The IGF2BP2 rs1470579 and rs4402960 polymorphisms may be associated with the development of T2DM, and these polymorphisms may affect the therapeutic efficacy of repaglinide in Chinese T2DM patients.
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A total of 47 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients were randomized 1:1 to receive a 4-week treatment with repaglinide or gliclazide. The standard mixed meal tolerance test was performed before and after the treatment. Plasma glucose (PG), insulin concentration, and lipid profiles were measured. The area under insulin concentration curve (AUC(ins)) and the early-phase insulin secretion index (ΔI(30)/ΔG(30)) were calculated.
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During the last 10-15 years, cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C8 has emerged as an important drug-metabolizing enzyme. CYP2C8 is highly expressed in human liver and is known to metabolize more than 100 drugs. CYP2C8 substrate drugs include amodiaquine, cerivastatin, dasabuvir, enzalutamide, imatinib, loperamide, montelukast, paclitaxel, pioglitazone, repaglinide, and rosiglitazone, and the number is increasing. Similarly, many drugs have been identified as CYP2C8 inhibitors or inducers. In vivo, already a small dose of gemfibrozil, i.e., 10% of its therapeutic dose, is a strong, irreversible inhibitor of CYP2C8. Interestingly, recent findings indicate that the acyl-β-glucuronides of gemfibrozil and clopidogrel cause metabolism-dependent inactivation of CYP2C8, leading to a strong potential for drug interactions. Also several other glucuronide metabolites interact with CYP2C8 as substrates or inhibitors, suggesting that an interplay between CYP2C8 and glucuronides is common. Lack of fully selective and safe probe substrates, inhibitors, and inducers challenges execution and interpretation of drug-drug interaction studies in humans. Apart from drug-drug interactions, some CYP2C8 genetic variants are associated with altered CYP2C8 activity and exhibit significant interethnic frequency differences. Herein, we review the current knowledge on substrates, inhibitors, inducers, and pharmacogenetics of CYP2C8, as well as its role in clinically relevant drug interactions. In addition, implications for selection of CYP2C8 marker and perpetrator drugs to investigate CYP2C8-mediated drug metabolism and interactions in preclinical and clinical studies are discussed.
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Combined metformin and repaglinide therapy resulted in superior glycemic control compared with repaglinide or metformin monotherapy in patients with type 2 diabetes whose glycemia had not been well controlled on metformin alone. Repaglinide monotherapy was as effective as metformin monotherapy.
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SC administration of CsA (30 mg/kg) to rats produced marked elevations in the levels of renal impairment parameters such as urinary protein, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), serum creatinine (SCr), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). It also caused histologic injury to the kidneys. Oral administration of RG (0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg) markedly decreased all the aforementioned changes. In addition, CsA caused increases in the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreases in superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GSR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and glutathione in kidney homogenate, which were reversed significantly by both doses of RG.
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Nowadays, diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension are considered as the most common causes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). In this paper, other than presenting the role of DM in ESRD, glucose metabolism and the management of hyperglycemia in these patients are reviewed. Although in several large studies there was no significant relationship found between tight glycemic control and the survival of ESRD patients, it is recommended that glycemic control be considered as the main therapeutic goal in the treatment of these patients to prevent damage to other organs. Glycemic control is perfect when fasting blood sugar is less than 140 mg/dL, 1-h postprandial blood glucose is less than 200 mg/dL, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is 6-7 in patients with type 1 diabetes and 7-8 in patients with type 2 diabetes. Administration of metformin should be avoided in chronic renal failure (CRF) because of lactic acidosis, the potentially fatal complication of metformin, but glipizide and repaglinide seem to be good choices.
Contributions of diabetes-induced alteration of physiological parameters including gastric emptying rates, intestinal transit time, drug metabolism in liver and kidney functions were incorporated into the model. Plasma concentration-time profiles and pharmacokinetic parameters of seven drugs (antipyrine, nisoldipine, repaglinide, glibenclamide, glimepiride, chlorzoxazone, and metformin) in non-diabetic and diabetic patients were predicted using the developed model. The PBPK model coupled with a Monte-Carlo simulation was also used to predict the means and variability of pharmacokinetic parameters.
In type 2 diabetes mellitus, impairment of insulin secretion is an important component of the disease. Meglitinide analogues are a class of oral hypoglycaemic agents that increase insulin secretion, in particular, during the early phase of insulin release.
In a randomized crossover study with two phases, nine healthy subjects took 600 mg gemfibrozil and 100 mg itraconazole (first dose 200 mg) twice daily or placebo for 3 days. On day 3, they ingested a single 30-mg dose of nateglinide. Plasma nateglinide and blood glucose concentrations were measured for up to 12 h.
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During a 2-year follow-up any LVD is detectable in a large majority of patients with DM without overt cardiac disease. Older age and higher HbA1c predict LVD. All-cause death or hospitalization occurred in 15% of patients, cardiovascular cause was uncommon. Independent predictors of events were older age, pathologic lipid profile, high HbA1c, claudicatio and repaglinide therapy. Echo-assessed LVD at baseline was not prognosticator of events.
