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Precose

Generic Precose is used for treating type 2 diabetes in adults whose diabetes cannot be managed with diet alone. Generic Precose may be used alone, in combination with other oral diabetes medicines, or with insulin.

Other names for this medication:

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Glucophage, Actos, Avandia, Amaryl, Glucovance, Micronase, Glycomet

 

Also known as:  Acarbose.

Description

Generic Precose is used for treating type 2 diabetes in adults whose diabetes cannot be managed with diet alone. Generic Precose may be used alone, in combination with other oral diabetes medicines, or with insulin.

Generic Precose is a glucosidase inhibitor. It works by slowing down the enzyme that turns carbohydrates into glucose; it decreases blood sugar levels following a meal.

Precose is also known as Acarbose, Glucobay, Glucor, Rebose.

Generic name of Generic Precose is Acarbose.

Brand name of Generic Precose is Precose.

Dosage

Take Generic Precose by mouth with food.

If you also take charcoal or digestive enzyme preparations, do not take them within 2 to 4 hours before after taking Generic Precose.

Temporary insulin therapy may be necessary during stressful periods (such as fever, trauma, infection, or surgery).

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Precose suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Generic Precose and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at room temperature below 25 degrees C (77 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Precose are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Generic Precose if you are allergic to Generic Precose components.

Be careful with Generic Precose if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Do not take Generic Precose if you have blockage of the stomach or intestine or are at risk for these problems.

Do not take Generic Precose if you have long-term (chronic) bowel inflammation, colon ulcers, or stomach or intestine problems that interfere with digestion or nutrient absorption.

Do not take Generic Precose if you have cirrhosis of the liver or unexplained abnormal liver function tests.

Do not take Generic Precose if you have diabetic ketoacidosis (high ketone levels) or severe kidney problems.

Try to be careful with Generic Precose if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement.

Try to be careful with Generic Precose if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances

if you have stomach or intestinal problems, liver problems, or kidney problems.

Try to be careful with Generic Precose if you are taking anticoagulants (eg, warfarin) because the risk of their side effects, including bleeding, may be increased by Generic Precose; calcium channel blockers (eg, verapamil), corticosteroids (eg, prednisone), diuretics (eg, hydrochlorothiazide), estrogen, isoniazid, nicotinic acid, oral contraceptives (birth control pills), phenothiazines (eg, chlorpromazine), phenytoin, sympathomimetics (eg, pseudoephedrine), or thyroid hormone because they may increase or decrease Precose 's effectiveness; insulin or sulfonylureas (eg, glyburide) because the risk of their side effects may be increased by Generic Precose; digoxin because its effectiveness may be decreased by Generic Precose.

Avoid alcohol.

Do not stop taking Generic Precose suddenly.

precose dose

Acarbose is a pseudotetrasacaride which reversibly and competitively inhibits the intestinal alpha-glycosidases leading to a decrease in the increase of postprandial glycemia.

precose drug interactions

The aim of insulin therapy in obese type 2 diabetics is to achieve a near-normal glycemic serum sugar metabolism while avoiding any further increase in weight and hypoglycemia. A further aim is to achieve maximum flexibility in the patient's lifestyle. For this purpose, in addition to bedtime administration of HPH insulin aimed at achieving a morning blood sugar level of < 100 mg/dl, regular insulin or a rapid-acting insulin analog should be administered at mealtimes. Administration of NPH insulin during the day is not necessary in most overweight type 2 diabetics--since the residual capacity for endogenous insulin secretion is adequate--and should be applied only when a requirement has been confirmed (basal rate test). Through the additive administration of oral (metformin, acarbose), metabolic control can be improved and the insulin dose simultaneously reduced, with associated positive effects on the patient's weight. With the aim of lowering the roughly three-fold increase in cardiovascular mortality rate in type 2 diabetics, optimal antihyperglycemic control should be accompanied by optimal management of blood lipids (LDL < 100 mg/dl, HDL > 45 mg/dl, triglycerides < 150 mg/dl), and blood pressure (RR < 135/80 mm Hg).

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Tecoma stans aqueous extract (TAE) is widely used as a traditional antidiabetic remedy in Mexico; its rational use is controversial. We provide evidence of its main antidiabetic activities.

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In comparison with obese non-diabetic controls, the patient had an elevated fasting and a markedly enhanced GLP1 response during the OGTT, followed by an exaggerated insulin response and a subsequent low glucose level. The GLP1 response to a LTM was similar but greater. Octreotide given prior to the OGTT attenuated both the GLP1 and insulin responses and abolished hypoglycaemia. Octreotide therapy significantly improved the patient's neuroglycopaenic symptoms. The hormone profile was reassessed after 6 months following the LTM preceded by octreotide injection. Peak GLP1 and insulin responses were less pronounced than pretreatment responses and without hypoglycaemia. The patient was treated with lanreotide and had remained symptom-free and euglycaemic for 4 years.

