or rifampicin or by coadministration with ethinyloestradiol/levonorgestrel. The incidence of adverse events increased with coadministration of simvastatin or nifedipine compared to either repaglinide or simvastatin/nifedipine treatment alone. No clinically relevant pharmacokinetic interactions occurred between repaglinide and the CYP3A4 substrates ethinyloestradiol/levonorgestrel, simvastatin, or nifedipine. The pharmacokinetic profile of repaglinide was altered by administration of potent inhibitors or inducers, such as ketoconazole or rifampicin, but to a lesser degree than buy prandin online expected. These results are probably explained by the metabolic pathway of repaglinide that involves other enzymes than CYP3A4, reflected to some extent by a small change in repaglinide pharmacodynamics. Thus, careful monitoring of blood glucose in repaglinide-treated patients receiving strong inhibitors or inducers of CYP3A4 is recommended, and an increase in repaglinide dose may be necessary. No safety concerns were observed, except a higher incidence in adverse events in patients receiving repaglinide and simvastatin or nifedipine.

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Totally 60 newly diagnosed T2DM outpatients were randomized to three groups buy prandin online with 1-month monotherapy of repaglinide (Rg), glimepiride (Gm) or gliclazide MR (Gli), respectively. Some indexes of early-phase insulin secretion, glucose, lipids, and lipid peroxidation were inspected.

prandin repaglinide tablets 2016-03-22

A new high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated for the quantitation of gliclazide and repaglinide in pharmaceutical formulations. Determination was performed using a LiChroCART RP-18 column, a mobile phase containing acetonitrile-phosphate buffer (pH 2.1; 60 + 40, v/v), and ultraviolet (UV) detection at 225 nm. Repaglinide was used as buy prandin online an internal standard for gliclazide determination and gliclazide for repaglinide assay. The method was validated with respect to linearity, precision, robustness, ruggedness, accuracy, and specificity. The calibration graphs ranged from 0.015 to 0.09 mg/mL for gliclazide and 0.06 to 0.36 mg/mL for repaglinide. Intra- and interday relative standard deviation values for the standard solutions were 0.70 and 1.01% for gliclazide and 0.78 and 0.93% for repaglinide, respectively. Total recoveries of gliclazide and repaglinide from the laboratory-prepared mixtures were 99.82 +/- 0.58 and 101.50 +/- 0.46% for gliclazide and repaglinide, respectively [mean +/- standard deviation (SD)]. In forced degradation studies, the effect of acid, base, oxidation, UV light, and temperature on both drugs was also investigated. Finally, the method was applied for the quality control of commercial gliclazide and repaglinide tablets. Total recovery was 100.40 +/- 0.35 and 104.46 +/- 0.23% for gliclazide and repaglinide, respectively (mean +/- SD).

prandin pill identifier 2015-06-20

The hypoglycemic effect of antidiabetic drugs varies with change in the level of endogenous buy prandin online substances in the body in diseased states largely due to alteration in drug-serum albumin binding affinity. The aim of the present study was to understand and quantify this effect.

prandin online 2017-07-30

Repaglinide has no significant inhibitory effect on the metabolism of pioglitazone in vivo, which is inconsistent with the in vitro results. The lack of an inhibitory effect was partly due to extensive plasma protein binding and to the high in vivo clearance of repaglinide, for the concentration of repaglinide in buy prandin online vivo was far smaller than in vitro.

