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Candida africana taxonomical status is controversial. It was proposed as a separate species within the Candida albicans species complex; however, phylogenetic analyses suggested that it is an unusual variety of C. albicans. The prevalence of C. albicans-related species (Candida dubliniensis and C. africana) as vulvovaginal pathogens is not known in Argentina. Moreover, data on antifungal susceptibility of isolates causing vulvovaginal candidiasis is scarce. The aims of this study were to establish the prevalence of C. dubliniensis and C. africana in vaginal samples and to evaluate the antifungal susceptibilities of vaginal C. albicans species complex strains. We used a molecular-based method coupled with a new pooled DNA extraction methodology to differentiate C. dubliniensis and C. africana in a collection of 287 strains originally identified as C. albicans isolated from an Argentinian hospital during 2013. Antifungal susceptibilities to fluconazole, clotrimazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, nystatin, amphotericin B and terbinafine were evaluated by using the CLSI M27-A3 and M27-S4 documents. Of the 287 isolates, 4 C. dubliniensis and one C. africana strains (1.39% and 0.35% prevalence, respectively) were identified. This is the first description of C. africana in Argentina and its identification was confirmed by sequencing the ITS2 region and the hwp1 gene. C. dubliniensis and C. africana strains showed very low MIC values for all the tested antifungals. Fluconazole-reduced-susceptibility and azole cross-resistance were observed in 3.55% and 1.41% of the C. albicans isolates, respectively. These results demonstrate that antifungal resistance is still a rare phenomenon in this kind of isolates.
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An 82-year-old man was diagnosed with immune-based scleritis and treated with oral cyclophosphamide 50 mg twice daily. However, multiple scleral abscesses and a fibrinoid aqueous reaction developed 3 months later. Infectious scleritis was suspected. The culture from the necrotic sclera grew P. lilacinus. Despite treatment with antimicrobials, the infection progressed to the cornea. The medication included topical natamycin suspension 5% and fluconazole 2 mg/mL hourly, as well as oral itraconazole 100 mg daily. Debridement of the necrotic tissue and intracameral injection with amphotericin-B were performed.
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The published evidence on the role of various drugs and medication classes in causing or exacerbating heart failure (HF) is reviewed, with discussion of precautions and management strategies for use in clinical practice.
Seborrheic dermatitis (SD) is a chronic and relapsing disease and topical therapy may be associated with failure, particularly in severe disease. Itraconazole has been suggested as an effective treatment for severe SD. Previous studies have been open clinical trials with variable results.
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To compare the results of antifungal susceptibility profiles of yeasts isolated from patients with urinary infections obtained by broth microdilution method (BM) and by disk diffusion (DD), and also evaluate the capacity of these yeasts to form biofilms.
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We investigated the in vitro susceptibility of 69 yeast strains isolates of clinical samples, belonging to 24 different species, to amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole and 5-fluorocytosine.
A 51-year-old woman was admitted because of a productive cough. Atelectasis of the left upper lobe and eosinophilia were noted. The atelectasis was resolved after bronchoscopic removal of the mucous plug. Pathologically, it consisted of eosinophil accumulation with hyphae. Cultures of sputum samples revealed Schizophyllum commune. We diagnosed this case as mucoid impaction of bronchi due to S. commune. Eight months later, a productive cough developed again. Chest radiography showed atelectasis of the right middle lobe. Cultures of bronchial washings yielded S. commune and Aspergillus niger. The atelectasis was resolved by four months of administration of itraconazole (200 mg daily).
Fungous mycetoma of the nape of the neck due to Madurella mycetomatis is an unusual localisation (four cases in mondial literature) and severe affection. This reports deals with a case occurred after traumatism. Despite five months of itraconazole and chirurgical treatment, the therapeutic escape was evident.
Complex pulmonary aspergilloma (CPA) following pulmonary tuberculosis may lead to massive and fatal hemoptysis. Pulmonary resection, as initial therapy, carries high morbidity and mortality. Resection is contraindicated in patients with compromised lung function (FEV1<40%) and in those with bilateral disease. We reviewed the results of patients undergoing single stage cavernostomy and myoplasty as an alternative therapy in patients with normal and compromised lung function.
The singular aim of the proposed work is the development of a synergistic thermosensitive gel for vaginal application in subjects prone to recurrent vaginal candidiasis and other microbial infections. The dual loading of Itraconazole and tea tree oil in a single formulation seems promising as it would elaborate the microbial coverage. Despite being low solubility of Itraconazole in tea tree oil, a homogeneous, transparent and stable solution of both was created by co-solvency using chloroform. Complete removal of chloroform was authenticated by GC-MS and the oil solution was used in the development of nanoemulsion which was further translated into a gel bearing thermosensitive properties. In vitro analyses (MTT assay, viscosity measurement, mucoadhesion, ex vivo permeation, etc.) and in vivo studies (bioadhesion, irritation potential and fungal clearance kinetics in rat model) of final formulation were carried out to establish its potential for further clinical evaluation.
