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Risperdal

Risperdal is a medication with highly developed components which is taken in treatment of serious disorders such as bipolar disorder, mania, schizophrenia, and its symptoms. Risperdal can also be helpful for patients aged 5-16 with autism. Risperdal operates by giving brains balance and mental stability.

Other names for this medication:

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Also known as:  Risperidone.

Description

Risperdal is found by professionals of medicine to combat mental disorders (bipolar disorder, mania, schizophrenia and for patients aged 5-16 with autism). Target of Risperdal is to control and keep brain's balance. Risperdal operates by giving brains balance and mental stability.

Risperdal is atypical antipsychotic.

Risperdal is also known as Risperidone, Risdone.

Generic name of Risperdal is Risperidone.

Brand names of Risperdal are Risperdal, Risperdal Consta, Risperdal M-Tab.

Dosage

Risperdal is available in tablets (1 mg, 2 mg, 3 mg, 4 mg), liquid forms and in orally disintegrating tablets.

You should take it by mouth with meals of without it. Take it with water.

It is better to take Risperdal every day at the same time once or twice a day.

Risperdal can be given to patients aged 5-16 with autism.

Try to avoid drinking cola or tea together with Risperdal.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Risperdal suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Risperdal and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Risperdal overdosage: muscle spasms, fever, fainting, sweating, convulsions, irregular or fast heartbeat, dizziness, feeling drowsy, blurred vision, upset stomach.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 to 25 degrees C (59 and 77 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Risperdal are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Risperdal if you are allergic to Risperdal components.

Be careful with Risperdal if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Try to avoid drinking cola or tea together with Risperdal.

Try to avoid the state of being overheated.

Try to be careful with Risperdal usage in case of having liver, heart or kidney disease, seizures, Parkinson's disease, breast cancer, diabetes, angina.

Try to be careful with Risperdal usage in case of taking medications as valproic acid (Depakote, Depakene), antidepressants, paroxetine (Paxil), low blood pressure medicines, ranitidine (Zantac), clozapine (Clozaril), carbamazepine (Tegretol), Parkinson's Disease medicines as bromocriptine (Parlodel), pergolide (Permax), levodopa (Sinemet, Atamet, Dopar, Larodopa), ropinirole (Requip), pramipexole (Mirapex).

Elderly patients who are over 65 years should be very careful with Risperdal dosage.

Try to avoid medications caused drowsiness.

Avoid alcohol.

Be careful if you are going to have a surgery.

Avoid machine driving.

Do not stop take it suddenly.

risperdal drug classification

To compare the efficacy and incidence of adverse effects of haloperidol with risperidone, olanzapine, and quetiapine in the treatment of delirium.

risperdal 25 mg

To estimate changes in resource usage, hospitalization rates, and costs in actual practice in Sweden for schizophrenia patients after switching to long-acting injectable risperidone (Risperdal Consta).

risperdal liquid dosage

The preparation and investigation of sustained-release risperidone-encapsulated microspheres using erodible poly(D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) of lower molecular weight were performed and compared to that of commercial Risperdal Consta™ for the treatment of schizophrenia. The research included screening and optimizing of suitable commercial polymers of lower molecular weight PLGA50/50 or the blends of these PLGA polymers to prepare microspheres with zero-order release kinetics properties. Solvent evaporation method was applied here while studies of the risperidone loaded microsphere were carried out on its drug encapsulation capacity, morphology, particle size, as well as in vitro release profiles. Results showed that microspheres prepared using 50504A PLGA or blends of 5050-type PLGAs exerted spherical and smooth morphology, with a higher encapsulation efficiency and nearly zero-order release kinetics. These optimized microspheres showed great potential for a better depot preparation than the marketed Risperdal Consta™, which could further improve the patient compliance.