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Our aim was to study, at the same glycemic control, how treatment with either the insulin secretagogue repaglinide or exogenous insulin aspart affects endogenous insulin secretion, plasma insulin and IAPP (islet amyloid polypeptide) levels, GH-IGF (growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor) axis and plasma lipoprotein concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes. Five patients, age 65.0+/-4.1 years (mean+/-SE), body weight 82.5+/-5.0 kg, BMI (body mass index) 27.7+/-1.5 kg/m(2) were treated for 10 weeks with repaglinide or insulin aspart in a randomized, cross-over study. At the end of each treatment a 24-h metabolic profile was performed. Blood glucose, C-peptide, free human insulin, free total (human and analogue) insulin, proinsulin, IAPP, IGF-I, IGFBP-1 (IGF binding protein-1), GHBP (growth hormone binding protein) and plasma lipoprotein concentrations were measured. Similar 24-h blood glucose profiles were obtained with repaglinide and insulin aspart treatment. During the repaglinide treatment, the meal related peaks of C-peptide and free human insulin were about twofold higher than during treatment with insulin aspart. Proinsulin, GHBP were higher and IAPP levels tended to be higher during repaglinide compared to insulin aspart. Postprandial plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides and apolipoprotein B concentrations were higher on repaglinide than on insulin aspart treatment. Our results show that, at the same glycemic control, treatment with exogenous insulin aspart in comparison with the insulin secretagogue repaglinide result in a lower endogenous insulin secretion, and a tendency towards a less atherogenic postprandial lipid profile.
A simple, fast and sensitive HPLC method employing dual-channel coulometric detection for the determination of repaglinide in human plasma is presented. The assay involved extraction of repaglinide by ethyl acetate and isocratic reversed-phase liquid chromatography with dual-channel coulometric detection. The mobile phase composition was 50mM disodium hydrogen phosphate/acetonitrile (60:40, v/v), pH of the mobile phase 7.5 set up with phosphoric acid. For all analyses, the first cell working potential was +380mV, the second was +750mV (vs. Pd/H(2)). Calibration curve was linear over the concentration range of 5-500nmolL(-1). Rosiglitazone was used as an internal standard. The limit of detection (LOD) was established at 2.8nmolL(-1), and the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) at 8.5nmolL(-1). The developed method was applied to human plasma samples spiked with repaglinide at therapeutical concentrations. It was confirmed that the method is suitable for pharmacokinetic studies or therapeutic monitoring.
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medline was searched for entries indexed from January 1966 to November 2002; search terms included the names of OAMs and serum lipids, limited to English language and human subjects. We selected clinical studies in type 2 diabetes of OAM monotherapy that included serum lipid data, treated all patients in a treatment group with the same drug, used therapeutic OAM doses not higher than the maximum recommended in the USA, compared therapy with baseline or placebo and specified statistical tests used. One unblinded investigator selected studies for inclusion. Data reported include number of patients, study length, OAM dose, serum lipid data at baseline and endpoint, p-values and statistical tests.
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Deregulated protein and Ca2+ homeostasis underlie synaptic dysfunction and neurodegeneration in Huntington disease (HD); however, the factors that disrupt homeostasis are not fully understood. Here, we determined that expression of downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator (DREAM), a multifunctional Ca2+-binding protein, is reduced in murine in vivo and in vitro HD models and in HD patients. DREAM downregulation was observed early after birth and was associated with endogenous neuroprotection. In the R6/2 mouse HD model, induced DREAM haplodeficiency or blockade of DREAM activity by chronic administration of the drug repaglinide delayed onset of motor dysfunction, reduced striatal atrophy, and prolonged life span. DREAM-related neuroprotection was linked to an interaction between DREAM and the unfolded protein response (UPR) sensor activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6). Repaglinide blocked this interaction and enhanced ATF6 processing and nuclear accumulation of transcriptionally active ATF6, improving prosurvival UPR function in striatal neurons. Together, our results identify a role for DREAM silencing in the activation of ATF6 signaling, which promotes early neuroprotection in HD.
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Postprandial plasma glucose (PPG) excursion is a significant determinant of overall metabolic control as well as an increased risk for diabetic complications. Older persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) are more likely to have moderate cognitive deficits and neurophysiologic and structural changes in brain tissue. Considering that poor metabolic control is considered a deranging factor for tissue/organ damage in diabetics, the authors hypothesized that PPG excursion is associated with a decline in cognitive functioning and that a tighter control of PPG may prevent cognitive decline.
Intrasperm calcium concentration ([Ca2+]is) is known to play a vital role in regulating motility and viability of ejaculated spermatozoa. K ATP channel blockers are reported to block K ATP channels, leading to depolarization of the cell membrane. This activates the voltage-gated calcium channels, resulting in enhanced Ca2+ influx, which eventually elevates the intracellular [Ca2+] level. Hence, it can be hypothesized that drugs acting on K ATP channels could possess the ability to elevate [Ca2+]is. Sulfonylureas such as glibenclamide or gliclazide, as well as meglitinide analogues such as repaglinide, produced a dose- and time-dependent decrease in viability, each requiring 7.5 mM, 10 mM and 6.5 mM, respectively, to produce death of all sperm cells immediately upon addition to ejaculated human semen samples. The reduction in sperm viability was accompanied by an elevation of [Ca2+]is and was affected by removal of extracellular Ca2+. Significantly (P < 0.05) less time was required to elevate [Ca2+](is) and produce complete loss of sperm viability when any of these drugs were added to sperm cells simultaneously with selected agents affecting Ca2+ homeostasis. Thus, the spermicidal activity of these drugs attributed to elevation of [Ca2+]is and their synergism can be potentially exploited for developing contact spermicidal formulations.
