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To compare the efficacy and incidence of adverse effects of haloperidol with risperidone, olanzapine, and quetiapine in the treatment of delirium.
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To estimate changes in resource usage, hospitalization rates, and costs in actual practice in Sweden for schizophrenia patients after switching to long-acting injectable risperidone (Risperdal Consta).
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The preparation and investigation of sustained-release risperidone-encapsulated microspheres using erodible poly(D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) of lower molecular weight were performed and compared to that of commercial Risperdal Consta™ for the treatment of schizophrenia. The research included screening and optimizing of suitable commercial polymers of lower molecular weight PLGA50/50 or the blends of these PLGA polymers to prepare microspheres with zero-order release kinetics properties. Solvent evaporation method was applied here while studies of the risperidone loaded microsphere were carried out on its drug encapsulation capacity, morphology, particle size, as well as in vitro release profiles. Results showed that microspheres prepared using 50504A PLGA or blends of 5050-type PLGAs exerted spherical and smooth morphology, with a higher encapsulation efficiency and nearly zero-order release kinetics. These optimized microspheres showed great potential for a better depot preparation than the marketed Risperdal Consta™, which could further improve the patient compliance.
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Aggression is a common symptom of many psychiatric disorders including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, Tourette's disorder, mood disorders (including bipolar disorder), substance-related disorders, alcohol-related disorders, mental retardation, pervasive developmental disorders, intermittent explosive disorder and personality disorders (particularly antisocial personality disorder). Many forms of organic brain disorders may present with aggressive behavior. Aggression is common in some epileptic patients and some endocrinological diseases (e.g., diabetes and hyperthyroidism) may be associated with aggressive behavior. Physicians need to rule out many medical and psychiatric disorders before diagnosing aggressive behavior. A thorough diagnostic work up is the most important step in determining the nature of comorbid disorders associated with the behavioral problem. Structured interviews and rating scales completed by patients, parents, teachers and clinicians may aid the diagnosis and provide quantification for the change process related to treatment. The integration of medication, individual and family counseling, educational and psychosocial interventions including the school and community, may increase the effectiveness of interventions. Due to the common association of aggression and disruptive behaviors with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, psychostimulants including new generation long-acting medications and other nonstimulant medications are considered the drug of choice for managing aggressive behavior and disruptive behavior disorders. Severe aggressive behavior not responding to these medications may require the single or combined use of mood regulators including lithium and/or antispychotic medications. Drugs such as risperidone (Risperdal, Janssen-Cilag) have documented effectiveness and safety in children and adolescents, and can be used in treatment.
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Risperidone (Risperdal) is a recently released novel antipsychotic medication. It is different from the conventional neuroleptics, such as haloperidol, as it has both serotinergic and dopaminergic activity. It has a more tolerable side-effect profile compared with other antipsychotic medications. We review the literature regarding the side effects of risperidone use, describe a case of overdose with risperidone, and discuss the clinical sequelae and management of such an overdose.
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Antipsychotics, noradrenergic agents and HRT/CBIT are effective in reducing tics in children and young people with TS. The balance of benefits and harms favours the most commonly used medications: risperidone (Risperdal(®), Janssen), clonidine and aripiprazole (Abilify(®), Otsuka). Larger and better-conducted trials addressing important clinical uncertainties are required. Further research is needed into widening access to behavioural interventions through use of technology including mobile applications ('apps') and video consultation.
