Generic Requip is an anti-Pakirson medication. Generic Requip is also used to treat restless legs syndrome (RLS).
Other names for this medication:
Generic Requip is an anti-Pakirson medication. Generic Requip is also used to treat restless legs syndrome (RLS).
Other names for this medication:
Also known as: Ropinirole.
Generic Requip is an anti-Pakirson medication.
Generic Requip is used to treat symptoms of Parkinson's disease such as stiffness, tremors, muscle spasms, poor muscle control.
Requip is also known as Ropinirole, Ropidon, Adartrel, Ropark.
Generic Requip is also used to treat restless legs syndrome (RLS).
Generic Requip has some of the same effects as a chemical called dopamine, which occurs naturally in your body. Low levels of dopamine in the brain are associated with Parkinson's disease.
Generic name of Generic Requip is Ropinirole.
Brand names of Generic Requip are Requip, Requip XL.
Take Generic Requip orally.
Take Generic Requip with or without food.
The dose and timing of Generic Requip in treating Parkinson's disease is different from the dose and timing in treating RLS.
If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Requip suddenly.
If you overdose Generic Requip and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Generic Requip overdosage: nausea, vomiting, weakness, fainting, agitation, confusion, hallucinations, muscle twitching, tingly feeling, chest pain.
Store at room temperature between 20 and 25 degrees C (68 and 77 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.
The most common side effects associated with Requip are:
Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.
Do not take Generic Requip if you are allergic to Generic Requip components.
Be very careful with Generic Requip if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding.
Be very careful with Generic Requip if you have heart disease, high or low blood pressure, mental illness or compulsive behaviors, kidney or liver disease.
Be very careful with Generic Requip if you are taking levodopa, ciprofloxacin (Cipro), fluvoxamine (Luvox), metoclopramide (Reglan), omeprazole (Prilosec); medication used to treat nausea and vomiting or mental illness, such as chlorpromazine (Thorazine), fluphenazine (Prolixin), mesoridazine (Serentil), perphenazine (Trilafon), thioridazine (Mellaril), promazine (Sparine), trifluoperazine (Stelazine), thiothixene (Navane), or haloperidol (Haldol); estrogen such as Premarin, Prempro, Estratest, Ogen, Estraderm, Climara, Vivelle, estradiol and others.
Avoid getting up too fast from a sitting or lying position. Get up slowly and steady yourself to prevent a fall.
Avoid alcohol and smoking.
Avoid machine driving.
It can be dangerous to stop Generic Requip taking suddenly.
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Ropinirole is a non-ergoline selective D2 dopamine agonist. Its efficacy and safety has been established in several controlled double-blind studies in patients with early and advanced Parkinson's disease. It is assumed that the improvement in the activities of daily living under ropinirole is not only due to the improved motor symptoms but also due to the improvement of non-motor symptoms like symptoms of mood and anxiety. The objective of this post marketing surveillance study was to show that under the conditions of the daily routine in the neurologic practice ropinirole may not only improve motor symptoms, the activity of daily living and complications of the treatment (dystonia, dyskinesia) but also alleviate symptoms of depression and anxiety. A total of 110 neurological practices enrolled 327 patients in early and advanced stages of the disease (139 females, 188-males; mean age: 67 years). They were treated with ropinirole as monotherapy and as adjunctive therapy with l-dopa over a period of 12 - 14 weeks. Selected symptoms of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) part II-IV and symptoms of depression and anxiety were rated by the clinicians. Mood and functional impairment in job, family and social life were rated by the patients using selected items of the Beck Depression Inventory and the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS). The different subtypes, i. e. the akinetic-rigid, tremor-dominant and the mixed subtype, are described separately. The total UPDRS score at baseline was similar for all three subtypes and there was also a similar improvement in the three groups under ropinirole. Both according to self-rating and to clinician rating the symptoms of depression and anxiety at baseline were more severe in the akinetic-rigid and the mixed subtype compared to the tremor-dominant subtype. The symptoms considerably improved and were reduced by 48 % under therapy with ropinirole. Adverse events were reported by 7.7 % of the patients. The surveillance study has shown that ropinirole may improve not only motor symptoms, activities of daily living and complications of treatment but also symptoms of mood and anxiety.