precose dosing

The application of genome editing technologies, like CRISPR/Cas9 for industrially relevant microorganisms, is becoming increasingly important. Compared to other methods of genetic engineering the decisive factor is that CRISPR/Cas9 is relatively easy to apply and thus time and effort can be significantly reduced in organisms, which are otherwise genetically difficult to access. Because of its many advantages and opportunities, we adopted the CRISPR/Cas9 technology for Actinoplanes sp. SE50/110, the producer of the diabetes type II drug acarbose. The functionality of genome editing was successfully shown by the scarless and antibiotic marker-free deletion of the gene encoding the tyrosinase MelC, which catalyzes the formation of the dark pigment eumelanin in the wild type strain. The generated ΔmelC2 mutant of Actinoplanes sp. SE50/110 no longer produces this pigment and therefore the supernatant does not darken. Furthermore, it was shown that the plasmid containing the gene for the Cas9 protein was removed by increasing the temperature due to its temperature-sensitive replication. The precision of the intended mutation was proven and possible off-target effects caused by the genome editing system were ruled out by genome sequencing of several mutants.

precose medicine

Bioassay-guided fractionation of the CHCl(3) soluble portion of the roots of Panax japonicus C. A. Meyer var. major afforded an active fraction with inhibitory activity against baker's yeast alpha-glucosidase with an IC(50) value 1.02 mg/mL. Furthermore, the active fraction isolated contained three previously unreported polyacetylenes, designated panaxjapynes A-C, together with 11 other compounds, including four polyacetylenes, five phenolic compounds, a sesquiterpenoid, and a sterol glucoside. The structures of the compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical methods. Compared with the control acarbose (IC(50) 677.97 microM), six compounds were shown to be more potent alpha-glucosidase inhibitors with IC(50) values in the range 22.21-217.68 microM.

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100 Wistar rats weighing 200-300g were divided into 6 groups: Normal group (N6 and N12- 25 rats); Diabetic group (D6 and D12- 25 rats), diabetic treated group ( DT 6 and DT 12- 25 rats) on insulin 1,8- 3,0 IU/Kg associated with acarbose (50 mg to 100g of food) daily mixed in chow. Alloxan was injected intravenously in a dose of 42 mg/Kg of weight. Body weight, water intake, 24-h diuresis, glycemia and glucosuria were determined before induction, 7 and 14 days after induction and monthly thereafter. Treatment started at day 14. Three groups were sacrificed at 6 months (N6,D6, DT6) and 3 groups at 12 months (N12, D12, DT12) with the renal tissue being prepared for electron microscopy.

precose 50 mg

DPP4i users had significantly lower CVD risks as compared to that of non-DPP4i users (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]: 0.83, 95 % confidence interval [CI]: 0.76-0.91). Compared to DPP4i users, meglitinides (aHR 1.3, 95 % CI 1.20-1.43) and insulin users (aHR 3.73, 95 % CI 3.35, 4.14) had significantly higher risks for composite CVD, as well as those for stroke, MI, HF, and hypoglycemia. Additionally, metformin users had significantly lower risks for composite CVD risk (aHR 0.87, 95 % CI 0.79-0.94), as well as those for MI, HF, and hypoglycemia, as compared to those of DPP4i users. Although there was a trend toward low CVD risks in pioglitazone users, the role of potential confounding by indication cannot be excluded.

precose drugs

Newborn screening for deficiency in the lysosomal enzymes that cause Fabry, Gaucher, Krabbe, Niemann-Pick A/B, and Pompe diseases is warranted because treatment for these syndromes is now available or anticipated in the near feature. We describe a multiplex screening method for all five lysosomal enzymes that uses newborn-screening cards containing dried blood spots as the enzyme source.

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Using intent-to-treat analysis, SVR was observed in 66.7% (4/6), 83.3% (5/6), 66.7% (4/6), and 60% (3/5) in Arms A, B, C, and D, respectively. SVR was higher in female patients receiving OHA [90% (9/10)] than in male patients [50% (4/8)]. Results of per protocol analysis showed that SVR was 80.0% (4/5) in Arm A, 100% (5/5) in Arm B, 66.7% (4/6) in Arm C, and 60% (3/5) in Arm D. Patients receiving OHA had a higher rapid virologic response: 11/18 (61%) versus 2/5 (40%). Complete early virologic response was comparable between patients receiving OHA and PR [15/18 (83%) vs. 4/5 (80%)].

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Human acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA, EC 3.2.1.20) is a lysosomal enzyme that belongs to the glycoside hydrolase family 31 (GH31) and catalyses the hydrolysis of alpha-1,4- and alpha-1,6-glucosidic linkages at acid pH. Hereditary deficiency of GAA results in lysosomal glycogen storage disease type II (GSDII, Pompe disease). The aim of this study was to assess GH31 proteins in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) to identify the ortholog of human GAA. Bioinformatic searches for GAA ortholog in C. elegans genome revealed four acid alpha-glucosidase-related (aagr-1-4) genes. Multiple sequence alignment of AAGRs with other GH31 proteins demonstrated their evolutionary conservation. Phylogenetic analyses suggested clustering of AAGR-1 and -2 with acid-active and AAGR-3 and -4 with neutral-active GH31 enzymes. In order to prove the AAGRs' predicted alpha-glucosidase activity, we performed RNA interference of all four aagr genes. The impact on the alpha-glucosidase activity was evaluated at pH 4.0 (acid) and pH 6.5 (neutral), with or without the inhibitor acarbose. AAGR-1 and -2 expressed acidic alpha-glucosidase activity; on the contrary, AAGR-3 not -4 represented the predominant neutral alpha-glucosidase activity in C. elegans. Similar results were obtained in each of aagr-1 and -4 deletion mutants. Moreover, based on our structural models of AAGRs and these biochemical experiments, we hypothesize that the enzymatic sensitivity of AAGR-2 and human maltase-glucoamylase to the inhibitor acarbose is associated with a tyrosine residue in the GH31 active site, whereas acarbose resistance of AAGR-1 and human GAA is associated with the corresponding tryptophane in the active site. Acid-active AAGR-1 may thus represent the ortholog of human GAA in C. elegans.

