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Rulide (Roxythromycin)
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Rulide

Generic Rulide is used to treat infections in different parts of the body caused by bacteria (acute pharyngitis (sore throat and discomfort when swallowing), tonsillitis, sinusitis, acute bronchitis (infection of the bronchi causing coughing), pneumonia (lung infection characterised by fever, malaise, headache), skin and soft tissue infections, non gonoccocal urethritis, impetigo (bacterial infection causing sores on the skin).

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Dificid, Zmax, Biaxin XL, Zithromax

 

Also known as:  Roxythromycin.

Description

Generic Rulide belongs to macrolides group of antibiotics which are prescribed for treating serious bacterial infections such as acute pharyngitis (sore throat and discomfort when swallowing), tonsillitis, sinusitis, acute bronchitis (infection of the bronchi causing coughing), pneumonia (lung infection characterised by fever, malaise, headache), skin and soft tissue infections, non gonoccocal urethritis, impetigo (bacterial infection causing sores on the skin). It acts on the bacteria which causes the above mention bacterial infections caused by the bacteria. It kills completely or slows the growth of these sensitive bacteria in our body.

Generic name of Generic Rulide is Roxithromycin.

Rulide is also known as Roxithromycin, Roximycin, Biaxsig, Roxar, Surlid.

Brand name of Generic Rulide is Rulide.

Dosage

Take Generic Rulide by mouth with food.

If you have trouble swallowing the tablet whole, it may be crushed or chewed with a little water.

Swallow Generic Rulide tablets whole with a glass of water.

Generic Rulide should be taken at least 15 minutes before food or on an empty stomach (i.e. more than 3 hours after a meal).

Generic Rulide works best if you take it on an empty stomach.

For treating bacterial infections, Generic Rulide is usually taken for 5 to 10 days.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Rulide suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Generic Rulide and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 20 and 25 degrees C (68 and 77 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep in a tight, light-resistant container. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Rulide are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Generic Rulide if you are allergic to Generic Rulide components.

Try to be careful with Generic Rulide if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

It can be dangerous to stop Generic Rulide taking suddenly.

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Ninety-five AML patients receiving chemotherapy at Catholic Hemopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Center from March 1999 to July 1999 were randomly divided into the AP group (250 mg ciprofloxacin twice a day, 150 mg roxithromycin twice a day, 50 mg fluconazole once a day) and the control group for a prospective analysis.

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The anti-inflammatory changes observed in IL-10-deficient mice resulted from the efficacy of RXM as an immunosuppressant as well as from its efficacy as an antibiotic. According to our findings, RXM would seem to have significant potential as a preventive and/or therapeutic agent for IBD.

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The extensive use of veterinary drugs in livestock farming increases the risk that these compounds end up in the environment when manure is used as fertilizer. This study focuses on the fate of antibiotics in liquid manure tanks before the liquid manure is spread on fields. A 180-day degradation experiment of four commonly used antibiotics erythromycin, roxithromycin, salinomycin, and tiamulin in liquid manure was performed. The resulting half-lives during manure storage were calculated as follows: 41 days for erythromycin, 130 days for roxithromycin, and 6 days for salinomycin. A first-order degradation rate was calculated for these three antibiotics. The concentration of tiamulin remained unchanged during the entire experiment. No degradation of tiamulin was detected even after 180 days.

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We measured the levels of interleukin (IL) 1 beta, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and IL-8 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and sera of patients with diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB) before and after administration of erythromycin or roxithromycin. The pretreatment levels of IL-1 beta and IL-8 were significantly higher in the BALF of patients with DPB than in the BALF of patients with sarcoidosis and controls. The tumor necrosis factor alpha level was also higher than in controls, but not statistically significant. There was a significant correlation between percentage of neutrophils and IL-8 level in the BALF of DPB patients (r = 0.509; p < 0.05) on the one hand and between IL-1 beta and IL-8 on the other (r = 0.476; p < 0.04). Treatment for 1-24 months significantly reduced BALF levels of IL-1 beta and IL-8 of DPB patients in parallel with a reduction in BALF neutrophils. The serum level of IL-8 of DPB patients was higher, albeit insignificant, than that of controls and significantly lower than that in the BALF of the same patients (p = 0.0088). Serum IL-1 beta was below the detection limit. In addition, the concentration of IL-8 in alveolar macrophages obtained from 2 volunteers before and after oral erythromycin administration also decreased ex vivo. Our results indicate that IL-8 induces the migration of neutrophils to inflammatory sites. It is possible that the macrolides impair production and/or secretion of these cytokines, ultimately reducing neutrophil accumulation in the airway.

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The susceptibility of 180 clinical isolates of Streptococcus pyrogenes from six regions of The Netherlands to the macrolide antibiotics azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin and roxithromycin was analysed. The results of a microbroth MIC method, the E-test method and a disk diffusion assay were compared, and the MBC determined. In addition, the susceptibility to erythromycin of 436 clinical isolates of S. pyogenes from the Leiden region was determined. The microbroth MIC90s of azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin and roxithromycin for group A streptococci were < or = 0.5 mg/L. Erythromycin had the lowest MIC90 (0.09 mg/L). The MIC data obtained with the E-test method suggested that clarithromycin and erythromycin had slightly higher anti-streptococcal activity than azithromycin and roxithromycin in vitro. MICs obtained with the E-test were lower than those found with the microbroth method. Only minor discrepancies were observed among the three methods. The MBC50 for both clarithromycin and erythromycin was 0.75 mg/L and 5.0 mg/L for azithromycin and roxithromycin. None of the 180 strains and two of the collection of 436 strains (0.5%) were resistant to erythromycin and the other macrolides tested; MICs ranged from 1 to 16 mg/L. The erythromycin-resistant strains showed an inducible type of macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLS) resistance.