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Quality of life (QoL) is a patient-reported outcome frequently included in Parkinson's disease (PD) clinical trials as a secondary or tertiary endpoint. However, QoL is an important variable that reflects the impact of disease and treatment from the patients' perspective. In a chronic, neurodegenerative disease such as PD, with a wide range of complex symptoms, QoL provides valuable and comprehensive information on the patients' health status. This narrative review aims to evaluate the effect of specific PD treatments currently in use on patients' QoL measured with the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire, 39-item (PDQ-39) or 8-item (PDQ-8) version. A quantification of this effect is provided by calculation of the relative change and effect size. These two parameters allow an intuitive standardized approach to the importance of change based on its magnitude. Some high-quality studies (Level I) were found for levodopa (immediate- or extended-release formulations), levodopa with added-on catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitors, levodopa/carbidopa gel for intestinal infusion, some dopamine agonists (ropinirole, cabergoline, pergolide), and the monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) inhibitor safinamide. As a whole, these studies found a beneficial effect of variable magnitude, weak to moderate, on patients' QoL. Studies with a lower level of evidence or not providing enough data to estimate relative change and effect size, including those for the apomorphine subcutaneous pump, also reported improvement of QoL, but the evidence was insufficient to confirm the effect. More high-quality studies focused on QoL are needed to determine the real impact of PD drug treatments for this important outcome.
From November 2005 to April 2007, a total of 221 subjects from 7 hospitals of Beijing, Lanzhou and Wuhan participated in a 12-week multi-center, randomized, bromocriptine-controlled, double-blind, double-dummy and parallel-group trial. The efficacy of ropinirole was assessed with the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS) score, "off" time according to the patient's diary and the overall evolution of clinical efficacy. The safety was assessed on the basis of adverse events, blood pressure, pulse, laboratory measurement and electrocardiographic recordings. And the statistical analyses were performed with t, paired t, χ(2) and covariance tests.
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This review examines currently available therapeutic strategies for Parkinson's disease, emphasizing evidence-based data as well as a patient-centered approach to the treatment of motor and nonmotor symptoms.
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In all the included studies, dopamine agonists, including ropinirole, exhibited a higher incidence of adverse events than placebo. Ropinirole showed an adverse event profile similar to other dopamine agonists. Consideration of the clinical characteristics of each patient and the differences in the incidence of adverse events related to each dopamine agonist, may help to optimize the dopamine agonist therapy.
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We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts and Cochrane Library, contacted experts and pharmaceutical manufacturers, and manually reviewed all references retrieved to identify possible articles to include. Information on randomisation, blinding, type of treatment and reporting of somnolence were abstracted by 2 independent reviewers. Disagreements were resolved by a third author.
Four trials were included in the analysis of patients taking pramipexole or ropinirole compared with those taking placebo. The pooled relative risk of somnolence in this analysis was 4.98 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.79 to 13.89]. Seven trials were included in the analysis of patients taking levodopa and pramipexole or ropinirole compared with those taking levodopa alone. The pooled relative risk was 2.06 (95% CI 1.47 to 2.88).
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The dataset for this study comprised 1799 patients who received ropinirole (either formulation) and 1258 patients who received placebo. No signal for suicidality was detected for ropinirole in the treatment of patients with RLS.
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Three thousand ninety patients with treated idiopathic PD receiving routine clinical care at 46 movement disorder centers in the United States and Canada.
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The aim of this review was to critically look at the benefits, efficacy and safety of various treatment options used in the treatment of RLS in people with CKD and those undergoing renal replacement therapy (RRT). We aimed to define different group characteristics based on CKD stage to assess the applicability of a particular intervention to an individual patient.
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Although frequently underdiagnosed, several epidemiological studies have estimated the prevalence of restless legs syndrome (RLS) in western countries at 5-15% of the general population. The diagnosis is usually made on a clinical basis, according to the criteria established by the international RLS study group. There are case reports of transient RLS in opiate withdrawal. We describe three opiate (dextropropoxyphene (DPP)) dependent young male patients; two of them had DPP intoxication/withdrawal seizure developing RLS during opiate withdrawal. However, their RLS persisted even after the remission of other withdrawal symptoms. Thyroid function test, hemogram, serum ferritin were normal in all of them. The cases responded well to a treatment with ropinirole. Hence, there might be a causal association, which required further well-designed studies to substantiate. The sleep disturbances and use of benzodiazepines can be minimized by increasing clinician's sensitivity to diagnose RLS.
