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Following one step liquid-liquid extraction, the analytes were separated using an isocratic mobile phase on a Sunfire C18 column (50mm×2.1mm, 5μm). The retention times were 2.12, 2.24, 2.12 and 2.19min for quetiapine, norquetiapine and their respective stable labeled internal standards, respectively. Cycle time was 4min. Selected reaction monitoring (SRM) in positive ion mode was used for quantitation.
Prescription records (2005-2015) of antipsychotics were sourced from New Zealand Pharmaceutical Collections. The first-time diabetes diagnosis was extracted from the National Minimal Dataset. Relative risks (RRs) of diabetes onset were calculated using conditional logistic regression. Time-trend bias was corrected by recalculating the RR using a SSBC design.
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Lamotrigine (mean dose, 204.2 mg/d) plus quetiapine (mean dose, 188.5 mg/d) increased the euthymia rate (0.0% to 46.2%), decreased syndromal (79.5% to 30.8%) and subsyndromal (20.5% to 15.4%) depression rates, and improved Clinical Global Impression-Severity (mean change, -1.0) and Global Assessment of Functioning (mean change, +5.9) scores. Approximately one-fifth of patients discontinued therapy (20.5%) or required subsequent additional pharmacotherapy (20.5%). Only 10.3% discontinued due to adverse effects, and there was no significant change in mean body weight.
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The incidence of TD is significantly lower with atypical, compared with typical, antipsychotics, but cases of de novo TD have been identified. Evidence suggests that atypical antipsychotic therapy ameliorates long-standing TD. This paper outlines management strategies for TD in patients with schizophrenia.
According to some reports, patients treated with risperidone may develop akathisia. Restless legs syndrome (RLS), which shares some clinical features with akathisia, is a distinct movement and sleep disorder that may be induced by various drugs that act on the CNS.
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This study was set out to examine the impact of atypical antipsychotic drugs: aripiprazole, clozapine, ziprasidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, sertindole and amisulpride on the activity of antioxidant defence enzymes in human erythrocytes in vitro.
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Despite available effective medications, many patients with schizophrenia do not become completely symptom free. We report analyses of data from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled relapse prevention study of extended release quetiapine fumarate (quetiapine XR) using Remission in Schizophrenia Working Group criteria for symptomatic remission. During 16-week open-label stabilization, patients with stable schizophrenia were switched from their current antipsychotic to quetiapine XR (400, 600 or 800 mg/day flexibly dosed). One hundred and ninety-seven patients were randomized to either quetiapine XR or placebo (planned for 1 year or until relapse). The study was terminated early because the planned interim analysis showed quetiapine XR to be statistically superior to placebo in the primary outcome variable (time to schizophrenia relapse). One hundred and eighty of 195 (92.3%) patients with an available Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale assessment met symptomatic remission criteria at randomization (following 16 weeks' quetiapine XR). The risk of losing symptomatic remission was statistically significantly higher with placebo versus quetiapine XR: hazard ratio 0.39 (95% confidence interval: 0.19-0.81, P=0.009), that is, 61% risk reduction for quetiapine XR-treated versus placebo-treated patients. At 6 months postrandomization, the probability that patients would be in remission was 76% for quetiapine XR and 52% for placebo. Once-daily quetiapine XR was effective in preserving symptomatic remission in the longer-term treatment of patients with schizophrenia.
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This study aims to assess the abnormalities in the brains of first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients treated with quetiapine using another advanced nonrigid registration method, hierarchical attribute matching mechanism for elastic registration, through the application of DBM in the entire brain.