precose drug

A range of novel pyridine 2,4,6-tricarbohydrazide derivatives (4a-4h) were synthesized and its biological inhibition towards α- and β-glucosidases was studied. Most of the compounds demonstrate to be active against α-glucosidase, and quite inactive/completely inactive against β-glucosidase. A number of compounds were found to be more active against α-glucosidase than the reference compound acarbose (IC50 38.25±0.12μM); being compound 4d with the p-hydroxy phenyl motive the most active (IC50 20.24±0.72μM). Molecular modeling studies show the interactions of compound 4d with the active site of target α-glucosidase kinase.

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Crystals of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) from Bacillus circulans strain 251 were soaked in buffer solutions containing the pseudotetrasaccharide acarbose, a strong amylase- and CGTase inhibitor. The X-ray structure of the complex was elucidated at 2.5-A resolution with a final crystallographic R value of 15.8% for all data between 8.0 and 2.5 A. Acarbose is bound near the catalytic residues Asp229, Glu257, and Asp328. The carboxylic group of Glu257 is at hydrogen bonding distance from the glycosidic oxygen in the scissile bond between the B and C sugars (residue A is at the nonreducing end of the inhibitor). Asp328 makes hydrogen bonds with the 4-amino-4,6-dideoxyglucose (residue B), and Asp229 is in a close van der Waals contact with the C1 atom of this sugar. From this we conclude that in CGTase Glu257 acts as the proton donor and Asp229 serves as the general base or nucleophile, while Asp328 is involved in substrate binding and may be important for elevating the pKa of Glu257. On the basis of these results it appears that the absence of the C6-hydroxyl group in the B sugar is responsible for the inhibitory properties of acarbose on CGTase. This suggests that the C6-hydroxyl group of this sugar plays an essential role in the catalytic mechanism of CGTase.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

precose patient review

A most potent alpha-glucosidase inhibitor named salacinol has been isolated from an antidiabetic Ayurvedic traditional medicine, Salacia reticulata WIGHT, through bioassay-guided separation. The absolute stereostructure of salacinol was determined on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence, which included the alkaline degradation of salacinol to 1-deoxy-4-thio-D-arabinofuranose and the X-ray crystallographic analysis, to be the unique spiro-like configuration of the inner salt comprised of 1-deoxy-4-thio-D-arabinofuranosyl sulfonium cation and 1'-deoxy-D-erythrosyl-3'-sulfate anion. Salacinol showed potent inhibitory activities on several alpha-glucosidases, such as maltase, sucrase, and isomaltase, and the inhibitory effects on serum glucose levels in maltose- and sucrose-loaded rats (in vivo) were found to be more potent than that of acarbose, a commercial alpha-glucosidase inhibitor.

precose dosage

We included published and unpublished randomised controlled trials assessing the effects of oral anti-diabetic pharmacological therapies for treating pregnant women with GDM. We included studies comparing oral anti-diabetic pharmacological therapies with 1) placebo/standard care, 2) another oral anti-diabetic pharmacological therapy, 3) combined oral anti-diabetic pharmacological therapies. Trials using insulin as the comparator were excluded as they are the subject of a separate Cochrane systematic review.Women with pre-existing type 1 or type 2 diabetes were excluded.

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SHRs were fed custom diets ad libitum, six with and six without acarbose (40mg/100g of chow). Fasting and postprandial glucose and insulin levels were analyzed following glucose administration (1.75 g/kg body weight). Blood pressure was determined by the tail cuff method.

precose tablet

Acarbose delays the production of monosaccharides (notably glucose) by inhibiting the alpha-glucosidases associated with the brush-border membrane of the small intestine which are responsible for the digestion of complex polysaccharides and sucrose. In healthy subjects acarbose 100 to 200 mg significantly inhibits postprandial glucose, insulin and triglyceride responses, with some evidence of carbohydrate malabsorption with the higher dose. Clinical trials in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus showed that acarbose improved diabetic control, especially postprandial blood glucose levels, independent of whether the patients were receiving concomitant oral antidiabetic drugs in addition to dietary management. In comparative studies acarbose was significantly superior to placebo, and comparable to biguanides, when used alone or as an adjuvant to sulphonylurea therapy. Trials in patients requiring insulin to control their diabetes demonstrated that acarbose significantly reduced postprandial blood glucose concentrations, resulting in a smoother diurnal blood glucose-time curve and improved symptoms associated with nocturnal hypoglycaemia. Daily insulin requirements were sometimes reduced. In large multicentre trials acarbose up to 600 mg/day for 3 to 12 months improved glycaemic control in approximately 55% of patients with non-insulin-dependent or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Apart from its use in diabetes, encouraging preliminary results have been obtained with acarbose in other therapeutic areas such as dumping syndrome, reactive hypoglycaemia, and types IIb and IV hyperlipoproteinaemias--however, further clinical experience is needed in these settings before clear conclusions can be drawn. No serious side effects have been reported during treatment with acarbose, although it is associated with a high incidence of troublesome gastrointestinal symptoms such as flatulence, abdominal distension, borborygmus and diarrhoea. The incidence of these reactions usually decreases with time. Thus, acarbose represents the first of a new class of oral antidiabetic drugs--the alpha-glucosidase inhibitors. It has proven useful for improving glycaemic control when used as an adjunct to standard therapy involving dietary restriction, oral antidiabetic drugs and/or subcutaneous insulin. That being the case, acarbose should provide the clinician with an interesting treatment option which can be used in a broad range of patients with diabetes mellitus in whom 'traditional' management approaches produce suboptimal glycaemic control.