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A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group, 6-month study assessed the efficacy and safety of ropinirole, a nonergoline D2-dopamine agonist, in patients with early Parkinson's disease (n = 241; Hoehn & Yahr stages I to III) with limited or no prior dopaminergic therapy. Patients (mean age, 62.8 years), stratified by concomitant use of selegiline, were randomized to ropinirole (n = 116) or placebo (n = 125). The starting dose of ropinirole was 0.25 mg tid with titration to at least 1.5 mg tid (maximum dose, 8 mg tid). Primary efficacy endpoint was the percentage improvement in Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor score. Ropinirole-treated patients had a significantly greater percentage improvement in UPDRS motor score than patients who received placebo (+24% vs -3%; p < 0.001). Ropinirole was well tolerated and patient withdrawals were infrequent. Most adverse experiences were related to peripheral dopaminergic activity. Ropinirole monotherapy is an effective and well-tolerated therapeutic option for treatment of early Parkinson's disease.
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Apoptosis is a prerequisite to model the developing nervous system. However, an increased rate of cell death in the adult nervous system underlies neurodegenerative disease and is a hallmark of multiple sclerosis (MS) Alzheimer's- (AD), Parkinson- (PD), or Huntington's disease (HD). Cell surface receptors (e.g., CD95/APO-1/Fas; TNF receptor) and their ligands (CD95-L; TNF) as well as evolutionarily conserved mechanisms involving proteases, mitochondrial factors (e.g. , Bcl-2-related proteins, reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial membrane potential, opening of the permeability transition pore) or p53 participate in the modulation and execution of cell death. Effectors comprise oxidative stress, inflammatory processes, calcium toxicity and survival factor deficiency. Therapeutic agents are being developed to interfere with these events, thus conferring the potential to be neuroprotective. In this context, drugs with anti-oxidative properties, e.g., flupirtine, N-acetylcysteine, idebenone, melatonin, but also novel dopamine agonists (ropinirole and pramipexole) have been shown to protect neuronal cells from apoptosis and thus have been suggested for treating neurodegenerative disorders like AD or PD. Other agents like non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) partly inhibit cyclooxygenase (COX) expression, as well as having a positive influence on the clinical expression of AD. Distinct cytokines, growth factors and related drug candidates, e.g., nerve growth factor (NGF), or members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta ) superfamily, like growth and differentiation factor 5 (GDF-5), are shown to protect tyrosine hydroxylase or dopaminergic neurones from apoptosis. Furthermore, peptidergic cerebrolysin has been found to support the survival of neurones in vitro and in vivo. Treatment with protease inhibitors are suggested as potential targets to prevent DNA fragmentation in dopaminergic neurones of PD patients. Finally, CRIB (cellular replacement by immunoisolatory biocapsule) is an auspicious gene therapeutical approach for human NGF secretion, which has been shown to protect cholinergic neurones from cell death when implanted in the brain. This review summarises and evaluates novel aspects of anti-apoptotic concepts and pharmacological intervention including gene therapeutical approaches currently being proposed or utilised to treat neurodegenerative diseases.
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The overall success rate among the very elderly for an agonist trial was 46%. Success rates for individual agonists were 15 of 27 (56%) bromocriptine, 18 of 34 (53%) pergolide, 17 of 43 (40%) pramipexole, and 5 of 16 (31%) ropinirole. In successful trials with bromocriptine, the mean daily dose was 12.8 mg, mean duration of treatment was 40 months, and mean age at drug initiation was 82 years; for pergolide it was 1.8 mg, 32 months, and 83 years; for pramipexole 2.7 mg, 14 months, and 83 years, and for ropinirole 10.6 mg, 11 months, and 83 years.