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Sub-MIC levels of macrolides down-regulate bacterial virulence factors and suppress inflammatory processes. The ability of macrolides to reduce the production of pneumolysin has been shown to explain the discrepancy between in vitro resistance and outcomes with macrolides against macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. In this study, we determined whether the ability of macrolides to regulate inflammatory processes is beneficial for innate resistance to macrolide-resistant pneumococci in a murine pneumonia model. Among the macrolides tested, only roxithromycin did not affect in vitro pneumococcal virulence factors at sub-MIC levels. Roxithromycin (1.25 to 10 mg/kg of body weight/day) was administered to mice by oral gavage for 3 days before infection with a resistant strain of S. pneumoniae. We evaluated the efficacy of the treatment by determining mouse survival curves and by measuring bacterial burdens and several inflammatory parameters in the airways. Pneumolysin and PspA in infected lungs were examined by Western blot assay. Roxithromycin at doses of > or =5 mg/kg/day increased the median survival time and retarded bacteremia without suppressing the production of pneumolysin and PspA in infected lungs. This treatment reduced matrix metalloproteinase-7 expression and activation and keratinocyte-derived chemokine production in the lungs, while it increased mononuclear cell responses in the lungs, with enhanced bacterial clearance. Concentrations of roxithromycin in plasma and tissues were below the MICs for the inoculated strain during infection. The treatment also reduced inflammatory responses to killed pneumococci in the lungs. These results suggest that the modification by roxithromycin of airway inflammatory responses, including those of matrix metalloproteinase-7 and phagocytes, is beneficial for initial resistance to macrolide-resistant pneumococci.

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Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing systemic antibiotics with placebo for chronic rhinosinusitis in adults.

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The purpose of this study was to develop a dosage form that was easy to administer and provides rapid release of the drug roxithromycin, using modified polysaccharides as rapidly disintegrating excipients. Modified polysaccharides co grinded treated agar (C-TAG) and co grinded treated guar gum (C-TGG) were prepared by subjecting pure polysaccharides namely agar and guar gum respectively to sequential processes of wetting, drying and co grinding with mannitol (1:1). The modified polysaccharides were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy and Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy and evaluated for particle size distribution, derived properties, swelling index and biodegradability. Optimization studies based on 2(2) factorial designs, with friability and disintegration time as response parameters were used to formulate orodispersible tablets of roxithromycin and evaluated for wetting time, water absorption ratio and in vitro drug release at salivary pH 6.4 and physiological pH 7.4. Results indicated that lower levels of modified polysaccharides namely C-TAG in F(3) and C-TGG in F(7) and higher levels of microcrystalline cellulose, exhibited least disintegration times without friability concerns. In vitro release of optimized formulations F(3) and F(7,) both at salivary pH and physiological pH was found to be more than 90% within 30 min as compared to 27.82% at the same time point of conventional formulation. Stability studies carried out as per ICH Q1A guidelines suggested the formulations to be stable for a period of 6 months. Thus the approach of using modified polysaccharides as fast disintegrating excipient can be used to formulate a stable orodispersible formulation.

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Twenty-two healthy women participated in a study to determine whether roxithromycin (a new macrolide antibiotic agent) obtunds the activity of a triphasic oral contraceptive. The duration of the study was four menstrual cycles. Medication was given as follows: (1) cycle 1, no medication to demonstrate ovulation; (2) cycle 2, triphasic oral contraceptive daily to suppress ovulation; (3) cycle 3, triphasic oral contraceptive daily plus roxithromycin, 150 mg b.i.d.; and (4) cycle 4, triphasic oral contraceptive daily plus rifampin, 300 mg daily. Sonography of the ovaries was performed on day 13, and serum progesterone was measured on day 21 of each cycle. Elevated progesterone indicated ovulation. The presence of a maturing follicle supported this finding. All volunteers ovulated in the first cycle and no volunteers ovulated in the second and third cycles. However, 11 women ovulated when rifampin and the triphasic oral contraceptive were given concomitantly. The findings suggest there is no reason to believe that roxithromycin interferes with the efficacy of oral contraceptives.

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To assess the impact of two interventions on computer-generated prescriptions for antibiotics--(i) an educational intervention to reduce automatic computerised ordering of repeat antibiotic prescriptions, and (ii) a legislative change prohibiting the "no brand substitution" box being checked as a default setting in prescribing software--and to compare these findings with those of a similar survey we conducted in 2000.

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Macrolide treatment has been reported to lower the risk of recurrent ischaemic heart disease. The influence of macrolides on the expansion rate of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) remains unknown. The aim was to investigate the effect of roxithromycin on the expansion rate of small AAAs.

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The growth-inhibiting and binary joint effects of 12 antibacterial agents on the freshwater green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (Korschikov) Hindák were investigated over 72-h exposures. The toxicity values (the median inhibitory concentration value, in micromoles) in decreasing order of sensitivity were triclosan (0.0018)>triclocarban (0.054)>roxithromycin (0.056)>clarithromycin (0.062)>tylosin (0.20)>tetracycline (2.25)>chlortetracycline (3.49)>norfloxacin (5.64)>sulfamethoxazole (7.50)>ciprofloxacin (20.22)>sulfamethazine (31.26)>trimethoprim (137.78). Several of these antibacterial compounds would be toxic at the micrograms per liter concentrations reported in surface waters and sewage effluents. Simple additive effects were observed in binary mixtures of sulfonamides, and most tylosin, triclosan, or triclocarban combinations. Potentially synergistic effects were observed in binary mixtures of the same class, such as macrolides, tetracyclines, and fluoroquinolones, as well as in some combined drugs, such as trimethoprim and sulfonamides or tylosin and tetracyclines. Potentially antagonistic effects were only observed between tylosin and triclocarban, triclosan and norfloxacin, and triclocarban and norfloxacin. Although present at low concentrations in the aquatic environment, mixtures of these antibacterial agents can potentially affect algal growth in freshwater systems due to their combined action.

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In order to investigate the susceptibility of mixed infection of Ureaplasma Urealyticum (UU) and Mycoplasma Hominis (MH) to 7 kinds of antimicrobial agents and comparison with that of UU infection in NGU patients, the in vitro susceptibility was determined by using microdilution method. The positive results were analyzed. The results showed that the sequence of susceptibility to 7 kinds of antimicrobial agents for both UU infection group and UU-MH mixed infection group was almost the same from the highest susceptibility to the lowest accordingly: Josamycin, Doxycycline, Minocycline, Sparfloxacin, Roxithromycin, Ofloxacin and Azithromycin. The total drug resistance rate for UU-MH mixed infection group (97.67%) was significantly higher than that for UU infection group (44.67%, P < 0.01). The highest drug resistance rate in UU group and UU-MH mixed infection group was 31.33% (Ofloxacin) and 90.48% (Azithromycin) respectively. UU-MH mixed infection showed an increased drug resistance and changes of drug resistance spectrum.