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Existing oral insulin secretagogues, sulphonylureas, are associated with hyperinsulinaemia, risk of hypoglycaemia and weight gain. Furthermore, they are not able to offer durable glycaemic control in patents with type 2 diabetes and are associated with progressive decline of beta-cell function. New insulin secretagogues offer an exciting opportunity. Repaglinide, the first prandial glucose regulator, now has convincing data that, compared to sulphonylurea use, it has a lower risk of hypoglycaemia. When used in a flexible dosing regime in a large cohort of patients, it is associated with better glycaemic control, a reduction in HbA1c, weight loss and improved quality of life compared to sulphonylureas. Early data shows the possibility of an effective combination with night time isophane insulin with significant falls in HbA1c and lower doses of insulin required. Nateglinide is an amino acid derivative. It again acts directly on the pancreatic beta-cell. Because of its very short duration of action, and the fact that it appears to secrete insulin in a glucose-dependent manner, it appears to secrete insulin in the closest way to that seen in a person without diabetes. Early data, both in monotherapy and in combination with metformin, show that it is an effective agent in terms of lowering HbA1c, has a low risk of hypoglycaemia and potentially less risk of significant weight gain. These characteristics mean that it may be the ideal agent to be used very early in the disease process, or even in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance, in whom early-phase insulin response is already lost. However these concepts, at the present time, are unproven.
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This study demonstrates the potential of combining computational and in vitro approaches to determine the affinity of compounds for hPEPT1 and, in turn, provides insights into key molecular interactions with this transporter.
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In the past few years, oral antihyperglycaemic agents have been considered as an alternative to insulin therapy in the treatment of gestational diabetes. There is still little information available on the safety of these drugs during pregnancy, but there have been several studies published regarding their use. Here we report on the case of a woman who took repaglinide up to the seventh week of pregnancy. Delivery occured with no complications and the newborn showed no malformations. Further studies are required to confirm the safety of repaglinide during pregnancy.
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CYP3A4 and CYP2C8 were found to be responsible for the conversion of repaglinide into its two primary metabolites, M4 (resulting from hydroxylation on the piperidine ring system) and M1 (an aromatic amine). Specific inhibitory monoclonal antibodies against CYP3A4 and CYP2C8 significantly inhibited (> 71%) formation of M4 and M1 in HLM. In a panel of HLM from 12 individual donors formation of M4 and M1 varied from approximately 160-880 pmol min-1 mg-1 protein and from 100-1110 pmol min-1 mg-1 protein, respectively. The major metabolite generated by CYP2C8 was found to be M4. The rate of formation of this metabolite in HLM correlated significantly with paclitaxel 6alpha-hydroxylation (rs = 0.80; P = 0.0029). Two other minor metabolites were also detected. One of them was M1 and the other was repaglinide hydroxylated on the isopropyl moiety (M0-OH). The rate of formation of M4 in CYP2C8 Supersomes was 2.5 pmol min-1 pmol-1 CYP enzyme and only about 0.1 pmol min-1 pmol-1 CYP enzyme in CYP3A4 Supersomes. The major metabolite generated by CYP3A4 was M1. The rate of formation of this metabolite in HLM correlated significantly with testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation (rs = 0.90; P = 0.0002). Three other metabolites were identified, namely, M0-OH, M2 (a dicarboxylic acid formed by oxidative opening of the piperidine ring) and M5. The rate of M1 formation in CYP3A4 Supersomes was 1.6 pmol min-1 pmol-1 CYP enzyme but in CYP2C8 Supersomes it was only approximately 0.4 pmol min-1 pmol-1 CYP enzyme.
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The aim of the present study was to load the post-prandial glucose regulator, repaglinide (REP), on spray dried mucoadhesive microparticles (MPs) comprising anionic polysaccharides. The formulation parameters of the polysaccharides-REP spray dried powders (SDP) namely, polysaccharide type and drug to polymer (D/P) ratio, were optimized for % release after 5 min (R%5 min) and time required for 80% release (T80%). The suitability of the selected formulae for nasal application was evaluated by ex vivo mucoadhesion, in vitro cytocompatability and tolerability studies. A pharmacodynamic study in diabetic rats was conducted. Results showed that both polysaccharide type and amount greatly influenced the chosen responses. REP was highly incorporated in mucoadhesive MPs with proven safety on the rat nasal mucosa. The selected REP loaded powders exhibited a significant two to threefold increase in total decrease in blood glucose compared to the nasal and intravenous solutions.
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To compare the effect of Repaglinide vs Glimepiride on glucose- and meal-induced insulin secretion and on meal-test induced postprandial glucose excursions.