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The usefulness of an initial treatment of Parkinson's disease with a dopamine agonist has now been studied for more than 20 years. The first clinical trials compared the long-term out come of patients receiving early bromocriptine or lisuride to those receiving initial L-dopa. These pilot data suggested that the early use of these agonists (combined early or supplemented later with low doses of L-dopa) reduced the risk of occurence of motor complications such as dyskinesia and/or fluctuations. These initial conclusions were however criticised because of methodological limitations in study design. The recent results from new large prospective randomized double-blind 5-year L-dopa-controlled trials using newer dopamine agonists (cabergoline and ropinirole) confirmed the findings of the previous pilot studies. Therefore, one now generally agrees that the early use of such agonists (to which low doses of L-dopa may be added as a second step if necessary to maintain an adequate control of parkinsonian symptoms) is useful to reduce the risk of occurence of motor complications. This result is achieved without a major increase in the risk of other dopaminergic adverse events (digestive, cardiovascular, psychiatric), specially in 'young' patients (before 70 years).
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Relevant articles were identified through a search of MEDLINE (to May 2006) using the terms dopamine agonists (or each individual drug name) and pbarmacokinetics, metabolism, drug-drug interaction, interactions, CYP450, fibrosis, valvular heart disease, tremor, clinical trials, reviews, and meta-analyses. Abstracts from recent sessions of the International Congress of Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorders were also examined. Clinical studies with <20 patients overall or <10 patients per treatment group in the final analysis were excluded. All DAs that were graded at least possibly useful with respect to at least 3 of 4 items connected to the treatment/prevention of motor symptoms/complications in the most recent evidence-based medical review update were included. This resulted in a focus on the ergot-derived DAs bromocriptine, cabergoline, and pergolide, and the non-ergot-derived DAs pramipexole and ropinirole.
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Prescribing trends for medications are influenced by development of new drugs, changes in knowledge about efficacy and side effects, and priorities set by funding agencies. Changes in the utilization of antiparkinsonian agents in the outpatient community in New Zealand were investigated by using the national prescription database for the period 1995-2011. The dispensed volumes of antiparkinsonian agents were converted into number of defined daily doses per 1000 inhabitants per day for analysis. Increases in the dispensed volumes of levodopa (77%), amantadine (350%), and catechol-o-methyl transferase inhibitors (326%) occurred during the study period. Conversely, decreases in the dispensed volumes of anticholinergics (48%), selegiline (82%), and dopamine agonists (6.2%) were observed. New Zealand has seen a substantial increase of the amount of levodopa dispensed in the past 17 years. This increase appears to be related to an increase in the number of people taking the medication. We are unable to extrapolate this change to an increase in the prevalence of PD, given levodopa is used in the treatment of a number of medical conditions. The changes in other antiparkinsonian medications largely reflect changes in availability (increases in entacapone and ropinirole) and best practice treatment (declines in anticholinergics, selegiline, and tolcapone).
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Othello syndrome (OS) is an organic delusional disorder with prevailing jealousy symptoms presumably appearing as side effect of antiparkinsonian therapy. The clinical spectrum of psychiatric symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) is very wide, including symptoms of depression and anxiety, hallucinations, delusions, with prevalent paranoid symptoms, agitation, delirium and sleep disorders. At our knowledge, just a few cases of patients with PD and OS were reported till now.
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Data from 3 trials were pooled. Patients were identified as DA-naive or DA-exposed, based on prior treatment with ropinirole, pramipexole, rotigotine, or pergolide mesylate, and the dopamine precursor levodopa. Details on prior treatment duration and dose were unavailable. Patients with a history of augmentation were excluded. Within DA-naive/DA-exposed patients we investigated the co-primary end points from the pivotal trials: mean change from baseline to week 12 in International RLS (IRLS) Rating Scale total score and proportion of responders ("much"/"very much" improved) on the investigator-rated Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I) scale. Safety was also assessed.
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Tic disorders are fairly prevalent neuropsychiatric disorders. While a proportion of children may not present to the clinician's office for management of tic disorders, another proportion may present with severe symptoms that impair social and occupational functioning. A combination of psychosocial interventions and pharmacological approaches are required in these cases. While alpha-2 agonists and dopamine antagonists constitute the mainstay of pharmacological agents for tic disorders, advances in neurobiology and psychopharmacology have discovered newer avenues for treatment of tic disorders.
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Randomised controlled trials (RCT) and quasi-RCTs that assessed the efficacy of an intervention for RLS in adults with CKD were eligible for inclusion. Studies investigating idiopathic RLS or RLS secondary to other causes were excluded.