risperdal 100 mg

Aggression is a common symptom of many psychiatric disorders including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, Tourette's disorder, mood disorders (including bipolar disorder), substance-related disorders, alcohol-related disorders, mental retardation, pervasive developmental disorders, intermittent explosive disorder and personality disorders (particularly antisocial personality disorder). Many forms of organic brain disorders may present with aggressive behavior. Aggression is common in some epileptic patients and some endocrinological diseases (e.g., diabetes and hyperthyroidism) may be associated with aggressive behavior. Physicians need to rule out many medical and psychiatric disorders before diagnosing aggressive behavior. A thorough diagnostic work up is the most important step in determining the nature of comorbid disorders associated with the behavioral problem. Structured interviews and rating scales completed by patients, parents, teachers and clinicians may aid the diagnosis and provide quantification for the change process related to treatment. The integration of medication, individual and family counseling, educational and psychosocial interventions including the school and community, may increase the effectiveness of interventions. Due to the common association of aggression and disruptive behaviors with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, psychostimulants including new generation long-acting medications and other nonstimulant medications are considered the drug of choice for managing aggressive behavior and disruptive behavior disorders. Severe aggressive behavior not responding to these medications may require the single or combined use of mood regulators including lithium and/or antispychotic medications. Drugs such as risperidone (Risperdal, Janssen-Cilag) have documented effectiveness and safety in children and adolescents, and can be used in treatment.

risperdal 1mg cost

Risperidone (Risperdal) is a recently released novel antipsychotic medication. It is different from the conventional neuroleptics, such as haloperidol, as it has both serotinergic and dopaminergic activity. It has a more tolerable side-effect profile compared with other antipsychotic medications. We review the literature regarding the side effects of risperidone use, describe a case of overdose with risperidone, and discuss the clinical sequelae and management of such an overdose.

risperdal reviews aspergers

Antipsychotics, noradrenergic agents and HRT/CBIT are effective in reducing tics in children and young people with TS. The balance of benefits and harms favours the most commonly used medications: risperidone (Risperdal(®), Janssen), clonidine and aripiprazole (Abilify(®), Otsuka). Larger and better-conducted trials addressing important clinical uncertainties are required. Further research is needed into widening access to behavioural interventions through use of technology including mobile applications ('apps') and video consultation.

risperdal drug interactions

Conduct disorder (CD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence. It is characterized by a variety of chronic antisocial behaviors, a repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior that violates the basic rights of others, major age-appropriate societal norms, or both. Aggressive behavior, lying, stealing, fire-setting, and running away from home and school are the most frequent manifestations of CD and are often accompanied by hyperactivity, impulsive behavior, explosiveness, cognitive and learning problems, and poor social skills. The rate of comorbidity is high, with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) being the most common; comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders are also seen, especially in adolescents. The diagnostic process should include the use of structured interviews, and scores from reliable and valid rating scales that cover all psychiatric disorders must be considered in the differential diagnosis, because CD alone is an extreme rarity and multiple disorders are almost always the rule rather than exception. Treatment should include parenting skills training combined with training of the child to improve his or her relationships with peers, academic performance, and compliance with legitimate demands of authority figures. The appropriate use of medications and integration of patient/parent education and support, as well as individual, group, family, residential, and inpatient treatment may be beneficial for patients with CD and ADHD. The article describes a number of psychopharmacological agents that are used in patients with CD with ADHD and other comorbid disorders. Drugs that may be useful include psychostimulants; atomoxetine (Strattera); antidepressants (imipramine [Tofranil], desipramine [Norpramin]); Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs); atypical antipsychotics such as risperidone (Risperdal); or mood regulators including lithium (Eskalith).

risperdal drug class

Thirteen patients with schizophrenia received injections of 25, 50, or 75 mg of long-acting risperidone every 2 wk. Brain D2 receptor occupancy was assessed with [11C]raclopride 2 wk after the last (fifth) injection (day 71) in seven subjects and 2 wk after the third injection (day 44) in one subject. Stable plasma concentrations were reached after the third injection and steady-state concentrations of the active moiety (risperidone + 9-hydroxyrisperidone) after the fourth injection. Steady-state plasma concentrations were maintained for 4-5 wk after the last injection and then declined rapidly. After injections of 25, 50 and 75 mg on day 44 or day 71, D2 receptor occupancy ranged from 25-48%, 59-83% and 62-72% respectively, while plasma active-moiety levels ranged from 4.4-8.8, 15.0-31.1 and 22.5-26.3 ng/ml respectively. The results indicate that brain D2 receptor occupancy at steady state after injections of long-acting risperidone was in the range found in patients effectively treated with 2-6 mg of oral risperidone.