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In vitro hypoglycemic effects of GF was evaluated enzymatically using α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition assays, whereas in vivo study was conducted on high-fat diet fed and streptozotocin (HFD + STZ)-induced hyperglycemic mice. GC-MS was used to determine the chemical profiles of bioactive components.

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Metformin and acarbose are novel antihyperglycemic agents indicated for the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. These agents offer new therapeutic options to control hyperglycemia that were previously unavailable. Common to both agents is a relatively high incidence of gastrointestinal adverse effects. Initiating therapy at a low dose and slowly titrating to therapeutic response may be the most effective way to minimize associated adverse effects. Recognition and proper management of these possible adverse effects can optimize therapy and maximize the potential for successful outcomes with these agents while limiting drug noncompliance.

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Primary objective - evaluate effectiveness and safety of acarbose/metformin fixed dose FDC on glycemic control in Indian T2DM patients in real life clinical setting. Secondary objective - evaluate safety and satisfaction of treatment.

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A MEDLINE English-language only database search using the keywords miglitol, glyset, and Bay m 1099 (1985 to December 1999), was completed to identify relevant articles including reviews, recent studies, and abstracts; American Diabetes Association 1999 Annual Meeting abstracts; Pharmacia & Upjohn data on file and product information.

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Metformin, troglitazone, acarbose, and orlistat have been shown to decrease the risk of progression to diabetes in patients at risk for developing diabetes. Other questions that address issues such as identifying target populations, cost-effectiveness, and screening strategies must be answered to more fully define the place of pharmacologic therapy to prevent or delay diabetes.

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To conduct a retrospective evaluation of using dog as an animal model to study the fraction of oral dose absorbed (F) of 43 drugs in humans and to briefly discuss potential factors that might have contributed to the observed differences in absorption.

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This study was designed to examine the therapeutic effect of acarbose on serum triglyceride (TG), free fatty acid (FFA), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and chylomicron (CM) in the meal tolerance test (MTT) before and after acarbose treatment in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2).

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Additional acarbose therapy is not more beneficial than low-calorie diet therapy alone.

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Recent studies have suggested that CCK is not essential for normal pancreatic growth in mice. We examined whether the treatment of hyperglycemia participates in a non-CCK-1-receptor-mediated mechanism of pancreatic regeneration after partial (30%) pancreatectomy (Px) with use of Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats, an animal model for type 2 diabetes mellitus without CCK-1 receptor gene expression.

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Acarbose has a positive therapeutic effect on glucose tolerance in cystic fibrosis patients, as shown by attenuation of postprandial plasma glucose increase and a significant decrease in insulin secretion response. However, acarbose treatment was associated with adverse gastro-intestinal effects that may prevent patients from accepting long-term therapy.

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After an initial mean weight loss of 10.0 +/- 3.4 kg, 54 subjects received acarbose at increasing dosage and 56 subjects received placebo treatment. After 14 weeks of follow-up, there was no change in body weight in the two groups. After 26 weeks, completed by 37 subjects in the acarbose group and by 38 subjects in the placebo group, a small weight regain of 0.6 kg was documented in the latter, whereas no weight increase was observed under acarbose treatment (p = 0.38, analysis of covariance with initial body weight as covariable).

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Our results exhibited that both the extract and arbutin were able to suppress the enzymes strongly.

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Acarbose reduced excessive blood glucose fluctuations.

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precose generic 2016-11-08

Using an in silico method, seven analogs bearing hydrophobic substituents (8a: Me, 8b: Et, 8c: n-Pent, 8d: n-Hept, 8e: n buy precose online -Tridec, 8f: isoBu and 8g: neoPent) at the 3'-O-position in salacinol (1), a highly potent natural α-glucosidase inhibitor from Ayurvedic traditional medicine 'Salacia', were designed and synthesized. In order to verify the computational SAR assessments, their α-glucosidase inhibitory activities were evaluated in vitro. All analogs (8a-8g) exhibited an equal or considerably higher level of inhibitory activity against rat small intestinal α-glucosidases compared with the original sulfonate (1), and were as potent as or higher in potency than the clinically used anti-diabetics, voglibose, acarbose or miglitol. Their activities against human maltase exhibited good relationships to the results obtained with enzymes of rat origin. Among the designed compounds, the one with a 3'-O-neopentyl moiety (8g) was most potent, with an approximately ten fold increase in activity against human maltase compared to 1.