prandin diabetes medicine 2016-04-22

The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of the short-acting insulin secretion drug repaglinide in new-onset diabetes mellitus (NODM) after renal transplantation. Twenty-three Caucasian patients with NODM after renal transplantation were selected to receive repaglinide therapy and were followed for at least 6 months. A control group treated with rosiglitazone was chosen for comparison. Successful buy prandin online repaglinide treatment was defined as a significant improvement of blood glucose concentrations and HbA1c <7% in the absence of glucosuria and without the need for the addition of further anti-diabetic agents. After 6 months of treatment with repaglinide, 14 of the 23 patients were successfully treated. Mean HbA1c decreased from 7.6 +/- 0.6% to 5.8 +/- 0.6% in 14 patients treated successfully. In nine patients, hyperglycemia persisted, and they were switched to insulin treatment (HbA1c 8.5 +/- 2.9% at the beginning to 7.4 +/- 2.2%). Mean serum creatinine levels, cyclosporine A and tacrolimus blood levels did not change significantly following institution of repaglinide therapy. The rate of successful treatment and the degree of HbA1c decrease were similar compared to rosiglitazone-treated control patients. The data from our observational study indicate that repaglinide can be an effective treatment option in Caucasian patients with NODM after renal transplantation.

cost of prandin 2016-04-24

We performed a randomized, single-blind trial on 175 drug-naive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (93 men and 82 women), 35 to 70 years of age, selected from a population of 401 patients who participated in an epidemiological analysis assessing the relation of postprandial hyperglycemia to surrogate measures of atherosclerosis. Eighty-eight patients were randomly assigned to receive repaglinide and 87 patients to glyburide, with a titration period of 6 to 8 weeks for optimization of drug dosage and a subsequent 12-month treatment period. The effects of repaglinide (1.5 to 12 mg/d) and glyburide (5 to 20 mg/d) on CIMT were compared by using blinded, serial assessments of the far wall. After 12 months, postprandial glucose peak was 148+/-28 mg/dL in the repaglinide group and 180+/-32 mg/dL in buy prandin online the glyburide group (P<0.01). HbA(1c) showed a similar decrease in both groups (-0.9%). CIMT regression, defined as a decrease of >0.020 mm, was observed in 52% of diabetics receiving repaglinide and in 18% of those receiving glyburide (P<0.01). Interleukin-6 (P=0.04) and C-reactive protein (P=0.02) decreased more in the repaglinide group than in the glyburide group. The reduction in CIMT was associated with changes in postprandial but not fasting hyperglycemia.

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The progress of knowledge relating to non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) is associated with new therapeutic developments. Their different respective targets allow to classify them in drugs stimulating insulin secretion (glimepiride, repaglinide, glucagon-like peptide 1), medications reducing insulin resistance (thiazolidinediones) or in insulinmimetic agents (vanadium). Alpha glucosidase inhibitors, available in France since 1993, constitute another therapeutic approach, reducing postprandial hyperglycemia by delaying the digestion of complex carbohydrates. These new medications, safer and sometimes effective in buy prandin online a single daily administration, represent an alternative to classic oral antidiabetic agents allowing therapeutic combinations and a more global management of NIDDM.

prandin diabetes medication 2016-08-05

The selection of noninsulin treatments in older patients with T2DM should be individualized based on patient assessment and on careful evaluation of the potential benefits (glycemic and extraglycemic) and risks (ie, hypoglycemia buy prandin online , weight gain, cardiovascular risks). More clinical trials in older patients, especially those aged ≥65 years, with T2DM are needed.

prandin tabs 2015-05-21

This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial was conducted at a single center in Italy. Eligible patients were nonsmokers; had no hypertension or coronary heart disease; were taking no hypolipidemic drugs, diuretics, beta-blockers, or thyroxin; and had normal renal function. After an initial 4-week placebo washout period, patients were randomized to receive repaglinide 1 mg/d or glimepiride 1 mg/d. The dose of study drug was optimized over an 8-week titration period, which was followed by a 12-month treatment period. Measures of glycemic control (glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c], fasting plasma glucose [FPG], postprandial plasma glucose [PPG], fasting plasma insulin [FPI], postprandial plasma insulin [PPI]) and the other metabolic parameters of interest were assessed buy prandin online after 6 and 12 months of treatment.