risperdal injection cost

The 90% confidence intervals for Test/Reference ratios of the pharmacokinetic parameters (Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-∞) of both risperidone and its active metabolite (9-hydroxyrisperidone) fell within the acceptable bioequivalence range (80 - 125%) according to ASEAN guideline.

risperdal 80 mg

Risperidone is an atypical antipsychotic drug with potent serotonin and moderate dopamine antagonistic properties. It possesses good bioavailability following oral administration. Risperidone is primarily converted by the cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) and 3A4 (CYP3A4) enzymes to 9-hydroxyrisperidone, its active metabolite with equivalent potency to the parent compound.

risperdal 20 mg

Patients with psychoses/schizophrenia using atypical antipsychotics in tablet form perceive generic versions of their antipsychotics as being significantly different. This perceived difference lowers their intention of continuing to take the medication, thus possibly jeopardizing treatment outcome. Caution with the generic substitution of atypical antipsychotics in the pharmacy is therefore recommended. Generic substitution should take place only with the knowledge and agreement of the psychiatrist and the patient.

risperdal generic

To determine the attitudes of patients with psychoses/schizophrenia towards generic substitution of oral atypical antipsychotics in a pharmacy setting.

risperdal drug

The purpose of this case report is to demonstrate the importance of a thorough patient interview. The case involves a man referred for physical therapy for a musculoskeletal dysfunction; during the patient interview, a psychiatric disorder was recognized that was later identified as schizophrenia. A secondary purpose is to educate physical therapists on the recognizable signs and symptoms of schizophrenia.Client description: A 19-year-old male patient with chronic shoulder, elbow, and wrist pain was referred for physical therapy. During the interview, the patient reported that he was receiving signals from an electronic device implanted in his body.Measures and outcome: The physical therapist's initial assessment identified a disorder requiring medical referral. Further management of the patient's musculoskeletal dysfunction was not appropriate at this time.

overdose risperdal consta

This article will briefly familiarize the reader with the positive and negative signs and with the symptoms of Schizophrenia. After describing these signs and symptoms, the atypical anti-psychotic medications of Risperidone, Olanzapine and Clozapine will be reviewed as to their pharmacodynamics, dosages, and side effects in treating of these sign and symptoms. Within the scope of practice for advance practice nurses, the care being rendered and the implementation of those atypical drugs will be described. Thanks to their educational and clinical background, the advanced practice nurses find themselves in a unique set of circumstances to positively contribute in the treatment and maintenance of Schizophrenia.

risperdal 75 mg

The number and quality of clinical trials is low and this downgrades the strength of the evidence and conclusions.

risperdal consta generic

Disintegration time differences for several olanzapine ODT forms were investigated. Risperdal M-Tab(®) was included as a non-olanzapine ODT comparator.

risperdal dosage

Two new cases are presented with delusions of parasitosis. Both were women, one middle-aged and one elderly, and exhibited classic symptoms of parasites and "strings" in the skin indicative of Morgellons disease. Each had an additional psychiatric disorder: drug addiction to cocaine and senile dementia. They also illustrate the difficulty encountered by the dermatologist in providing adequate therapy because of resistance to psychiatric referral as well as to standard accepted medication. Newer psychotropics, such as risperdal and lexapro, show promise in helping these patients and add to the therapeutic armamentarium of pimozide.

risperdal generic name

Risperidone long-acting injectable (RLAI) is the first long-acting formulation of an atypical antipsychotic introduced into clinical practice. RLAI combines the benefits of atypical antipsychotic agents with an extended duration of activity and is intended for long-term management of schizophrenia. This study evaluated the use of RLAI as part of a long-term management strategy in patients with an acute episode of schizophrenia.