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We report a case of bronchiolitis obliterans associated with Stevens-Johnson syndrome. A 59-year-old man presented with respiratory distress that gradually worsened over 3 months. He had been diagnosed with Stevens-Johnson syndrome 3 months before admission. He had no history of previous airway disease. On physical examination, expiratory breathing sounds were not audible, and a chest X-ray revealed a hyperinflated lung. A pulmonary function test indicated a severe obstructive pattern. Computed tomography scans of inspiratory and expiratory phases of respiration showed oligemia and air trapping, and both were more prominent on expiration view than on inspiration view. The pathogenesis of bronchiolitis obliterans associated with Stevens-Johnson syndrome is largely unknown.

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A rational choice of an antimicrobial agent must take into account not only the activity against the specific pathogen but also any possible negative or positive effects on the host defense system. Rokitamycin (RKM) is an orally active 16-membered-ring macrolide; there are no reports of specific investigations of these activities in the literature. Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) from healthy adult donors were incubated in medium alone or in medium containing increasing concentrations (1, 10, 50, 100 micrograms/ml) of RKM. In unwashed PMNs phagocytosis was unaffected by RKM, while luminol-amplified chemiluminescence (LACL) was significantly reduced by 50 and 100 micrograms/ml. When PMNs were washed after incubation phagocytosis was not modified but LACL was significantly restored. These characteristics of RKM were similar to those of roxithromycin and can be put in correlation with the cellular/extracellular ratio (30.5 for PMNs and 120 for macrophages) that was similar to that of roxithromycin but higher than of other macrolides. The molecular mechanisms by which high concentrations of these two macrolides produce such an impairment of LACL are still unclear. RKM has no unwanted effects on PMNs because the serum concentrations that can be obtained with the highest doses administered to man are lower than the concentrations which did not affect PMN functions in our study.

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High levels of antibodies to oral anaerobic bacteria have been found in the serum and synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Macrolide antibiotics are active against oral anaerobic bacteria. The aim of this trial was to evaluate the efficacy of roxithromycin in patients with RA who had not responded to disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs.

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Clinical isolates of M. catarrhalis (n = 314) were collected from 11 large medical centers in Taiwan between 2001 and 2004. β-Lactamase production tests were performed. The MICs for 13 different oral antibiotics were calculated using the agar dilution method. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed for 18 randomly selected high-level ampicillin-resistant (BRO-1 β-lactamase-positive, MIC ≥ 32 μg/mL) isolates to investigate their genetic relatedness.

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Moxifloxacin, a new respiratory quinolone, was compared with the macrolides azithromycin, clarithromycin and roxithromycin in a cohort study to assess clinical, safety and health-related outcomes of these antimicrobials in general practice settings. In total 332 patients with acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (AECB) each received one of the antimicrobial agents for a standard short course of therapy. Random allocation of therapeutic agents occurred by centre, not individuals, and the drugs were prescribed in an open manner. In addition to clinical evaluation by their physicians, all patients kept daily diaries to assess AECB symptoms over the study period, therapy received and quality of life. The overall clinical response rate was 96% and all four regimens were well tolerated. After 14 days there were no significant differences between the study groups, but analyses of patients' daily evaluations of certain AECB specific symptoms showed a faster response rate in the moxifloxacin group.

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Of 20 pregnant women exposed to roxithromycin during early pregnancy, information was obtained from 17 cases. The median dose of roxithromycin to which pregnant women were exposed was 300 mg/day (range 300-450 mg/day) and exposure occurred at a mean of 4.0 (range 2.8-17.6) weeks. Mean gestational age at delivery was 39.2 weeks in the exposed group and 39.4 in the controls (p = 0.6). Birth weight of babies exposed in utero to roxithromycin was not different to controls. We did not observe any major malformation in the exposed group whereas three (1.8%) occurred in the control group.

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HMR 3647 (RU 66647) and HMR 3004 (RU 64004), two ketolides, had MICs at which 50% of the strains are inhibited (MIC50s) of 0.06 to 0.125 microg/ml and MIC90s of 16.0 microg/ml against 352 anaerobes. MIC50s and MIC90s of erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, and roxithromycin were 0.5 to 2.0 microg/ml and 32.0 to >64.0 microg/ml, respectively. HMR 3647 and HMR 3004 were more active against non-Bacteroides fragilis-group anaerobes (other than Fusobacterium mortiferum, Fusobacterium varium, and Clostridium difficile).

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HMR 3647 (telithromycin), a new ketolide, is active on intracellular pathogens. It was previously demonstrated that it inhibits superoxide anion production in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, at concentrations which inhibit 50% of the control response of about 55 microg/ml (5 min) to 30 microg/ml (30 min); these values are similar to those obtained with roxithromycin, a classical erythromycin A derivative. Here we investigated whether these drugs modified the bactericidal activity of human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) on four strains of Staphylococcus aureus with different profiles of susceptibility to macrolides and ketolides. We found that the main factor involved in killing was the antibacterial potency of the drugs, although combinations of antibiotics with PMN were slightly more active than each component used alone against two of the four strains. In addition, high concentrations of the drugs, which impaired the PMN oxidative burst, did not impair PMN bactericidal activity. Likewise, some cytokines which enhance PMN oxidative metabolism did not modify PMN bactericidal activity in the presence or absence of macrolides or ketolides. These data suggest that oxygen-independent mechanisms contribute to the bactericidal activity of PMN on these strains of S. aureus. Both live and/or heat-killed bacteria impaired the uptake of telithromycin and roxithromycin (but not that of levofloxacin, a quinolone) in a concentration-dependent manner, owing to a modulation of PMN transductional systems involved in the activation of the macrolide carrier.