prandin renal dosing 2015-04-28

A combination therapy of metformin hydrochloride (MH) and repaglinide (RG) achieves a perfect glycemic control; however, the combination formulation of immediate release must be taken several times a day, compromising the therapeutic benefits and causing inconveniences to the patients. Herein, a bilayer matrix tablet that aimed at continuously releasing both MH buy prandin online and RG over time was developed, in which the two drugs were formulated into two separated layers. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation method, and the optimized formulation was obtained by evaluating the factors that affected the drug release. The bilayer tablets simultaneously released the two drugs over 12 h; and a better in vivo performance with a steady plasma concentration, markedly lower Cmax, prolonged Tmax, and perfect absorption was obtained. Summarily, the bilayer matrix tablets sustained both MH and RG release over time, thereby prolonging the actions for diabetic therapy and producing better health outcomes.

prandin reviews 2016-12-17

The addition of repaglinide to metformin therapy resulted in reductions of HbA(1c) and FPG values that were significantly buy prandin online greater than the reductions observed for addition of nateglinide.

prandin missed dose 2017-12-14

All articles and meeting abstracts identified from the data sources were Elavil Medication Sleep evaluated and all information deemed relevant was included in this review. Much of the information was from abstracts or the product labeling, since few clinical studies have been published in the medical literature.

prandin medicine 2015-10-06

The history of achieving adequate insulin secretion in Type 2 diabetes has interesting parallels with Type 1 diabetes. Initial insulin secretagogue therapy involved short-acting sulphonylureas--tolbutamide being introduced 40 years ago--and early insulin therapy Zoloft 25mg Reviews used unmodified (soluble) insulin. Subsequently, long-acting sulphonylureas and insulin were introduced, but more recently short-acting agents have become popular again. This approach was endorsed by the European non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus guidelines of 1989/1993. The trend at present is to match modern rapid-acting agents (such as repaglinide or the rapid-acting insulin analogues) to physiological meal-time insulin requirements in both types of diabetes. The fundamental reasons for tailoring therapy to meal-times fall into two categories: a pathophysiological rationale and a behavioural rationale. The pathophysiological rationale for tailoring treatment to mealtimes is based on the importance of restoring the mealtime insulin secretion profiles of patients with Type 2 diabetes to physiological levels to re-establish the tight control of blood glucose levels seen in healthy individuals. The behavioural rationale is derived from the observation that most people with Type 2 diabetes are overweight and would like to reduce calorie consumption, but that the risk of hypoglycaemia does not allow them to be flexible over their day-to-day calorie intake. These observations suggest that the matching of a meal-time pharmacodynamic profile to a patient's eating habits would provide a knowledge-based rationale for achieving good blood glucose control once dietary means alone are inadequate. Evidently, this can be usefully combined with other pharmacological approaches (insulin sensitizers or basal insulin). The need for combination therapy is increasingly likely as the defect in insulin secretion progresses.

prandin 1 mg 2015-12-19

Nateglinide induced insulin secretion more rapidly than 2 and 0.5 mg repaglinide and placebo (10 min preprandial), with mean rates of insulin rise of 2.3, 1.3, 1.15, and 0.8 microU x ml(-1) x min(-1), respectively, over the 0- to 30-min postmeal interval. After peaking, insulin concentrations decreased rapidly in the nateglinide Mysoline Buy -treated group and were similar to placebo within 2 h postdose. After 2 mg repaglinide, peak insulin concentrations were delayed and returned to baseline more slowly than with nateglinide treatment. Nateglinide treatment produced lower average plasma glucose concentrations in the 0- to 2-h postdose interval than either dose of repaglinide and placebo (P < 0.05 vs. 0.5 mg repaglinide and placebo). Plasma glucose concentrations returned more rapidly to predose levels with nateglinide treatment than with either dose of repaglinide. Treatment with repaglinide produced a sustained hypoglycemic effect up to 6 h postdose.