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Clozapine was the first of the atypical antipsychotics to be developed, but its use has been restricted because of toxicity issues, particularly the risk of potentially life-threatening drug-induced neutropenia and agranulocytosis, which occurs in about 1% of patients. Bioactivation of clozapine by peroxidases forms a reactive nitrenium ion, which covalently adducts to protein and leads to neutrophil toxicity. The current generation of clozapine-inspired atypical antipsychotics has reduced toxicity through improved potency/decreased dose or through structural modification to prevent peroxidase-catalyzed nitrenium ion formation. Through the substitution of sulfur for the bridging nitrogen found in clozapine, quetiapine does not directly form a nitrenium ion when incubated with myeloperoxidase/H(2)O(2). We present evidence that cytochrome P450 2D6 catalyzes the formation of 7-hydroxyquetiapine, which can be oxidized by human myeloperoxidase to form a reactive quinone-imine and a reactive radical, which may account for the continued, although reduced, neutrophil toxicity. In the presence of myeloperoxidase/H(2)O(2) and glutathione, covalent 7-hydroxyquetiapine-glutathione adducts were formed. Bioactivation of quetiapine was verified in vivo in rat where three 7-hydroxyquetiapine-mercaptate adducts and a 7-hydroxyquetiapine-glutathione adduct were detected from bile after oral dosing. The decreased incidence of agranulocytosis with quetiapine over clozapine is postulated to be due to the lower exposure of the toxic precursor, 7-hydroxyquetiapine versus clozapine, respectively.
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The medical records of all patients with PDDs diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria and treated with quetiapine were retrospectively reviewed. Patients who received quetiapine for at least 4 weeks and who were not concurrently treated with another antipsychotic or mood stabilizer were included. Improvement was measured with the Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement scale (CGI-I), with response determined by ratings of "much improved" or "very much improved." Data were collected from May 15, 2003 through November 30, 2003.
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This multisite clinical trial showed no efficacy for quetiapine compared with placebo at reducing alcohol consumption in heavy-drinking alcohol-dependent patients.
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We have recently demonstrated that specific neuroanatomical patterns of Fos-like immunoreactivity are predictive of atypical antipsychotic activity. However, the fact that neuroleptics must be administered chronically in order to generate both extrapyramidal side effects and an optimal therapeutic response calls into question the relevance of acute changes in Fos-like immunoreactivity for these slowly developing events. Fos-like immunoreactivity cannot be used to identify neurons activated by chronic neuroleptic administration because the increase in Fos-like immunoreactivity produced by an acute antipsychotic injection is dramatically reduced following repeated neuroleptic administration. In contrast, expression of the immediate-early gene product deltaFosB is persistently elevated in the striatum by chronic haloperidol administration. This suggests that deltaFosB-like immunoreactivity may be used to identify neurons activated by chronic antipsychotic administration. Since typical and atypical neuroleptics elevate Fos-like immunoreactivity in different regions of the forebrain acutely, the purpose of the present study was to determine whether typical (haloperidol) and atypical (clozapine, ICI 204,636) antipsychotics produce distinct patterns of elevated deltaFosB-like immunoreactivity in the forebrain after chronic administration. Administration of haloperidol (2 mg/kg/day) to rats for 19 days induced a homogeneous elevation of neurons which displayed deltaFosB-like immunoreactivity in the ventral, medial and dorsolateral aspects of the striatum. Chronic haloperidol administration did not enhance the deltaFos-like immunoreactivity in the prefrontal cortex and lateral septal nucleus. Repeated administration of clozapine (20 mg/kg/day) and ICI 204,636 (20 mg/kg/day) for 19 days elevated deltaFosB-like immunoreactivity not only in the ventral striatum but also in the prefrontal cortex and lateral septal nucleus. However, these compounds had weak effects on deltaFosB-like immunoreactivity in the dorsolateral striatum. These results suggest that a preferential action on limbic structures such as the prefrontal cortex, ventral striatum and lateral septal nucleus may account for the ability of chronic clozapine and ICI 204, 636 administration to reduce the symptoms of schizophrenia without generating extrapyramidal side effects.
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To evaluate quetiapine XR in patients with anxious depression, as defined by HAM-A total and HAM-D anxiety/somatisation factor scores.