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The macrolide antibiotics azithromycin, roxithromycin and spiramycin were examined in parallel for in vivo activity against Toxoplasma gondii. Azithromycin was considerably more active in protecting mice against death due to acute toxoplasmosis even when the other two antibiotics were used at twice its dose. The higher activity of azithromycin prompted a further examination of its activity against five different strains of Toxoplasma gondii, including two isolated from patients with AIDS. Although variable degrees of protection against death were noted, treatment with 200 mg/kg/day for ten days was sufficient to promote survival of 100% of mice infected with inocula as high as 1 x 10(5) tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii. 90% of mice inoculated with 1 x 10(5) tachyzoites of strain MO, isolated from an AIDS patient, and treated orally with 200 mg/kg/day for ten days survived the infection whereas only 40% of mice infected with the same inoculum of the SOU strain, also isolated from an AIDS patient, survived. Tissue concentrations of azithromycin were examined in treated infected and non-infected mice. In both groups of mice azithromycin attained high concentrations in liver, spleen and heart, which exceeded concurrent serum levels by 25- to 200-fold. The concentrations in the brain were almost tenfold higher than the concentrations in serum after treatment with 200 mg/kg/day for ten days. Moreover, the concentrations in brains of infected mice were approximately two-fold higher than in brains of non-infected mice.

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To investigate the impact of treatment with low dose roxithromycin on clinical symptoms and CT scores in patients with stable bronchiectasis.

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In this study, we proposed a rapid and simple method for the preparation of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) by emulsion polymerization. The polymerization process was accelerated by microwave heating, and the reaction time was greatly shortened. The obtained MIPs were spherical in shape and exhibited a uniform morphology. The MIPs with selectivity and high affinity to florfenicol were successfully applied as solid-phase extraction materials to extract and clean up the florfenicol in milk, followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. The parameters affecting the performance of extraction and LC-MS analysis were evaluated. The detection limit of the method was 4.1ngmL(-1). The relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day were in the range of 3.5-4.7% and 3.9-7.5%, respectively.

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Recent reports have shown that roxithromycin possesses significant activity against atypical mycobacteria, including the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), and that its extracellular anti-MAC activity is further enhanced in two- or three-drug combinations with ethambutol, rifampin, amikacin, ofloxacin, and clofazimine. In accordance with the above data, the anti-MAC potential of roxithromycin used alone and in combination with the above-mentioned antituberculous drugs was screened intracellularly against five clinical MAC isolates (from both human immunodeficiency virus-positive and human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients), phagocytized by human monocyte-derived macrophages. The results showed that roxithromycin used alone and within clinically achievable levels was active against all of the MAC isolates tested. Screening of two-drug combinations showed that both rifampin and clofazimine further increased the intracellular activity of roxithromycin against all five isolates by 35 to 80% (ethambutol, ofloxacin, and amikacin resulted in increased intracellular activity against one, two, and four isolates, respectively). For the three-drug combinations, the combination of roxithromycin plus ethambutol used with rifampin or clofazimine was the most uniformly active against all five MAC isolates, with activity increases of 42 to 90%, followed by roxithromycin plus ethambutol used with amikacin, which resulted in activity increases of 15 to 90%. The overall level of intracellular killing after 5 days of drug addition, in comparison with growth in untreated controls, varied from 1 to 3 log units depending on the individual MAC isolate and/or drug combination used.

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P. aeruginosa incubated for 6 days in a saline-teflon system formed biofilm on the surfaces of the teflon piece. The biofilm were characteried by dense colonization of bacteria and thick membranous structure that covered the colonies, it was observed with a scanning electron microscopy. CPFX, CAM, ROX and Herba Andrographitis were added to the biofilm bacteria.

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In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 56 patients with recent-onset ReA [enteroarthritis, n = 47 (84%); uroarthritis, n = 9 (16%)] were randomly assigned to receive 200 mg ofloxacin and 150 mg roxithromycin twice daily (Combi, n = 26) or placebo (n = 30) for 3 months. Patients were assessed at entry, at 2 weeks, and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 months. The primary outcome measure was recovery from arthritis at 6 months, and secondary outcome measures were swollen and tender joint counts, Ritchie index, serum CRP level, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and joint pain on a visual analogue scale at 6 months. After 6 months, 20 patients [77% (95% CI 56-91)] in Combi and 20 patients [67% (95% CI 47-83)] in placebo group had recovered from arthritis (p = 0.55), and all clinical and laboratory variables showed improvement with no statistically significant difference between groups. Adverse events were reported by 62% of the patients in the Combi versus 40% in the placebo group. In conclusion, outcome of ReA was good in both treatment groups. Three-month treatment with the combination of ofloxacin and roxithromycin had no advantage over placebo in patients with recent-onset ReA.

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This paper describes a simple spectrofluorometric method for the analysis of 4 macrolide antibiotics. The method is based on the condensation of 10% (w/v) malonic acid and acetic acid anhydride under the catalytic effect of tertiary amine groups of the studied macrolides. The relative fluorescence intensity of the condensation product was measured at 397/452 nm (excitation/emission) for azithromycin dihydrate and at 392/445 nm (for clarithromycin, erythromycin ethylsuccinate, and roxithromycin. All variables affecting the reaction conditions were studied. The effects of potential interference due to common excipients, such as starch, lactose, sucrose, glucose, gum acacia, and magnesium stearate, as well as trimethoprim and sulfisoxazole acetyl formulated in primomycin capsules and pediazole oral suspension, respectively, were studied. A validation study for the proposed method was carried out according to U.S. Pharmacopeia 2002. The linearity ranges were 3-80 ng/mL for all of the cited macrolides. The limit of detection range was 0.74-1.20 ng/mL, while the limit of quantitation range was 2.47-4.02 ng/mL. The method was applied for the assay of the studied macrolides in pure pharmaceutical formulations and in spiked biological fluids. Results were compared with those obtained from the reported method, where calculated t- and F-values indicated high accuracy and good precision for the proposed method.

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Results of the study confirm the suitability of the rapid broth micro dilution (MIC) method as a simple yet reliable method to assay for the drug susceptibility of nontuberculosis mycobacterium.