prandin dosage 2017-01-16

The results of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) and UK Prospective Diabetes Study trials in type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively, have proved the importance of intensive glucose management in the prevention of microvascular complications (retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy). Both trials showed encouraging trends for a decrease in macrovascular complications, and this is being pursued in new studies. These findings have led to more strict goals for glucose control. As glucose levels are aimed to be closer to the normal range, the risk for hypoglycemia also increases dramatically. The choice of the agent therefore is more influenced currently by the risk for hypoglycemia. There are presently four classes of oral antihyperglycemic agents. These agents differ greatly in terms of mechanisms of action, efficacy, side effect profiles, and cost. Except for Acarbose, all classes decrease the glycosylated hemoglobin by a similar magnitude: 1.0 to 1.5%. In chronic renal failure, the oral agents that can be used therefore include the insulin secretagogues repaglinide and nateglinide and the thiazolidinediones (rosiglitazone and pioglitazone) with caution. Insulin also can be Sinequan 6 Mg used safely in renal failure.

prandin generic 2015-01-11

Nateglinide is a short-acting, pancreatic, beta-cell-selective, K(ATP) potassium channel blocker that improves overall glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. Although nateglinide's mechanism Triphala Powder Reviews of action is related to that of sulphonyl-ureas and repaglinide, important differences do exist. Nateglinide binds rapidly to the sulfonylurea SUR1 receptor with a relatively low affinity, and it dissociates from it extremely rapidly in a manner of seconds. This rapid association and dissociation gives nateglinide a unique "fast on-fast off" effect. Thus, nateglinide has a rapid onset and short duration of action stimulating insulin secretion in vivo and providing good control of postprandial hyperglycemia when taken immediately prior to meals. The rapid action of nateglinide on the beta cells stimulates and restores the normal physiological first and early phase of insulin secretion, consequently reducing postprandial hyperglycemia. This hypoglycemic effect of nateglinide leads to improved glycemic control, while the short duration avoids delayed hyperinsulinemia and hypoglycemia after meals. Nateglinide is not a sulfonylurea, but it shares the mechanism of action of commonly used oral hypoglycemic agents such as glibenclamide and glipizide. Like the recently introduced, short-acting agent, repaglinide, it does not incorporate a sulfonylurea moiety. However, nateglinide's effects on insulin secretion and glycemic control differ significantly from the sulfonylureas and repaglinide in that it preferentially stimulates acute phase insulin, better controls postprandial glucose excursions and spikes, and causes less hyperinsulinemia and hypoglycemia. Compounds with such a profile should not only achieve improved overall glucose control, but also reduce the risk of vascular complications which is the most important feature of nateglinide. Clinical studies with nateglinide have confirmed that it acts rapidly and both restores insulin release and attenuates the postprandial glucose spike. Nateglinide is both effective and well tolerated in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The reported overall profile of adverse effects appears to be superior to that of other K(ATP) potassium channel blockers, the glucose modulator metformin and PPARgamma agonists such as troglitazone. Clinical comparisons of these agents have shown nateglinide to be more effective in attenuating postprandial glucose than any other oral hypoglycemic agent, and that treatment with both nateglinide and metformin provides additive effects that afford improved control of plasma glucose levels. The administration regimen for nateglinide, immediately prior to meals, also facilitates patient compliance. (c) 2001 Prous Science. All rights reserved.

prandin generic launch 2016-07-24

Repaglinide-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) were developed and characterized in vitro. Various surfactants were used in this study during the nanocarrier preparation procedure and their corresponding effects on some physicochemical properties of SLNs such as size, zeta potential; drug loading parameters and drug release profiles was Abilify 400 Mg investigated. Stearic acid and glyceryl mono stearate (GMS) were used as lipid phase and phosphatidylcholin, Tween80, Pluronic F127, poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) were used as surfactant/stabilizer.

prandin dosage forms 2017-03-11

English-language journals, Flomax Dosage Instructions abstracts, review articles, and newspaper accounts.