risperdal overdose

It has been suggested that atypical antipsychotic drugs (A-APDs) other than clozapine may be effective to improve positive symptoms in some patients with treatment resistant schizophrenia (TRS), if both the dose is higher, and the duration of the trial longer, than those which have been ineffective in non-TRS (NTRS) patients. This hypothesis was tested with long acting injectable risperidone (Risperdal Consta®, RLAI). One hundred sixty TRS patients selected for persistent moderate-severe delusions or hallucinations, or both, were randomized to RLAI, 50 or 100mg biweekly, in a six month, outpatient, double-blind, multicenter trial. We hypothesized that RLAI, 100mg, would be more effective than RLAI, 50mg. However, both doses produced clinically significant and equivalent improvement in PANSS Total, Positive, and Negative subscale scores, as well as key cognitive, global and functional measures, with increasing response during the course of the study, confirming the value of longer clinical trial duration for patients with TRS, but not superiority of the higher dose. The overall response rate was comparable to that previously reported for clozapine and high dose olanzapine, another A-APD, in TRS. Both doses of RLAI were equally well tolerated, producing minimal extrapyramidal side effects and few drop outs. Plasma levels of the active moiety, risperidone+9-hydroxyrisperidone, during treatment with RLAI 100mg, were comparable to those for 6-8 mg/day oral risperidone, which have not been effective in TRS. Further study of RLAI, ≥ 50-100mg biweekly, should compare it with clozapine and oral risperidone in TRS, with duration of treatment ≥ six months.

risperdal max dose

To review the efficacy and tolerability of risperidone as treatment for mania.

risperdal reviews bipolar

Risperidone is an atypical anti-psychotic, available in various formulations.

risperdal yellow pill

Psychotic patients (n=88; initial BPRS=93+/-5) were treated for 6 months with clinically chosen oral medication and then converted to biweekly RLAI for the first 6 months (6-6 months matched mirror comparison) and then for another 18 months. Clinical status in the two treatment periods and in the 18 months of follow-up was compared with measures including BPRS improvement (primary outcome), CGI variants and SF-36 ratings.

risperdal medication

Outcome measures demonstrated mean improvement in problematic behaviors equaling one standard deviation, and thus current evidence supports the effectiveness of risperidone in managing behavioral problems and symptoms for children with ASD. Although Risperdal has several adverse effects, most are manageable or extremely rare. An exception is rapid weight gain, which is common and can create significant health problems. Overall, for most children with autism and irritable and aggressive behavior, risperidone is an effective psychopharmacological treatment.

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risperdal 10 mg 2015-11-27

Atypical antipsychotic agents are widely used psychopharmacological interventions for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Among the atypical antipsychotic agents, risperidone has demonstrated considerable benefits in buy risperdal online reducing several behavioral symptoms associated with ASDs. This meta-analysis examined research regarding the effectiveness of risperidone use among children with ASD using articles published since the year 2000.

risperdal max dose 2017-05-03

The purpose of this case report is to demonstrate the importance of a thorough patient interview. The case involves a man referred for physical therapy for a musculoskeletal dysfunction; during the patient interview, a psychiatric disorder was recognized that was later identified as schizophrenia. A secondary purpose is to educate physical therapists on the recognizable signs and symptoms of schizophrenia.Client description: A 19-year-old male patient with chronic shoulder, elbow, and wrist pain was referred for physical therapy. During the interview, the patient reported that he was receiving signals from an electronic device implanted in his body.Measures and outcome: The physical therapist's buy risperdal online initial assessment identified a disorder requiring medical referral. Further management of the patient's musculoskeletal dysfunction was not appropriate at this time.

risperdal dosage 2017-02-02

A total of 1232 patients (70% men; mean age 37 years; median of 8 months since most recent admission) were included in the analyses; 79% had been receiving antipsychotic therapy prior to admission. All patients received RLAI post-stabilization. The main reasons for initiating RLAI were the need for long-term treatment (76%) and a low adherence to previous treatment (71%). RLAI doses administered during hospitalization were: 25 (26%), 37.5 (29%), 50 (42%) and 75-100 mg (3%). The mean number of injections per patient buy risperdal online (2 +/- 1) and mean hospitalization time (25 +/- 16 days) indicated that RLAI was administered every 2 weeks as per the manufacturer's recommendations. All patients were discharged on RLAI treatment; 62% were prescribed concomitant therapy, mainly oral risperidone (39%), anxiolytics (25%), antiparkinsonians (15%), hypnotics (11%) and anticonvulsants (11%). Only 5.7% of patients reported adverse events, most commonly extrapyramidal symptoms (1.1%) and somnolence (0.9%).