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The performance of a membrane bioreactor operating in a sequential mode (SMBR) using an external flat-plate membrane was investigated. After 200 days of operation, a single addition of 1 g L(-1) Powdered Activated Carbon (PAC) was added directly into the mixed liquor in order to enhance the simultaneous removal of nutrients and pharmaceutical micropollutants from synthetic urban wastewater. Throughout the entire operation (288 days), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal efficiencies were up to 95%, ammonium nitrogen removal was maintained over 70-80%, whereas phosphorus removal achieved only high values (around 80%) after PAC addition. During the operation of the SMBR without PAC addition, micropollutants which exerted a more recalcitrant behaviour were carbamazepine, diazepam, diclofenac and trimethoprim, with no significant removal. On the other hand, moderate removals (42-64%) were observed for naproxen and erythromycin, whereas ibuprofen, roxithromycin and fluoxetine were removed in the range of 71-97%. The addition of PAC into the aeration tank was a successful tool to improve the removal of the more recalcitrant compounds up to 85%. The highest removal with PAC was observed for carbamazepine, trimethoprim as well as for roxithromycin, erythromycin and fluoxetine. The latter four compounds have amine groups and pKa in the range 6.7-10.1, thus the interaction between PAC and the positively charged amino groups might be the cause of their comparatively better results. Microbial ecology present in the biomass showed a higher abundance of Accumulibacter phosphatis as well as the ammonium oxidizing bacteria belonging to the genus Nitrosomonas after PAC addition.

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rulide with alcohol 2015-01-01

In the present study, we demonstrated the efficacy of low-dose, long-term therapy with erythromycin and an erythromycin-related compound, roxithromycin, in patients with chronic lower respiratory tract disease including diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB), and investigated the anti-inflammatory action of such drugs. Treatment significantly improved the mean value of respiratory function tests and arterial blood gas analysis, except for PaCO2 in the erythromycin-treated group and residual volume/total lung capacity (RV/TLC) and PaCO2 in the roxithromycin-treated group. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) analysis revealed that neutrophils had accumulated in the pre-treatment lavage fluid, compared with that of healthy volunteers, and the levels of neutrophil chemotactic activity (NCA), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) in BAL fluid of the patients were significantly higher than those in healthy volunteers. Macrolide therapy caused a significant reduction in the percentage of neutrophils, NCA and mean IL-1beta, IL-8 and LTB4 concentration in BAL fluid of the patients. The quantitative expression of Mac---1 on peripheral neutrophils significantly increased, compared with that in healthy volunteers, before therapy and significantly decreased after therapy. We also evaluated the in vitro inhibitory effects of macrolides on IL---8 production by vitamin D3-induced human monocytic cell line THP-1 cells when stimulated with lipopolysaccharide and serum. The present study has also provided evidence for T-cell activation in BAL fluid of the patients, and a significantly reduced number of activated T-cells was observed after macrolide therapy. These results indicate that macrolides may act by reducing pulmonary inflammation through reduction of neutrophil accumulation, as a consequence of reduced chemotactic gradient and cytokine production at the inflammatory sites in the lung or of reduced neutrophil adhesion molecules in the circulation. Ultimately the mechanism may involve suppression of neutrophil oxidative and proteolytic products. Lymphocytes are important cellular components of bronchial inflammation, in addition to neutrophils, in this disease, and macrolide antibiotics may also act as an immunosuppressant to inhibit T-cell activation. This is believed buy rulide online to be one reason why macrolides are effective in chronic lower respiratory tract disease.

rulide drug interactions 2016-06-03

Enucleated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN cytoplasts), which have no nuclei and only a few granules, retain many of the functions of intact neutrophils. To better define the mechanisms and intracellular sites of antimicrobial agent accumulation in human neutrophils, we studied the antibiotic uptake process in PMN cytoplasts. Entry of eight radiolabeled antibiotics into PMN cytoplasts was determined by means of a velocity gradient centrifugation technique. Uptakes of these antibiotics by cytoplasts were compared with our findings in intact PMN. Penicillin entered both intact PMN and cytoplasts poorly. Metronidazole achieved a concentration in cytoplasts (and PMN) equal to or somewhat less than the extracellular concentration. Chloramphenicol, a lipid-soluble drug, and trimethoprim were concentrated three- to fourfold by cytoplasts. An unusual finding was that trimethroprim, unlike other tested antibiotics, was accumulated by cytoplasts more readily at 25 degrees C than buy rulide online at 37 degrees C. After an initial rapid association with cytoplasts, cell-associated imipenem declined progressively with time. Clindamycin and two macrolide antibiotics (roxithromycin, erythromycin) were concentrated 7- to 14-fold by cytoplasts. This indicates that cytoplasmic granules are not essential for accumulation of these drugs. Adenosine inhibited cytoplast uptake of clindamycin, which enters intact phagocytic cells by the membrane nucleoside transport system. Roxithromycin uptake by cytoplasts was inhibited by phagocytosis, which may reduce the number of cell membrane sites available for the transport of macrolides. These studies have added to our understanding of uptake mechanisms for antibiotics which are highly concentrated in phagocytes.

rulide paediatric dose 2015-11-30

detection of urogenital mycoplasmas using a commercial kit, Mycofast Evolution2 (International Microbio) from children's urinary buy rulide online tract infections (UTI).

dose of rulide 2017-10-27

The clinical and immunoregulatory effects of long-term macrolide antibiotic therapy for patients with chronic lower respiratory tract infections (CLRTI) were investigated. Clinical parameters and neutrophil chemotactic mediators in the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) of CLRTI patients (n = 10) were examined before and after 3 months oral administration of roxithromycin (RXM). The in vitro effects of RXM were also examined on the release of these mediators from alveolar macrophages (AM) and neutrophils. Arterial oxygen tension (p<0.05), vital capacity (VC) (p<0.001), %VC (p<0.05) and forced buy rulide online expiratory volume in one second (p<0.01) were improved after RXM treatment, but airway bacteria were not eradicated. Among the mediators, the levels of interleukin (IL)-8, neutrophil elastase (NE) and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) were higher in ELF than in plasma of CLRTI patients and they decreased after RXM treatment (n = 7, p<0.05 for each). RXM concentrations were significantly increased in the bronchoalveolar lavage cells of the treated patients. In in vitro experiments, RXM showed inhibitory effects on IL-8 release from AM and neutrophils. In conclusion, interleukin-8, neutrophil elastase and leukotriene B4 contribute to the neutrophilic inflammation in the airways of chronic lower respiratory tract infection patients and the clinical effects of roxithromycin may, in part, be attributable to the suppression of excess release of the chemotactic mediators from inflammatory cells.