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Conduct disorder (CD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence. It is characterized by a variety of chronic antisocial behaviors, a repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior that violates the basic rights of others, major age-appropriate societal norms, or both. Aggressive behavior, lying, stealing, fire-setting, and running away from home and school are the most frequent manifestations of CD and are often accompanied by hyperactivity, impulsive behavior, explosiveness, cognitive and learning problems, and poor social skills. The rate of comorbidity is high, with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) being the most common; comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders are also seen, especially in adolescents. The diagnostic process should include the use of structured interviews, and scores from reliable and valid rating scales that cover all psychiatric disorders must be considered in the differential diagnosis, because CD alone is an extreme rarity and multiple disorders are almost always the rule rather than exception. Treatment should include parenting skills training combined with training of the child to improve his or her relationships with peers, academic performance, and compliance with legitimate demands of authority figures. The appropriate use of medications and integration of patient/parent education and support, as well as individual, group, family, residential, and inpatient treatment may be beneficial for patients with CD and ADHD. The article describes a number of psychopharmacological agents that are used in patients with CD with ADHD and other comorbid disorders. Drugs that may be useful include psychostimulants; atomoxetine (Strattera); antidepressants (imipramine [Tofranil], desipramine [Norpramin]); Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs); atypical antipsychotics such as risperidone (Risperdal); or mood regulators including lithium (Eskalith).
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Thirteen patients with schizophrenia received injections of 25, 50, or 75 mg of long-acting risperidone every 2 wk. Brain D2 receptor occupancy was assessed with [11C]raclopride 2 wk after the last (fifth) injection (day 71) in seven subjects and 2 wk after the third injection (day 44) in one subject. Stable plasma concentrations were reached after the third injection and steady-state concentrations of the active moiety (risperidone + 9-hydroxyrisperidone) after the fourth injection. Steady-state plasma concentrations were maintained for 4-5 wk after the last injection and then declined rapidly. After injections of 25, 50 and 75 mg on day 44 or day 71, D2 receptor occupancy ranged from 25-48%, 59-83% and 62-72% respectively, while plasma active-moiety levels ranged from 4.4-8.8, 15.0-31.1 and 22.5-26.3 ng/ml respectively. The results indicate that brain D2 receptor occupancy at steady state after injections of long-acting risperidone was in the range found in patients effectively treated with 2-6 mg of oral risperidone.
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The 90% confidence intervals for Test/Reference ratios of the pharmacokinetic parameters (Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-∞) of both risperidone and its active metabolite (9-hydroxyrisperidone) fell within the acceptable bioequivalence range (80 - 125%) according to ASEAN guideline.
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Risperidone is an atypical antipsychotic drug with potent serotonin and moderate dopamine antagonistic properties. It possesses good bioavailability following oral administration. Risperidone is primarily converted by the cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) and 3A4 (CYP3A4) enzymes to 9-hydroxyrisperidone, its active metabolite with equivalent potency to the parent compound.
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Patients with psychoses/schizophrenia using atypical antipsychotics in tablet form perceive generic versions of their antipsychotics as being significantly different. This perceived difference lowers their intention of continuing to take the medication, thus possibly jeopardizing treatment outcome. Caution with the generic substitution of atypical antipsychotics in the pharmacy is therefore recommended. Generic substitution should take place only with the knowledge and agreement of the psychiatrist and the patient.
To determine the attitudes of patients with psychoses/schizophrenia towards generic substitution of oral atypical antipsychotics in a pharmacy setting.
The purpose of this case report is to demonstrate the importance of a thorough patient interview. The case involves a man referred for physical therapy for a musculoskeletal dysfunction; during the patient interview, a psychiatric disorder was recognized that was later identified as schizophrenia. A secondary purpose is to educate physical therapists on the recognizable signs and symptoms of schizophrenia.Client description: A 19-year-old male patient with chronic shoulder, elbow, and wrist pain was referred for physical therapy. During the interview, the patient reported that he was receiving signals from an electronic device implanted in his body.Measures and outcome: The physical therapist's initial assessment identified a disorder requiring medical referral. Further management of the patient's musculoskeletal dysfunction was not appropriate at this time.