risperdal high dose 2015-02-14

Most patients (24/25 MDD; 20/21 BP; 17/18 DE; 14/15 SZ) improved by 1 point on CGI-S from baseline or experienced no change at endpoint. Adverse events (AEs) occurring in any group at a > buy risperdal online or =10% incidence included headache (19%) and pharyngolaryngeal pain (10%), reported in the BP group only.

overdose risperdal consta 2015-08-31

Risperidone is a benzisoxazole derivate and is effective in the treatment of schizophrenia and other psychiatric illnesses in adults and children. Although buy risperdal online there are a few reports in the literature regarding the pharmacokinetic characteristics of risperidone, insufficient data on its pharmacokinetic properties in a Chinese population are available.

risperdal 9 mg 2017-05-11

Long-acting risperidone is effective and generally well tolerated in patients with schizophrenia, including those patients with stable symptoms. Long-acting risperidone is the first atypical antipsychotic available in a formulation which offers a sustained, steady release of drug and is thus an attractive, new option in the treatment of buy risperdal online patients with schizophrenia.

risperdal oral medication 2015-03-15

As part of a long-term management strategy aimed at improving treatment adherence in schizophrenic patients, RLAI was prescribed to a wide spectrum of patients with an acute episode of schizophrenia during hospitalization and at the time of discharge from emergency/acute care facilities. RLAI was well tolerated in the study population and the overall impression of buy risperdal online patients, primary caregivers and relatives to RLAI therapy was positive.

risperdal alcohol overdose 2016-04-25

The surface of the optimized formulation was smooth, and the drug changed its physical form in the presence of blends of polymers and upon fabrication of microspheres. The optimized formulation also released buy risperdal online the drug in vivo for a period of 90 days.

risperdal with alcohol 2016-02-11

The main buy risperdal online outcome measure was the disintegration and dissolution characteristics of the ODT formulations.

risperdal generic name 2017-12-29

Psychotic patients (n=88; initial BPRS buy risperdal online =93+/-5) were treated for 6 months with clinically chosen oral medication and then converted to biweekly RLAI for the first 6 months (6-6 months matched mirror comparison) and then for another 18 months. Clinical status in the two treatment periods and in the 18 months of follow-up was compared with measures including BPRS improvement (primary outcome), CGI variants and SF-36 ratings.

risperdal y alcohol 2015-07-31

To compare buy risperdal online the bioavailability of two risperidone formulations available in the Chilean market.

risperdal 40 mg 2015-12-29

This article will briefly familiarize the reader with the positive and negative signs and with the symptoms of Schizophrenia. After describing these signs and symptoms, the atypical anti-psychotic medications of Risperidone, Olanzapine and Clozapine will be reviewed as to their pharmacodynamics, dosages, and side effects in treating of these sign and symptoms. Within the scope of practice for advance practice nurses, the care being rendered and the implementation of those atypical drugs will be described. Thanks to their educational and buy risperdal online clinical background, the advanced practice nurses find themselves in a unique set of circumstances to positively contribute in the treatment and maintenance of Schizophrenia.

risperdal 2mg tablet 2017-12-22

Patients stabilized on compressed risperidone tablets transitioned to the equivalent dose of orally disintegrating risperidone tablets with continued maintenance of buy risperdal online effect, no decompensation and with minimal side effects.