rulide dose 2015-09-24

We included one study involving 64 patients. We assessed the overall risk of bias in this study as high. The study reported that roxithromycin could reduce the mean response score of patients by 0.73 points on a 1 to 6-point scale (95% CI 0.32 to 1.14, P = 0.0005) compared to those on placebo at three months after the start of treatment. This study also used sinonasal outcome test-20 (SNOT-20) comparing between pre and post-treatment at six, 12 and 24 weeks. The mean buy rulide online change in SNOT-20 from baseline at 24 weeks in the roxithromycin group was not significantly more than in the placebo group, at 0.27 points (95% CI -0.24 to 0.78, P = 0.30) on a 0 to 5-point scale.

rulide review 2016-02-12

There were no changes in susceptibility of H. pylori to amoxycillin and tetracycline and there was a slight decline in resistance to metronidazole. In buy rulide online contrast, there was a stepwise 4-fold increase from 3.8 to 15.7% in the number of isolates resistant to clarithromycin and a similar increase in the mean minimum inhibitory concentration of clarithromycin during the 5-year period of observation. There was no change in overall macrolide consumption in Australia over this and the preceding 3 years. However, the pattern changed, with erythromycin usage being halved and being replaced by roxithromycin and clarithromycin.

rulide cost 2015-06-03

The microdilution MICs of HMR 3647, erythromycin A, azithromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin, and pristinamycin against 50/90% of 249 Haemophilus influenzae and 50 Moraxella catarrhalis isolates were 2/4, 0.06/0.125; 8/16, 0.25/0.25; 2/4, 0.06/0.125; 16/16, 0.25/0.25; 32/>32, 1/2; and 2/4, 0.5/ buy rulide online 0.5 microg/ml. Azithromycin was bactericidal against all 10 H. influenzae and 3 of 5 M. catarrhalis isolates and HMR 3647, erythromycin A, clarithromycin, roxithromycin, and pristinamycin were bacteriostatic, against all 15 strains after 24 h at the MIC.

rulide pediatric dose 2016-06-16

The changes in susceptibility to erythromycin of recently isolated strains could be due to the widespread use buy rulide online of macrolides in Chile.

generic rulide tablet 2017-02-21

An economic evaluation comparing roxithromycin 150mg twice daily and cefaclor 250mg thrice daily in the treatment of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) was undertaken as part of a randomised clinical trial in New Zealand general practice. The observed statistically significant difference in adverse events, withdrawal rates and extra treatment courses in favour of roxithromycin in the clinical study was translated into medical cost savings. Treatment failures, withdrawals or adverse buy rulide online events resulted in additional costs for 11 of 120 (9%) patients receiving roxithromycin and 19 of 118 (16%) patients receiving cefaclor. In these cases (treatment failures, withdrawals, adverse effects) additional antibiotics and general practitioner visits were required 3 times more often and the cost of additional medication for treating failure or adverse effects was 3 times higher for patients treated with cefaclor than for patients receiving roxithromycin. The total direct medical cost per patient treated with roxithromycin was $NZ9.37 lower (on an incremental basis) than for patients treated with cefaclor, despite a higher drug acquisition cost. An estimate of $NZ656 000 per year in total savings in direct medical costs could be made in New Zealand if roxithromycin were to replace all cefaclor prescriptions in the treatment of LRTI.

rulide 500 mg 2015-07-03

We have studied ciliary beat frequency (CBF) of rabbit cultured tracheal epithelium by a photoelectric method in-vitro. Addition of erythromycin and roxithromycin increased CBF in a dose-dependent fashion, whereas clarithromycin was without effect. The rank order potency of macrolide was roxithromycin > erythromycin > clarithromycin. The roxithromycin-induced increase in CBF was not altered by propranolol, AA-861, or buy rulide online verapamil, but partially attenuated by indomethacin. Roxithromycin increased intracellular cAMP concentrations. These results suggest that certain macrolides can stimulate airway ciliary motility probably via prostaglandin- and cAMP-dependent regulatory pathways, which may affect mucociliary transport function in the respiratory tract.

rulide alcohol 2017-09-26

Prevalence of trachoma in the area at two buy rulide online years post introduction of SAFE strategy.

rulide 300mg tablets 2017-04-24

To evaluate the therapeutic effect of Roxithromycin (RXM), we studied 56 chronic sinusitis patients with nasal polyps using computed tomography (CT) and electron microscopy in addition to conventional clinical assessment. The paranasal sinus of subjects was observed clinically before and after daily administration of RXM at 300 mg for 3 months all underwent allergy testing for possible complications of allergic rhinitis based on subjective symptoms and objective findings. Improvement after RXM treatment was seen in 50.3% based on subjective symptoms and 59.1% based on objective findings. Overall improvement was seen in 53.6%. In 41 cases (73.2%) of all patients with chronic sinusitis and complications of allergic rhinitis, no significant difference was seen between patients with and without complications (53.7% in those with complications and 53.3% in those without). In CT analysis the paranasal sinus in 51.8% of all posttreated patients showed obvious improvement. In electron microscopy in chronic sinusitis patients with complications of allergic rhinitis, pretreated ethmoidal sinus tissues showed high mucous epithelial cell apoptosis in addition to common histological lesions, while posttreatment patients showed only eosinophil apoptosis in the interstitium and no apoptotic epithelial cells. We divided ethmoidal sinus lesions in patients without complications into 3 types and evaluated them as follows: In type 1, pretreated ethmoidal sinus tissues showed plasma cell infiltration and posttreatment cell apoptosis. In type 2, pretreated tissues showed lymphocyte and plasma cell infiltration and posttreated showed only some lymphocytes and no plasma cells. In type 3, proliferation of fibroblasts, most of which showed apoptosis, was seen in addition to apoptotic epithelial cells before treatment, while after treatment, these lesions remained with some apoptotic bodies phagocytosed by macrophages. In type 3 patients relapsed buy rulide online after surgery. Our findings indicate that RXM treatment had a significant therapeutic effect on chronic sinusitis with nasal polyps with and without complications of allergic rhinitis. We clarify the morphological mechanism of therapeutic effect of RXM on each type of ethmoidal sinus lesion divided by light and electron microscopy.