precose 50 mg 2016-05-28

The drugs used to treat diabetes mellitus are diverse and involve several classes. However, these drugs can be roughly separated into hypoglycaemic agents, such as insulin and the sulphonylureas, and antihyperglycaemic agents, such as the biguanides, the alpha-glucosidase inhibitors and troglitazone buy precose online . Reports of insulin overdose are rare. The major effects of insulin overdose are secondary to the insult to the CNS produced by hypoglycaemia. The mainstay of insulin overdose management is glucose replacement therapy. Sulphonylureas are the most commonly used oral antihyperglycaemic agents in the management of type 2 (non-insulin-dependent; NIDDM) diabetes mellitus. Sulphonylureas primarily cause serum glucose reduction by stimulating the release of preformed insulin from the pancreatic islets. The mainstay of sulphonylurea overdose management is glucose replacement therapy, and in severe cases, reduction of insulin release. In the large majority of patients intravenous glucose supplementation will be sufficient to maintain euglycaemia. Repaglinide, a meglitinide analogue, is a new nonsulphonylurea oral hypoglycaemic agent. In overdose, this drug may produce prolonged hypoglycaemia similar to the sulphonylureas. The primary problem with biguanide overdose is the potential for lactic acidosis. The management of biguanide overdose is largely supportive and directed at correcting the metabolic acidosis along with associated complications. The alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, acarbose, voglibose and miglitol competitively and reversibly inhibit the alpha-glucosidase enzymes (glucoamylase, sucrase, maltase and isomaltase) in the brush border in the small intestine, which delays the hydrolysis of complex carbohydrates. They appear unlikely to produce hypoglycaemia in overdose, but abdominal discomfort and diarrhoea may occur. Troglitazone is the first thiazolidinedione antidiabetic drug available. There are no data on overdose, probably because of its very recent introduction. Overdoses with antidiabetic drugs produce major morbidity, with many cases requiring intensive care medicine and prolonged hospital stays. However, fatalities are rare when treatment is initiated early. The management of the hypoglycaemic drugs (insulin and sulphonylureas) is based primarily on restoring and maintaining euglycaemia via intravenous dextrose supplementation. In the case of the sulphonylureas, reduction of insulin secretion via pharmacological intervention may also be necessary. With biguanides the main risk appears to be cardiovascular collapse secondary to profound acidosis. The management focus is on restoring acid-base balance with hyperventilation and the use of insulin to shift the utilisation of glucose from the nonoxidative pathway to the oxidative pathway. Use of haemodialysis has shown equivocal results but may be valuable in metformin overdose.

precose reviews 2017-08-15

SAXA+MET predicted lower incidences of most cardiovascular events, hypoglycemia events and fatal events, and decreased total costs compared with ACAR+MET. For an individual patient, the quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained with SAXA+MET was 0.48 more than ACAR+MET at a cost saving of ¥18,736, which resulted in a cost saving buy precose online of ¥38,640 per QALY gained for SAXA+MET versus ACAR+MET. Results were robust across various univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses.

precose generic name 2016-09-24

The use of acarbose in combination with insulin reduces postprandial plasma glucose levels in Type 1 diabetic patients who are not satisfactorily buy precose online controlled with insulin alone but without significant effect on HbA1c.

precose patient review 2015-01-22

The aglB and aglA genes from the starch/maltodextrin utilization gene cluster of Thermotoga neapolitana were subcloned into pQE vectors for expression in Escherichia coli. The recombinant proteins AglB and AglA were purified to homogeneity and characterized. Both enzymes are hyperthermostable, the highest activity was observed at 85 degrees C. AglB is an oligomer of identical 55-kDa subunits capable of aggregation. This protein hydrolyses cyclodextrins and linear maltodextrins to glucose and maltose by liberating glucose from the reducing end of the molecules, and it is a cyclodextrinase with alpha-glucosidase activity. The pseudo-tetrasaccharide acarbose, a potent alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, does not inhibit AglB but, on the contrary, acarbose is degraded quantitatively by AglB. Recombinant AglB is activated in the presence of CaCl2, KCl, and EDTA, as well as after heating of the enzyme. AglA is a dimer of two identical 54-kDa subunits, and it hydrolyses the alpha-glycoside bonds of disaccharides and short maltooligosaccharides, acting on the substrate from the non-reducing end of the chain. It is a cofactor-dependent alpha-glucosidase with a wide action range, hydrolysing both oligoglucosides and galactosides with alpha-link. Thereby, the enzyme is not specific with respect to the configuration at the C4 position of its substrate. For the enzyme to be active, the presence of NAD+, DTT, and Mn2+ is required buy precose online . Enzymes AglB and AglA supplement one another in substrate specificity and ensure complete hydrolysis to glucose for the intermediate products of starch degradation.

precose tablets 2017-06-11

We investigated the effects of the common polymorphisms in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma2 (PPAR-gamma2; Pro12Ala) and in PPAR-gamma coactivator 1alpha (PGC-1alpha; Gly482Ser) genes on the conversion from impaired buy precose online glucose tolerance to type 2 diabetes in participants in the STOP-NIDDM trial. This trial aimed to study the effect of acarbose in the prevention of type 2 diabetes.

precose online 2015-12-22

Based on a large nationwide diabetic cohort, 113 051 patients with type 2 diabetes newly on metformin-based dual or triple therapy were identified in 2009-2011 and followed until 2013, or death if this occurred sooner. Primary interest targeted hospitalizations for ischaemic stroke, myocardial infarction and heart failure. buy precose online Secondary outcomes were hypoglycaemia and all-cause mortality. Cox proportional hazards models were performed to assess time-to-event hazard ratio between propensity score-matched antidiabetic treatment groups.