risperdal tablets 2015-08-16

The objective of the present study was to determine whether an in vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC) can be established for polymeric microspheres that are equivalent in formulation composition but prepared with different manufacturing processes. Risperidone was chosen as a model therapeutic and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) with similar molecular weight as that used in the commercial product Risperdal® Consta® was used to prepare risperidone microspheres. Various manufacturing processes were investigated to produce the risperidone microspheres with similar drug loading (approx. 37%) but distinctly different physicochemical properties (e.g. porosity, particle size and particle size distribution). In vitro release of the risperidone microspheres was investigated using different release testing methods (such as sample-and-separate and USP apparatus 4). In vivo pharmacokinetic profiles of the risperidone microsphere formulations following intramuscular administration were determined using a rabbit model. Furthermore, the obtained pharmacokinetic profiles were deconvoluted using the Loo-Riegelman method and the calculated in vivo release was compared with the in vitro release of these microspheres. Level A IVIVCs were established and validated for the compositionally equivalent risperidone microspheres based on the in vitro release data obtained using USP apparatus 4. The developed IVIVCs demonstrated good predictability and were robust. These results showed that buy risperdal online the developed USP apparatus 4 method was capable of discriminating PLGA microspheres that are equivalent in formulation composition but with manufacturing differences and predicting their in vivo performance in the investigated animal model.

risperdal 50 mg 2016-09-28

Expected average costs/per patient treated were €5377 for PP-LAI, €6118 for RIS-LAI, and €6537 for OLZ-LAI. Respective QALYs were 0.817, 0.809 Bystolic Pill , and 0.811; ER visits were 0.127, 0.134, and 0.141; hospitalizations were 0.252, 0.298, and 0.289. Results were generally robust in sensitivity analyses. PP-LAI dominated RIS-LAI and OLZ-LAI in 90.2% and 92.1% of simulations, respectively. Results were insensitive to drug prices but sensitive to adherence and hospitalization rates.

risperdal anxiety medication 2017-09-23

The Czech Republic is faced with making choices between pharmaceutical products, including depot injectable antipsychotics. A pharmacoeconomic analysis was conducted to determine the cost-effectiveness of Zetia Pills atypical depots.

risperdal cost 2015-01-23

The purpose of this study was to develop a parenteral delivery system of Risperidone that would provide initial and extended drug release and thereby avoid the need for co-administration of oral tablets. Key formulation parameters utilized to achieve desired therapeutic levels in vivo were particle size and drug loading. Three poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microsphere formulations (Formulations A, B, and C) that encapsulated Risperidone were prepared by varying particle size (19-49 μm) and drug loading parameters (31-37%) but with a uniform bulk density (0.66-0.69)g/cc and internal porosity, utilizing the solvent extraction/evaporation method. The microspheres were characterized for drug content by HPLC, particle size by laser diffractometry, surface morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and in vivo drug release. In vivo studies were performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats, and levels of the active moiety (Risperidone and its metabolite, 9-hydroxyrisperidone) were assessed. In vivo release profiles from the three microsphere formulations were dependent on particle size and drug loading. The smaller sized microspheres (Formulation A) exhibited a large initial burst and a shorter duration of action, while the larger particles exhibited a smaller initial burst (Formulations B and C) but released drug for a much longer period in vivo. Extended duration of drug release was ascribed to higher drug content in the microspheres. A biweekly simulation of multiple dosing revealed that Formulation C, the selected formulation, with a high load and large particle size would provide adequate initial Suprax Generic Cost and maintenance levels of the active moiety (Risperidone and its metabolite, 9-hydroxyrisperidone). A comparison of biweekly dosing in vivo of Formulation C with the marketed product showed that at steady state, though average concentrations for both preparations were similar, the time taken to achieve steady state was much faster for Formulation C. The delay in attaining steady state with Risperdal Consta® was attributed to the 3 week latency in drug release from the microspheres and was in accordance with previous studies indicating a good corroboration with clinical findings. Calculated cumulative AUC (area under the curve) levels for Formulation C were similar to the Risperdal Consta®, though there were marked differences in AUC levels at the early time points. Comparison of Risperidal Consta® and Formulation C by multiple dosing in vivo experiments revealed that the marketed preparation demonstrated a substantial delay in providing an initial loading dose, continuous circulating levels, and attainment of steady state; all of which were observed rapidly with Formulation C. Findings from the current study strongly suggest that a microsphere dosage form of Risperidone can be formulated with an optimum particle size and drug loading to provide an initial bolus followed by maintenance levels, thereby eliminating combination therapy and improving patient compliance.