rulide drug class 2017-03-20

Macrolide antibiotics can interact adversely with commonly used drugs, usually by altering metabolism due to complex formation and inhibition of cytochrome P-450 IIIA4 (CYP3A4) in the liver and enterocytes. In addition, pharmacokinetic drug interactions with macrolides can result from their antibiotic effect on microorganisms of the enteric flora, and through enhanced gastric emptying due to a motilin-like effect. Macrolides may be classified into 3 different groups according to their affinity for CYP3A4, and thus their propensity to cause pharmacokinetic drug interactions. Troleandomycin, erythromycin and its prodrugs decrease drug metabolism and may produce drug interactions (group 1). Others, including clarithromycin, flurithromycin, midecamycin, midecamycin acetate (miocamycin; ponsinomycin), josamycin and roxithromycin (group 2) rarely cause interactions. Azithromycin, dirithromycin, rikamycin and spiramycin (group 3) do not inactivate CYP3A4 and do not engender these adverse effects. Drug interactions with carbamazepine, cyclosporin, terfenadine, astemizole and theophylline represent the most frequently encountered interactions with macrolide antibiotics. If the combination of a macrolide and one of these compounds cannot be avoided, serum concentrations of concurrently administered drugs should be monitored and patients observed for signs of toxicity. Rare interactions and those of dubious clinical importance are those with alfentanil and sufentanil, antacids and cimetidine, oral Priligy Tablets Review anticoagulants, bromocriptine, clozapine, oral contraceptive steroids, digoxin, disopyramide, ergot alkaloids, felodipine, glibenclamide (glyburide), levodopa/carbidopa, lovastatin, methylprednisolone, phenazone (antipyrine), phenytoin, rifabutin and rifampicin (rifampin), triazolam and midazolam, valproic acid (sodium valproate) and zidovudine.

rulide drug 2017-06-09

The activity in vitro of clarithromycin, a new macrolide, was compared to that of various antibiotics in tests using 3,880 clinical isolates. Clarithromycin was two times more active than erythromycin against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Claritin 60 Mg streptococci of groups C, G and F, Brucella melitensis, Legionella pneumophila and Mycoplasma spp., 16 times more active against Ureaplasma urealyticum and 2 to 4 times less active against Campylobacter spp. In general, clarithromycin showed intrinsic activity 2 to 4 times higher than that of roxithromycin and 4 to 8 times higher than that of miocamycin. Cross-resistance was found between the macrolides. Clarithromycin was bactericidal against Streptococcus spp. and Haemophilus influenzae.

rulide tablet price 2015-01-22

The Third International Conference on the Macrolides, Azalides, and Streptogramins was held in Lisbon, Portugal. Conferees were given news on the latest advances in the development of innovative antibiotics belonging to these increasingly important groups of drugs, and learned of their expanding clinical indications. The following areas were emphasized at the conference: multiresistant gram-positive Micardis 60 Mg bacteremias in patients with serious underlying infections, azithromycin's effectiveness against acute community-acquired pneumonia, results of clarithromycin plus ethambutol in HIV-infected patients with MAC bacteremia, duodenal ulcers associated with Helicobacter pylori infections, and use of roxithromycin against AIDS-related cryptosporidium diarrhea.

rulide tab 2017-03-19

A clinical trial, involving 16 male subjects affected by a relapse of chronic bronchitis, was performed in order to evaluate the possible interference of roxithromycin (RU 28965) with theophylline plasma levels. Theophylline was administered to patients as a controlled release formulation. Results did not show any clinically relevant change in theophylline blood levels, implying the conclusion that the new macrolide roxithromycin can Accutane Prescription Cost be administered simultaneously with a controlled release theophylline.

rulide and alcohol 2017-07-15

In this study, we created an experimental model for assessing the therapeutic effect of roxithromycin in GO and the expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta2) through immunohistochemistry. We used four groups of rats totaling 32 individuals. GO was induced during five weeks and drug treatment was given on the 6th week as follows: group 1 Flagyl 375 Mg received saline; group 2 received CsA and was treated with saline on the 6th week; group 3 received CsA and, on the 6th week, ampicilin; and group 4 received CsA during 5 weeks and, on the 6th week, was treated with roxithromycin.

rulide az syrup 2015-10-02

Resistance of H. pylori to clarithromycin is increasing, possibly as a consequence of increased usage of roxithromycin and clarithromycin. More patients are likely to fail to respond to empirical therapy and will need microbiological investigation. Botox Cost

cost of rulide 2017-12-15

A 76-year-old women presented with digoxin toxicity four days after starting a course of roxithromycin. In 10%-15 Lowering Paxil Dosage % of the population, digoxin is degraded extensively by bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract, and antibiotic-induced changes in the bacterial flora may lead to digoxin toxicity.

syrup rulide az 2015-07-30

Macrolides, one of the oldest antibiotic classes, are widely Arcoxia Tablets Information used in out-patient, clinics and hospitals. The major improvement in developing newer derivatives concerns pharmacokinetic properties. Increased half-lives, persisting concentrations in tissues, interstitial fluids and macrophages confer upon newer macrolides significant advantages as compared to the parent compound erythromycin. Roxithromycin, a newer macrolide has a high peak serum concentration, providing very high levels both in the interstitial fluid and intracellularly. Pharmacodynamic approaches are still limited with macrolides, however the very high inhibitory quotient established for tissue concentrations and interstitial fluid suggests the potential clinical efficacy of these drugs.