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This randomized open-label study compared the incidence of metabolic side effects of aripiprazole, ziprasidone and quetiapine in a population of medication-naïve first-episode psychosis patients. A total of 202 subjects were enrolled. Body weight, body mass index, leptin, fasting lipids and fasting glycaemic parameters were measured at baseline and at 3 months follow-up. A hundred and sixty-six patients completed the follow-up and were included in the analyses. A high proportion of patients experienced a significant weight increase (>7% of their baseline weight): 23% ziprasidone (n=12), 32% with quetiapine (n=16) and 45% with aripiprazole (n=31). Patients treated with aripiprazole gained significantly more weight than the patients in the ziprasidone group (1.2 kg [SD=4.1] versus 4.3 kg [SD=4.8], respectively). The increase in leptin levels was greater in women treated with aripiprazole than in those treated with ziprasidone (p=0.030). Mean prolactin levels significantly increased in patients treated with quetiapine and ziprasidone but not in those treated with aripiprazole. Patients treated with quetiapine and aripiprazole showed a significant increase in total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol plasma levels. Quetiapine-treated patients resulted in a higher increase in LDL-cholesterol than patients treated with ziprasidone (p=0.021). No other significant differences between groups were found. No significant changes in glycaemic parameters were observed. Our results suggest that ziprasidone has a lower liability for inducing weight gain and lipid abnormalities than aripiprazole or quetiapine.
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The quetiapine-induced anxiolytic effect in the EPM might explain why humans are misusing quetiapine and combining it with (+)-amphetamine. It is possible that humans experience an anxiolytic effect of the combined drugs and relatively unaltered rewarding effects of (+)-amphetamine. The results shed some light on the question of why humans are abusing and misusing quetiapine, despite its dopamine (DA) D2 receptor antagonism; it will be the task of future studies to identify the pharmacological mechanism mediating this behaviour.
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Quality of the reporting of trials varied. Efficacy on rating scales was observed by meta-analysis for aripiprazole and risperidone, but not for olanzapine. Response rates were frequently not reported. There were smaller effects for less severe dementia, outpatients, and patients selected for psychosis. Approximately one-third dropped out without overall differences between drug and placebo. Adverse events were mainly somnolence and urinary tract infection or incontinence across drugs, and extrapyramidal symptoms or abnormal gait with risperidone or olanzapine. Cognitive test scores worsened with drugs. There was no evidence for increased injury, falls, or syncope. There was a significant risk for cerebrovascular events, especially with risperidone; increased risk for death overall was reported elsewhere.
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The purpose of this study is to determine sociodemographic, clinical, and pharmacotherapeutic characteristics, especially use of atypical antipsychotics, associated with incident diabetes mellitus in a population of privately insured patients with mental health diagnoses. Patients with a mental health diagnosis stably medicated for a 3-month period during January 1999 through October 2000 and having no diabetes were followed through December 2000. Cox proportional hazards models were developed to identify antipsychotic medications associated with newly diagnosed diabetes. Of the 7381 patients identified, 339 developed diabetes, representing an annual incidence rate of 4.7%. Diabetes risk among the entire sample was lowest for risperidone (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.69; p < 0.05), while quetiapine (HR = 0.74), olanzapine (HR = 0.95), and clozapine (HR = 1.22) were not significantly different from first-generation antipsychotics. Diabetes risk was significantly lower among males receiving risperidone (HR = 0.49; p < 0.01) or quetiapine (HR = 0.50; p < 0.10), while diabetes risk among females did not differ significantly from first-generation antipsychotics for any atypical examined. These findings are substantially different from other reports.
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The study protocol involved an open label design with no placebo or active comparator group. The sample size provided adequate statistical power to detect large but not medium or small within-group effects. Premature dropout during the first six months precluded inferences about longer-term treatment outcome.
Quetiapine demonstrated superior efficacy to placebo in patients with bipolar mania and was well tolerated.
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of quetiapine and paroxetine monotherapy for major depression in bipolar disorder.