prandin dose 2015-01-31

In a randomized, double-blind, 2-phase crossover study, 9 healthy volunteers were treated for 4 days with 250 mg oral clarithromycin or placebo twice daily. On day 5 they received a single dose of 250 mg clarithromycin or placebo, and 1 hour later a single dose of 0.25 mg repaglinide was given orally. Plasma repaglinide, serum insulin, and blood glucose concentrations were measured up to 7 Hyzaar Pill Identification hours.

prandin tablet 2017-11-06

PubMed was searched using the terms repaglinide AND metformin AND HbA(1c) to identify published comparisons of monotherapy and combination therapy with these drugs in patients with type 2 diabetes. Paxil Cr Generic

prandin e gel 2016-07-21

Oxidative stress, defined as an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant defense, is considered to be an important pathogenic factor in diabetes mellitus and its complications. In diabetic state, ROS might also be implicated in promoting a Vantin Drug Class state of systemic inflammation. Recently, it was demonstrated that antioxidant therapy could be used to stop the initiation and propagation of this inflammatory response. Repaglinide is a new oral antidiabetic agent with a possible antioxidant activity. Therefore, in the present study, a possible therapeutic value of repaglinide in ameliorating the oxidative and inflammatory processes was tested in diabetic animals. In the study, the levels of total antioxidant status (TAS), ascorbic acid (AA), protein carbonyl groups (PCG) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were determined in plasma of diabetic rabbits after 4 and 8 weeks of repaglinide treatment (1mg daily). Ex vivo analysis revealed that there were significant differences in these markers between hyperglycemic and control animals (P<0.05). Some of these parameters were ameliorated by repaglinide treatment. In diabetic rabbits treated with repaglinide, protein oxidation was diminished by 17.8% after 8 weeks of experiment. The level of AA in plasma of diabetic treated animals was higher than in non-treated diabetic groups (by 9.4 and 22.6% after 4 and 8 weeks, respectively). In diabetic treated animals, the TAS level was also significantly increased (by 23.6 and 16.7%). However, in diabetic rabbits, repaglinide did not affect the concentration of IL-6.

prandin user reviews 2017-02-12

During follow-up, 295 deaths were recorded. Among patients on combined secretagogue and biguanide treatment, glibenclamide was associated with a significantly higher yearly mortality (8.7%) than repaglinide (3.1%; p = 0.002), gliclazide (2.1%; p = 0.001), and glimepiride (0.4%; p < 0.0001). After adjusting for potential confounders (including age; duration of diabetes; Body Mass Index (BMI); lipid profile; HbA(1c); insulin treatment; metformin doses; Charlson co-morbidity score; CCS), mortality remained significantly higher in patients treated with combinations of glibenclamide and metformin when compared to those treated with different insulin secretagogues (OR with 95% CI: 2.09 [1.07;4.11]).

prandin dose range 2017-05-08

Gemfibrozil, and particularly its combination with itraconazole, greatly increases the area under the plasma concentration-time curve [AUC(0, infinity)] and response to the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C8 and 3A4 substrate repaglinide. In vitro, gemfibrozil is a more potent inhibitor of CYP2C9 than of CYP2C8. Our aim was to investigate the effects of the gemfibrozil-itraconazole combination on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of another meglitinide analogue, nateglinide, which is metabolized by CYP2C9 and CYP3A4.

prandin 5 mg 2015-09-29

In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), biomarkers reflecting inflammation and endothelial dysfunction have been linked to cardiovascular disease (CVD biomarkers) and metabolic regulation. In T2DM patients, metformin and insulin secretagogues have demonstrated equal anti-hyperglycaemic potency. Here, we report the effect of metformin versus an insulin secretagogue, repaglinide, on CVD biomarkers in non-obese T2DM patients.

prandin drug 2015-11-19

Ethosomal system can successfully deliver RPG transdermally; sustain its effect and thus reduce its dosing frequency. Ethosomes are useful for enhancing the efficacy of RPG in the treatment of diabetes.