acarbose precose medication 2015-02-25

Amylomaltase MalQ is essential for the metabolism of maltose and maltodextrins in Escherichia coli. It catalyzes transglycosylation/disproportionation reactions in which glycosyl or dextrinyl units are transferred among linear maltodextrins of various lengths. To elucidate the molecular basis of transglycosylation by MalQ, we have determined three crystal structures of this enzyme, i.e. the apo-form, its complex with maltose, and an inhibitor complex with the transition state analog acarviosine-glucose-acarbose, at resolutions down to 2.1 Å. MalQ represents the first example of a mesophilic bacterial amylomaltase with known structure and exhibits an N-terminal extension of about 140 residues, in contrast with previously described thermophilic enzymes. This moiety seems unique to amylomaltases from Enterobacteriaceae and folds into two distinct subdomains that associate with different parts of the catalytic core. Intriguingly, the three buy precose online MalQ crystal structures appear to correspond to distinct states of this enzyme, revealing considerable conformational changes during the catalytic cycle. In particular, the inhibitor complex highlights the requirement of both a 3-OH group and a 4-OH group (or α1-4-glycosidic bond) at the acceptor subsite +1 for the catalytically competent orientation of the acid/base catalyst Glu-496. Using an HPLC-based MalQ enzyme assay, we could demonstrate that the equilibrium concentration of maltodextrin products depends on the length of the initial substrate; with increasing numbers of glycosidic bonds, less glucose is formed. Thus, both structural and enzymatic data are consistent with the extremely low hydrolysis rates observed for amylomaltases and underline the importance of MalQ for the metabolism of maltodextrins in E. coli.

precose buy 2017-09-02

Fasting glucose values were similar, but fasting insulin levels declined 23% in the acarbose treated group (P < .05). Postprandial glucose and insulin levels decreased 18% and 20%, respectively (P < .01), in the acarbose group vs the control animals. Despite the decrease in fasting and postprandial insulin concentrations, systolic, mean, and calculated diastolic blood pressures were insignificantly different in the acarbose group after six weeks of buy precose online treatment compared to control animals.

precose medicine 2016-03-02

Pompe disease is a rare, autosomal-recessive disorder which results from a defect in the lysosomal enzyme acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA). The onset of this disease is highly variable, with infantile types being the most severe. Traditionally, lymphocytes, fibroblasts or muscle biopsies were necessary for enzyme activity measurement, because these materials do not express maltase-glucoamylase buy precose online (MGA) that interferes with the assay. Recently, acarbose was found to inhibit MGA activity selectively, so that dried blood became accessible for GAA assessment.

precose drug interactions 2017-11-04

This postmarketing surveillance (PMS) study was conducted to assess the efficacy, safety and acceptance of acarbose treatment in patients buy precose online with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

precose 25 mg 2015-10-10

Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus sp. glucoamylases were purified on an affinity chromatography column from commercially available, impure enzyme preparations. Up to 2 mg of glucoamylase protein was bound without leakage to a 1-ml affinity gel column (0.7 X 2.5 cm) possessing a covalently linked acarbose ligand (1 mg acarbose/g wet gel), and the bound enzyme was specifically released by irrigation of the column with a solution of maltose. A complete cycle of purification was accomplished in about 8 h. Glucoamylases were recovered, in more than 80% yield, free of alpha-amylase activity and possessing specific activities comparable to those of preparations obtained by time-consuming, multistep procedures involving several ion-exchange and hydrophobic column fractionations. Thus, acarbose affinity chromatography provides a general method for the rapid and efficient buy precose online purification of the glucoamylases, and seems to be ideally suited for scale-up for the commercial purification of these enzymes.

precose user reviews 2015-10-30

Two inhibitors, acarbose and cyclodextrins (CD), were used to investigate the active site structure and function of barley alpha-amylase isozymes, AMY1 and AMY2. The hydrolysis of DP 4900-amylose, reduced (r) DP18-maltodextrin and maltoheptaose (catalysed by AMY1 and AMY2) was followed in buy precose online the absence and in the presence of inhibitor. Without inhibitor, the highest activity was obtained with amylose, kcat/Km decreased 103-fold using rDP18-maltodextrin and 10(5) to 10(6)-fold using maltoheptaose as substrate. Acarbose is an uncompetitive inhibitor with inhibition constant (L1i) for amylose and maltodextrin in the micromolar range. Acarbose did not bind to the active site of the enzyme, but to a secondary site to give an abortive ESI complex. Only AMY2 has a second secondary binding site corresponding to an ESI2 complex. In contrast, acarbose is a mixed noncompetitive inhibitor of maltoheptaose hydrolysis. Consequently, in the presence of this oligosaccharide substrate, acarbose bound both to the active site and to a secondary binding site. alpha-CD inhibited the AMY1 and AMY2 catalysed hydrolysis of amylose, but was a very weak inhibitor compared to acarbose.beta- and gamma-CD are not inhibitors. These results are different from those obtained previously with PPA. However in AMY1, as already shown for amylases of animal and bacterial origin, in addition to the active site, one secondary carbohydrate binding site (s1) was necessary for activity whereas two secondary sites (s1 and s2) were required for the AMY2 activity. The first secondary site in both AMY1 and AMY2 was only functional when substrate was bound in the active site. This appears to be a general feature of the alpha-amylase family.