risperdal 4mg tab 2016-02-21

Structures and IR and Raman spectra of Risperidone in its neutral, mono- and di-protonated forms were calculated in gas phase by DFT-B3LYP/6-31G* level. Mono-protonation occurs at the nitrogen atom of the piperidine ring, while nitrogen atom of the pyrimidine ring is the preferred site for the second protonation. The lowest-energy structure of the mono-protonated Risperidone is characterized by formation of a strong seven-membered O(pyrimidine ring)⋯(+)H-N(piperidine ring) intramolecular hydrogen-bonded cycle. In the high-energy spectral region (3500-2500 cm(-1)), the bands of the N-H(+) stretches and the changes in wavenumbers and IR intensities of the Neurontin Usual Dosage C-H stretches near to the piperidine nitrogen atom (Bohlmann effect) are potentially useful to discriminate conformations and protonation states. Di-protonated structures can be identified by the presence of an isolated absorption peak located in the low-energy IR region (660-690 cm(-1)), attributed to the out-of-plane N-H(+)(pyrimidine ring) bending deformation. The most intense Raman band of neutral Risperidone placed at ca. 1500 cm(-1), assigned to C=C(pyrimidine ring) stretch + C=N(pyrimidine ring) stretch, can be a useful vibrational marker to distinguish the neutral from the protonated forms.

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For over 40 years, antipsychotic drugs have been used as long-term maintenance treatment to control symptoms and reduce relapse rates in patients with schizophrenia. 'First-generation' oral agents such as haloperidol and chlorpromazine are associated with high levels of unwanted neurological effects and poor rates of patient adherence.1,2 Long-acting ('depot') injections of antipsychotics were developed to try to improve adherence. 'Second-generation' antipsychotic agents Cefixime 100 Mg (also known as atypical antipsychotics) were introduced into clinical practice over 16 years ago. Although these agents have a lower propensity to cause extrapyramidal side effects, they are associated with a range of other unwanted effects (e.g. weight gain and its sequelae).1,3,4 Initially, second-generation agents were only available as orally administered medicines. Three long-acting injectable formulations of second-generation antipsychotics are now available in the UK: olanzapine embonate injection (ZypAdhera), paliperidone injection (Xeplion) and risperidone injection (Risperdal Consta). In this article we review the evidence for these agents and discuss the practical implications of their use.

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Long-acting risperidone (Risperdal Consta) is a novel, intramuscular formulation of the atypical antipsychotic risperidone, which has shown efficacy in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia.Long-acting risperidone is pharmacokinetically equivalent to and causes less plasma drug concentration fluctuation than the oral formulation. This novel formulation is an aqueous suspension of microspheres comprising risperidone and a biodegradable copolymer. Significant release of risperidone from the microspheres begins 3 weeks after the first injection: thus, administration of another antipsychotic is necessary during this period only. Steady-state plasma concentrations are reached after the fourth injection. Elimination is complete 7-8 weeks after the last injection.Long-acting risperidone 25 or 50mg every 2 weeks demonstrated significantly greater antipsychotic efficacy than placebo and equivalent efficacy to oral risperidone 2-6 mg/day in two randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, 12-week trials of patients with schizophrenia. Additionally, in one of these trials, improvements in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) were superior with long-acting risperidone than placebo. Compared with baseline, improvements in the symptoms of schizophrenia in stable patients were significant with long-acting risperidone 25 or 50mg (12-month trial) and 25, 37.5 or 50mg (12-week trial) every 2 weeks, in two noncomparative, multicentre trials. Patient satisfaction with their medication and patient HRQOL mental health scores improved significantly in the 12-month trial.Long-acting risperidone is generally well tolerated, with a low incidence of injection site pain and an otherwise similar profile of adverse effects to the oral formulation. The overall incidence Feldene 600 Mg of extrapyramidal disorders in clinical trials was low (< or= 10%) with similar, yet minimal, changes in extrapyramidal symptom severity between patients treated with long-acting risperidone, oral risperidone or placebo. Tardive dyskinesia was reported in the 12-month trial, in 0.7% of patients.

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