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In the UK the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) for pramipexole was 3349 pounds sterling versus no treatment and a cost-saving of 92 pounds sterling against ropinirole. In Sweden, pramipexole produced cost-savings of Swedish Krona (SEK) 2381 (176 pounds sterling) versus no treatment and SEK 3564 (264 pounds sterling) against ropinirole. QALY gains in both countries were 0.095 versus no treatment and 0.007 versus ropinirole. Results compare well with UK cost-effectiveness thresholds of 20,000 pounds sterling/30,000 pounds sterling per QALY and are cost-saving for Sweden. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses showed results to be robust.
Preclinical studies suggest ropinirole (a D2/D3 dopamine agonist) may be neuroprotective in Parkinson's disease (PD), and a pilot clinical study using (18)F-dopa positron emission tomography (PET) suggested a slower loss of striatal dopamine storage with ropinirole compared with levodopa. This prospective, 2-year, randomized, double-blind, multinational study compared the rates of loss of dopamine-terminal function in de novo patients with clinical and (18)F-dopa PET evidence of early PD, randomized 1 to 1 to receive either ropinirole or levodopa. The primary outcome measure was reduction in putamen (18)F-dopa uptake (Ki) between baseline and 2-year PET. Of 186, 162 randomized patients were eligible for analysis. A blinded, central, region-of-interest analysis showed a significantly lower reduction (p = 0.022) in putamen Ki over 2 years with ropinirole (-13.4%; n = 68) compared with levodopa (-20.3%; n = 59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65-13.06). Statistical parametric mapping localized lesser reductions in (18)F-dopa uptake in the putamen and substantia nigra with ropinirole. The greatest Ki decrease in each group was in the putamen (ropinirole, -14.1%; levodopa, -22.9%; 95% CI, 4.24-13.3), but the decrease was significantly lower with ropinirole compared with levodopa (p < 0.001). Ropinirole is associated with slower progression of PD than levodopa as assessed by (18)F-dopa PET.
Pharmacodynamical differences between dopamine agonists (DAs) suggest differences in their adverse drug reactions (ADRs) profile. In this study, frequencies of ADR to DAs or levodopa reports in the French Pharmacovigilance Database were explored. Reports occurring between January 1, 1984 and December 31, 2008 were selected (2,189 for DAs and 1,315 for levodopa). The numbers of ADRs by system organ class were compared using ropinirole as a reference. Diurnal somnolence was less frequently reported with all DAs when compared with ropinirole (P < 0.001). Impulse control disorders (ICDs) were more frequently reported with pramipexole (P < 0.001). Significant difference was found among DAs in the frequency of confusion or disorientation (P < 0.001), nausea and vomiting (P < 0.05), or edemas (P < 0.001). No difference among DAs was observed in the frequency of hallucination or arterial hypotension ADR reports (P = 0.3 and P = 0.1). Pleural effusions were more frequently reported with pergolide or bromocriptine (P < 0.001). Somnolence or ICD reports were less frequent with levodopa, whereas confusion was more frequently reported. In summary, our data show significant differences in the kind of ADRs reported for each DA.
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Dopamine agonists have long been used as preferred treatment in the management of PD and RLS. When treating either PD or RLS in the psychiatric population, the concern arises that increased activity at dopamine receptors may induce or exacerbate psychiatric features. A potential clinical concern with the use of ropinirole is the potential for patients to develop psychiatric features, although there are few data available to demonstrate whether stimulation of targeted individual dopamine receptors is linked to the development or exacerbation of psychotic features. It is also undetermined whether concurrent antipsychotic treatment provides any protective benefit against psychosis, especially in patients already being treated for psychotic symptoms.
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An online survey was created consisting of 4 items regarding demographics, 5 regarding PD and driving, and 9 regarding DA use and driving. The survey was distributed to 563 neurologists.
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Sixty-two patients treated with ropinirole or pramipexole were recruited for this study. We evaluated the historical and clinical characteristics including the motor symptom rating scales, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). An ESS score of 10 or greater was defined as EDS. Participants with eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) were determined to have chronic kidney disease (CKD). Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the predictive factors of EDS.
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