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This article will briefly familiarize the reader with the positive and negative signs and with the symptoms of Schizophrenia. After describing these signs and symptoms, the atypical anti-psychotic medications of Risperidone, Olanzapine and Clozapine will be reviewed as to their pharmacodynamics, dosages, and side effects in treating of these sign and symptoms. Within the scope of practice for advance practice nurses, the care being rendered and the implementation of those atypical drugs will be described. Thanks to their educational and clinical background, the advanced practice nurses find themselves in a unique set of circumstances to positively contribute in the treatment and maintenance of Schizophrenia.
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The number and quality of clinical trials is low and this downgrades the strength of the evidence and conclusions.
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Disintegration time differences for several olanzapine ODT forms were investigated. Risperdal M-Tab(®) was included as a non-olanzapine ODT comparator.
Two new cases are presented with delusions of parasitosis. Both were women, one middle-aged and one elderly, and exhibited classic symptoms of parasites and "strings" in the skin indicative of Morgellons disease. Each had an additional psychiatric disorder: drug addiction to cocaine and senile dementia. They also illustrate the difficulty encountered by the dermatologist in providing adequate therapy because of resistance to psychiatric referral as well as to standard accepted medication. Newer psychotropics, such as risperdal and lexapro, show promise in helping these patients and add to the therapeutic armamentarium of pimozide.
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Risperidone long-acting injectable (RLAI) is the first long-acting formulation of an atypical antipsychotic introduced into clinical practice. RLAI combines the benefits of atypical antipsychotic agents with an extended duration of activity and is intended for long-term management of schizophrenia. This study evaluated the use of RLAI as part of a long-term management strategy in patients with an acute episode of schizophrenia.
It has been suggested that atypical antipsychotic drugs (A-APDs) other than clozapine may be effective to improve positive symptoms in some patients with treatment resistant schizophrenia (TRS), if both the dose is higher, and the duration of the trial longer, than those which have been ineffective in non-TRS (NTRS) patients. This hypothesis was tested with long acting injectable risperidone (Risperdal Consta®, RLAI). One hundred sixty TRS patients selected for persistent moderate-severe delusions or hallucinations, or both, were randomized to RLAI, 50 or 100mg biweekly, in a six month, outpatient, double-blind, multicenter trial. We hypothesized that RLAI, 100mg, would be more effective than RLAI, 50mg. However, both doses produced clinically significant and equivalent improvement in PANSS Total, Positive, and Negative subscale scores, as well as key cognitive, global and functional measures, with increasing response during the course of the study, confirming the value of longer clinical trial duration for patients with TRS, but not superiority of the higher dose. The overall response rate was comparable to that previously reported for clozapine and high dose olanzapine, another A-APD, in TRS. Both doses of RLAI were equally well tolerated, producing minimal extrapyramidal side effects and few drop outs. Plasma levels of the active moiety, risperidone+9-hydroxyrisperidone, during treatment with RLAI 100mg, were comparable to those for 6-8 mg/day oral risperidone, which have not been effective in TRS. Further study of RLAI, ≥ 50-100mg biweekly, should compare it with clozapine and oral risperidone in TRS, with duration of treatment ≥ six months.
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To review the efficacy and tolerability of risperidone as treatment for mania.
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Risperidone is an atypical anti-psychotic, available in various formulations.
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Psychotic patients (n=88; initial BPRS=93+/-5) were treated for 6 months with clinically chosen oral medication and then converted to biweekly RLAI for the first 6 months (6-6 months matched mirror comparison) and then for another 18 months. Clinical status in the two treatment periods and in the 18 months of follow-up was compared with measures including BPRS improvement (primary outcome), CGI variants and SF-36 ratings.
Outcome measures demonstrated mean improvement in problematic behaviors equaling one standard deviation, and thus current evidence supports the effectiveness of risperidone in managing behavioral problems and symptoms for children with ASD. Although Risperdal has several adverse effects, most are manageable or extremely rare. An exception is rapid weight gain, which is common and can create significant health problems. Overall, for most children with autism and irritable and aggressive behavior, risperidone is an effective psychopharmacological treatment.