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Of 186 enrolled patients, 99 (53%) and 87 (47%) received quetiapine XR and IR, respectively. Use in antipsychotic dosage was seen for 89% XR versus 63% IR patients (mean daily dose ≥400 mg/day; p < 0.0001). 75% XR and 53% IR patients used dosages ≥600 mg/day (p = 0.0019). Quetiapine XR was used at higher mean daily dosages than IR (748 vs 566 mg/day; p = 0.006). Forty-three patients (23%) used both formulations concomitantly; 55 patients (30%) used either XR or IR. Quetiapine IR was used as-needed in 44 patients (23%); one patient used XR as-needed.
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Twenty-two patients diagnosed with bipolar mania and 26 healthy subjects participated in a baseline functional magnetic resonance imaging scan during which they performed a continuous performance task with neutral and emotional distractors. Nineteen patients with bipolar disorder were treated for eight weeks with quetiapine monotherapy and then rescanned. Regional activity in response to emotional stimuli was compared between healthy and manic subjects at baseline; and in the subjects with bipolar disorder between baseline and eight-week scans.
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While approximately 70% of patients with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders show a clear-cut reduction of symptoms in clinical trials, there is considerable variation in individual patient outcome, ranging from complete remission to absolute refractoriness. When additional indicators of treatment outcome are considered, such as cognitive and occupational and social functioning, it is clear that the overall outcome for schizophrenia is far from satisfactory. For many schizophrenic patients, treatment with conventional antipsychotic agents is not fully effective, and one approach has been to increase the administered dose. However, raising the dose increases the likelihood of side effects and may significantly compromise patient compliance. The availability of atypical antipsychotic agents represents a significant step forward for those patients who are nonresponsive to conventional antipsychotics, offering proven efficacy, a lower risk of extrapyramidal symptoms, and improved clinical outcomes.
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This was a 1-year naturalistic longitudinal study conducted between February 2009 and March 2012. A total of 130 children aged 2 to 18 years without prior exposure to second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) were enrolled at initiation of treatment with either risperidone or quetiapine. Metabolic parameters were measured at baseline and months 6 and 12. Data of 37 participants (20 treated with risperidone and 17 treated with quetiapine) who completed 12-month monitoring were used in the analysis.
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The antidepressant action of quetiapine has been demonstrated in clinical and preclinical studies. Nevertheless, little is known about its effectiveness in the treatment of frontal-like cognitive disturbances that may be associated with stress-related disorder. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether quetiapine would prevent and/or reverse stress-induced cognitive impairments in a rat model of prefrontal cortex (PFC)-dependent attentional set-shifting task (ASST). Because quetiapine augmentation to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) has recently been proven to be beneficial in neuropsychiatric disorders, a separate experiment was designed to assess the impact of combined administration of inactive doses of quetiapine and escitalopram on ASST performance in rats. According to our previous studies, 1 h daily exposure to restraint stress for 7 days significantly and specifically impaired extra-dimensional (ED) set-shifting ability of rats. Quetiapine (2.5 mg/kg, PO) given to rats prior to the restraint sessions completely prevented this stress-induced cognitive inflexibility. Similar effect was demonstrated after pretreatment with the α1-adrenoceptor antagonist, prazosin (1 mg/kg, IP). Moreover, acute administration of quetiapine before the test reversed set-shifting deficits in stressed rats (0.63, 1.25 and 2.5 mg/kg, PO) and improved ED performance of cognitively unimpaired control animals (1.25 and 2.5 mg/kg, PO). Finally, the combined administration of inactive doses of quetiapine (0.63 and 0.3 mg/kg in control and stressed rats, respectively) and escitalopram (0.3 mg/kg, IP) facilitated set-shifting performance in either control or stressed rats. In conclusion, quetiapine administration either prevented or reversed stress-induced cognitive inflexibility in rats. In addition to promoting of set-shifting by itself, quetiapine also enhanced the procognitive efficacy of escitalopram. The potential contribution of the antagonism at α1-adrenoceptors to the mechanisms underlying the protective action of quetiapine requires further evaluation. These findings may have therapeutic implications for the treatment of frontal-like disturbances, particularly cognitive inflexibility, in stress-related psychiatric disorders. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'.