precose cost 2017-09-20

As adjunct administration to Cymbalta Alcohol Cravings newly initiated insulin therapy, acarbose enhances the optimization of blood glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes.

buy precose online 2016-01-15

In the field of food science, much interest has been focused on the development of alternative medicinal foods with the ability to regulate excess blood glucose level (BGL) rise. The authors have successfully developed a new fermented tea product (LG tea) by co-fermentation of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) leaf and summer-harvested green tea leaf. The objective of this study was to examine the acute suppression effect Seroquel 600 Mg of LG tea on BGL rise in disaccharide-loaded Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and to evaluate its possible usage as an antidiabetic functional food material.

precose dosing 2016-07-28

These results conclude that GF possesses anti-α-glucosidase activity, and Lanoxin Dosage Tablets hypoglycemic effect in HFD + STZ-induced hyperglycemic mice.

precose tabs 2015-03-31

Acarbose was effective in reducing glycemic parameters in patients from Morocco (n = 1082) and the Middle East (n = 1737). The mean one-hour postprandial blood glucose decreased by 35.5% to 165.4 ± 47.9 mg/dL in the Middle East and by 35.5% to 179.0 ± 49.9 mg/dL in Morocco. Mean fasting blood glucose decreased by 30.8% to 126.6 ± 34.2 mg/dL (Middle East) and by 34.5% to 150.6 ± 47.1 mg/dL (Morocco). The absolute reduction in HbA1c was 1.3% in the Middle East (final value 7.4%) and 1.0% in Morocco (final value 7.5%). Overall, 107 patients (Middle East) and 26 patients (Morocco) experienced minor drug-related adverse events, which were mainly gastrointestinal. The tolerability of Voltaren Gel Uses acarbose was rated as very good/good by 80.8% in the Middle East and by 68.6% in Morocco.

precose 100 mg 2017-03-03

Glycaemic control in Type 1 diabetes has been proven efficient in preventing microvascular and neurological complications. The assumption that good control of hyperglycaemia may also have significant impact on alleviation of complications in Type 2 diabetes has gained growing support in recent years. Measures such as body weight reduction and exercise improve the metabolic defects, but pharmacological therapy is most frequently used. The sulphonylureas stimulate insulin secretion. Metformin and troglitazone increase glucose disposal and decrease hepatic glucose output without causing hypoglycaemia. Acarbose helps to spread the dietary carbohydrate challenge to endogenous insulin over time. These Lipitor Generic Dosage pharmacological treatments can improve blood glucose regulation in Type 2 diabetes patients. However, the key to strict glycaemic control with use of exogenous insulin lies in the creation of delivery methods that emulate physiologic insulin secretion. Insulin lispro, a recombinant insulin analogue, is identical to human insulin except for the transposition of proline and lysine at positions 28 and 29 in the C-terminus of the B chain. Evidence suggests that patients perceive their quality of life to be improved with insulin lispro when compared with regular human insulin, and that satisfaction with treatment is greater with the insulin analogue. Numerous new pharmacological approaches are under active investigation, with the aim of promoting insulin secretion, improving the action of insulin, or slowing carbohydrate absorption. With respect to continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion therapy and implantable pumps, despite that this approach is not widely utilised, it appears to bring us as close to achieving glycaemic control as is feasible with current treatment approaches. However, general application of such technology requires significant improvements in several areas, such as improvement of patency of catheter, pump failures due to early battery depletion incidents, and pump miniaturisation. Future perspective resides on insulin analogues with longer half-lives that would provide better basal insulin coverage in association with fast-acting analogues.

precose tablet 2017-07-16

Calcium antagonists are suspected of increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease. On the basis of published reports, the JNC VI guidelines are recommended: calcium antagonists should not be used as first line treatment in Uroxatral 40 Mg diabetics.

precose dosage 2017-12-05

The present study on Phyllanthus virgatus, known traditionally for its remedial potential, for the first time provides descriptions of the antioxidant and inhibition of α -amylase enzyme activity first by in vitro analyses, followed by a confirmatory in silico study to create a stronger biochemical rationale. Our results illustrated that P. virgatus methanol extract exhibited strong antioxidant and oxidative DNA damage protective activity than other extracts, which was well correlated with its total phenolic content. In addition, P. virgatus methanol extract strongly inhibited the α -amylase activity (IC50 33.20 ± 0.556  μ g/mL), in a noncompetitive manner, than acarbose (IC50 76.88 ± 0.277  μ g/mL), which showed competitive inhibition. Moreover, this extract stimulated the glucose uptake activity in 3T3-L1 cells and also showed a good correlation between antioxidant and α -amylase activities. The molecular docking studies of the major bioactive compounds (9,12-octadecadienoic acid, asarone, 11-octadecenoic acid, and Lasix 6 Mg acrylic acid) revealed via GC-MS analysis from this extract mechanistically suggested that the inhibitory property may be due to the synergistic effect of these bioactive compounds. These results provide substantial basis for the future use of P. virgatus methanol extract and its bioactive compound in in vivo system for the treatment and management of diabetes as well as in the related condition of oxidative stress.