rulide contraceptive pill 2017-05-24

There have been reports of an interaction when theophylline and macrolides are given together, and also when carbamazepine is given with macrolides. We compared the kinetics of theophylline and carbamazepine, given alone and then in combination with roxithromycin. Roxithromycin had little effect on the pharmacokinetics of theophylline and none on carbamazepine, and roxithromycin can be given with either of the drugs without any need to alter the dose.

rulide tablet uses 2017-02-17

This study was designed to investigate the protective effect of roxithromycin on airway responsiveness to the sulpyrine provocation test and to investigate whether this protective activity is associated with a reduction in aspirin-induced excretion of urinary leucotriene E4 (u-LTE4), a marker of cysteinyl leucotriene overproduction that participates in the pathogenesis of aspirin-intolerant asthma. Also, the present study was designed to examine whether or not its anti-asthmatic activity was associated with a reduction in eosinophilic inflammation.

rulide y alcohol 2017-11-22

The meta-analysis of 12 clinical research of application of antibiotics (azithromycin, roxithromycin clarithromycin, gatifloxacin) in 24 949 patients with coronary heart disease were carried out. The obtained results were shown that application of short courses of antibiotic therapy in patients with severe morphological changes in small coronary vessels were not enough effective. Contrariwise, long-term courses of antibiotic therapy could be effective in patients with initial lesions of blood vessels and presence of chronic infections.

rulide suspension 2017-02-16

Mucus hypersecretion in rat airways was induced by intratracheal instillation of LPS. Rats treated with or without LPS were administered roxithromycin (1-10 mg/kg), josamycin (10 mg/kg) or amoxicillin (40 mg/kg), orally for 4 days. Expression of Muc5ac, nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB, and the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases p38 and ERK1/2 in bronchial epithelium were detected by RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry or western blotting. Mucins, IL-1beta, IL-8 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha in BAL fluid were assayed by enzyme-linked lectin assay and ELISA.

rulide renal dose 2016-03-18

Macrolides are frequently used in veterinary medicine as therapeutic and preventive agents for various diseases. It is difficult to determine macrolides simultaneously with conventional methods due to their similar structures. A simultaneous analysis for erythromycin, roxithromycin, tiamulin and tylosin with LC/MS has been developed. Separation was performed on C18 reversed phase column. Mobile phase was gradiently flowed with 10 mM ammonium acetate and methanol. The mass spectrometer was run in the positive mode and selective ion monitoring mode. The molecular ions were [M+H]+ form at m/z 837.5 for erythromycin, at m/z 859.5 for roxithromycin, at m/z 494.2 for tiamulin and at m/z 916.7 for tylosin. Limits of detection were in the range from 0.001 to 0.01 microg/g lower than their MRLs.

rulide generic name 2017-10-24

1H nuclear Overhauser enhancement studies and 1H NMR 3J analysis establish the similarity between the major solution-state conformation of roxithromycin (1) and the erythromycin (2). A major difference between the structure of antibiotics 1 and 2 is the replacement of the 9-keto group in 2 by a 9-[O-(2,5-dioxahexyl)oxime] group. The NOE studies show that this oxime chain is oriented above the macrocyclic lactone ring and that the oxygen atoms of this chain are engaged in tight hydrogen bonding with a water molecule and with the 6- and 11-hydroxyl groups of the macrocycle. It results in a globular form of the whole roxithromycin molecule. These data explain also a relative hydrophobicity of this antibiotic. Erythromycin A (2), which presents a less rigid macrocycle with two free hydroxyl groups (6-OH and 11-OH), forms a dimer detected by FAB mass spectroscopy. 1H and 13C NMR relaxation measurements (T1) for both antibiotics show that interresidue hydrogen bonds in roxithromycin reduce the rotational freedom of the macrocyclic lactone ring and consequently the motions of desosamine and cladinose sugars. In another way, an ionization of the amino function occurs in the various media according to the nature of the antibiotic. This would allow the reactivity modification of the desosamine unit. In the biological study, the modifications of the 455-nm metabolite-cytochrome P-450 complex formation are observed.

rulide medication 2017-07-24

Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MSn) was used for separation and analysis of roxithromycin and its metabolites in dog bile after an oral dose or intravenous dose of roxithromycin. The metabolites were identified by comparisons of their mass spectra and LC behaviors with the references.

rulide medicine 2017-05-22

Recent reports have shown that roxithromycin possesses significant activity against atypical mycobacteria, including the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), and that its extracellular anti-MAC activity is further enhanced in two- or three-drug combinations with ethambutol, rifampin, amikacin, ofloxacin, and clofazimine. In accordance with the above data, the anti-MAC potential of roxithromycin used alone and in combination with the above-mentioned antituberculous drugs was screened intracellularly against five clinical MAC isolates (from both human immunodeficiency virus-positive and human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients), phagocytized by human monocyte-derived macrophages. The results showed that roxithromycin used alone and within clinically achievable levels was active against all of the MAC isolates tested. Screening of two-drug combinations showed that both rifampin and clofazimine further increased the intracellular activity of roxithromycin against all five isolates by 35 to 80% (ethambutol, ofloxacin, and amikacin resulted in increased intracellular activity against one, two, and four isolates, respectively). For the three-drug combinations, the combination of roxithromycin plus ethambutol used with rifampin or clofazimine was the most uniformly active against all five MAC isolates, with activity increases of 42 to 90%, followed by roxithromycin plus ethambutol used with amikacin, which resulted in activity increases of 15 to 90%. The overall level of intracellular killing after 5 days of drug addition, in comparison with growth in untreated controls, varied from 1 to 3 log units depending on the individual MAC isolate and/or drug combination used.

rulide child dose 2016-06-21

A total of 92 subjects with a small AAA were recruited from two populations. One population consisted of 6339 men aged 65-73 years who were offered a hospital-based mass screening programme for AAA. From this population 66 subjects were recruited. The remaining 26 men were recruited from among 49 subjects diagnosed at interval screening for an initial aortic diameter between 25 and 29 mm. Subjects were randomized to receive either oral roxithromycin 300 mg once daily for 28 days or matching placebo, and followed for a mean of 1.5 years.