precose drug 2016-11-05

It is widely accepted that the most challenging goal in the management of patients with diabetes mellitus is to achieve blood glucose levels as close to normal as possible. In general, normalising postprandial blood glucose levels is more difficult than normalising fasting hyperglycaemia. In addition, some epidemiological studies suggest that postprandial hyperglycaemia (PPHG) or hyperinsulinaemia are independent risk factors for the development of macrovascular complications of diabetes mellitus. Recently, several drugs with differing pharmacodynamic profiles have been developed which target PPHG. These include insulin lispro, amylin analogues, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors and meglitinide analogues. Insulin lispro has a more rapid onset of action and shorter duration of efficacy compared with regular human insulin. In clinical trials, the use of insulin lispro was associated with improved control of PPHG Singulair Generic Price and a reduced incidence of hypoglycaemic episodes. Repaglinide, a meglitinide analogue, is a short-acting insulinotropic agent which. when given before meals, stimulates endogenous insulin secretions and lowers postprandial hyperglycaemic excursions. Both insulin lispro and repaglinide are associated with postprandial hyperinsulinaemia. In contrast, amylin analogues reduce PPHG by slowing gastric emptying and delivery of nutrients to the absorbing surface of the gut. Alpha-Glucosidase inhibitors such as acarbose, miglitol and voglibose also reduce PPHG primarily by interfering with the carbohydrate-digesting enzymes and delaying glucose absorption. With the availability of agents which preferentially reduce postprandial blood glucose excursions, it is now possible to achieve glycaemic goals in a larger proportion of individuals with diabetes mellitus.

precose drug class 2017-01-26

At 24 weeks the baseline adjusted means of fasting, 1 and 2-h postprandial blood glucose values were 9.3 vs. 10.5 (P=0.02), 11.6 vs. 14.5 (P<0.001) and 11.0 vs. 13.7 mmol/l (P<0.001) and HbA1 9.3% vs. 10.2% (P=0.002) in the acarbose Paracetamol Toxic Dose and placebo groups, respectively. No significant differences in nutrient intakes between groups were observed. The energy intake and energy proportion of fat and carbohydrates remained unchanged in both groups.

precose dose 2015-07-27

In healthy cats meal-fed diets of similar composition to the diets used in this study, acarbose has minimal effect when a low carbohydrate diet Accutane Pills Big is fed but reduces postprandial glucose concentrations over 24 h when a high carbohydrate diet is fed. However, mean glucose concentrations over 24 h are still higher when a high carbohydrate diet with acarbose is fed relative to the low carbohydrate diet without acarbose. Future studies in diabetic cats are warranted to confirm these findings.

precose drugs 2015-04-22

The role of salivary alpha-amylase in odour, flavour, and oral texture sensations was investigated in two studies in which the activity of salivary amylase present in the mouth of human subjects was either increased by presenting custards with added alpha-amylase or decreased by presenting custards with added acarbose, an amylase inhibitor. For starch-based vanilla custard desserts, amylase resulted in increased melting and decreased thickness sensations, whereas acarbose had the opposite effect, i.e., decreased melting and increased thickness. Other affected attributes included Tegretol Medicine creamy mouth feel, creamy after feel, and fatty after feel. Creaminess, which is considered to be a highly desirable food quality, decreased by as much as 25% with added amylase and increased by as much as 59% with added acarbose. Neither additional amylase nor acarbose affected sensations for a nonstarch-based carboxy methylcellulose (CMC) vanilla custard dessert. This indicates that the effects of amylase on viscosity-related sensations of starch-based custards, such as perceived melting and thickness, are caused by amylase-induced breakdown of starch. Partial Least Square (PLS) analysis indicated that the effects of amylase and acarbose on perceived creaminess are not only driven by their effects on perceived melting and thickness, but also by their effects on perceived flavour.

precose medication 2016-12-01

Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors currently form an important basis for developing novel drugs for diabetes treatment. In our preliminary tests, the ethyl acetate fraction of Phlomis tuberosa extracts showed significant α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC₅₀ = 100 μg/mL). In the present study, a combined method using Sepbox chromatography and thin-layer chromatography (TLC) bioautography was developed to probe α-glucosidase inhibitors further. The ethyl acetate fraction of P. tuberosa extracts was separated into 150 individual subfractions within 20 h using Sepbox chromatography. Then, under the guidance of TLC bioautography, 20 compounds were successfully isolated from these fractions, including four new diterpenoids [14-hydroxyabieta-8,11,13-triene-11-carbaldehyde-18-oic-12-carboxy-13-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)-lactone (1), 14-hydroxyabieta-8,11,13-triene-17-oic-12-carboxy-13-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)-lactone (2), 14,16-dihydroxyabieta-8,11,13-triene-15,17-dioic acid (3), and phlomisol (15,16-eposy-8,13(16),14-labdatrien-19-ol) (4)], and 16 known compounds. Activity estimation indicated that 15 compounds showed more potent α-glucosidase inhibitory effects (with IC50 values in the range 0.067-1.203 mM) than the positive control, acarbose (IC50 = 3.72 ± 0.113 mM). This is the first report of separation of α-glucosidase inhibitors from P. tuberosa.

precose acarbose tablets 2015-08-12

To determine effects of acarbose on baseline and postprandial serum glucose and insulin concentrations in healthy dogs, if effects of acarbose were dosage related, and if acarbose caused any short-term adverse effects.