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We describe a case of Phaeoacremonium olecranon osteomyelitis. The patient, initially felt to have traumatic olecranon bursitis, was found to have an indolent filamentous fungus cultured from the olecranon bursa. In retrospect, x-rays revealed bony erosion, which heightened the index of suspicion for infection in this particular case. Surgical bursal excision was performed and antifungal therapy was administered with clinical resolution. This case emphasizes that aspiration, synovial fluid analysis, and culture of bursal fluid is essential in excluding typical and atypical causes of chronic bursitis.
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Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a vector-borne parasitic disease of the skin. Previous open controlled studies with oral itraconazole suggest that it was effective for CL in India. Twenty patients with localised CL participated in this trial. Patients were allocated randomly to receive capsule itraconazole and matching placebo for 6 weeks. No topical medicines were used. Demonstration of Leishmania by slit smear was mandatory. Prior to, periodically during and 3 months after completion of therapy an overall clinical assessment, liver function tests and urinalysis were performed. On decoding, out of the 10 cases receiving drug itraconazole, 7 were declared cured by clinical and parasitological criteria. No major side-effects were noted. Spontaneous remission was observed in 1 case in the placebo group at 3 months follow up. Oral itraconazole has a promising antileishmanial thus secure CL patient from the hazards of antimonials.
Only recently, attention has been drawn towards the occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the environment. In recent years many reports have been made on the occurrence of the large, differentiated group of pharmaceuticals in waste water, surface water, ground water and in soil. In this study, we demonstrate the applicability of a previously developed LC-MS/MS method by evaluating in waste water and surface water samples from Belgium the occurrence of 8 pharmaceuticals and 1 pesticide (flubendazole, pipamperone, rabeprazole, domperidone, ketoconazole, itraconazole, cinnarizine, miconazole and propiconazole). Removal rates in five public waste water treatment plants were assessed. Introduction of several compounds into the aquatic environment by discharge of effluent could be demonstrated. For several compounds, the highest concentrations (up to 35.6 microg/l for pipamperone) were observed in the effluent of a WWTP receiving water from chemo-pharmaceutical and other industrial companies. The occurrence of these compounds in the aquatic environment was assessed by analyzing 16 surface water samples, taken from various locations. Four pharmaceuticals (flubendazole, pipamperone, domperidone and cinnarizine) could be detected in at least one sample at low concentrations (up to 26.4 ng/l). The pesticide propiconazole was found in comparable concentrations (up to 85.9 ng/l) as in effluent, suggesting potential introduction by direct seepage of water from rural grounds. The highest concentrations of flubendazole, pipamperone, domperidone, propiconazole and cinnarizine (up to 961.3 ng/l) were observed in a sample, taken near the discharge of a WWTP receiving water from chemo-pharmaceutical and other industries. An initial environmental risk assessment was done based on these results.
Implications for practiceDue to only one study in children it is not possible to make recommendations for treatment or prevention of OC in children. Amongst adults, there were few studies per comparison. Due to insufficient evidence no conclusion could be made about the effectiveness of clotrimazole, nystatin, amphotericin B, itraconazole or ketoconazole with regard to OC prophylaxis. In comparison to placebo, fluconazole is an effective preventative intervention. However, the potential for resistant Candida organisms to develop, as well as the cost of prophylaxis, might impact the feasibility of implementation. No studies were found comparing fluconazole with other interventions. Direction of findings suggests that ketoconazole, fluconazole, itraconazole and clotrimazole improved the treatment outcomes. Implications for researchThere is an urgent need for gentian violet and other less expensive anti-fungal drugs for OC treatment to be evaluated in larger studies. More well designed treatment trials with larger sample size are needed to allow for sufficient power to detect differences in not only clinical, but also mycological response and relapse rates. There is also a strong need for more research to be done on the treatment and prevention of OC in children as it is reported that OC is the most frequent fungal infection in children and adolescents who are HIV positive. More research on the effectiveness of less expensive interventions also needs to be done in resource-poor settings. Currently few trials report outcomes related to quality of life, nutrition, or survival. Future researchers should consider measuring these when planning trials. Development of resistance remains under-studied and more work must be done in this area. It is recommended that trials be more standardised and conform more closely to CONSORT as this will improve research and also clinical practice.
Itraconazole (ITZ), a triazole antifungal agent, is a poorly water-soluble drug that is orally administered for treatment of fungal infections such as allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and invasive aspergillosis (IA). ABPA is relatively well controlled but IA can be fatal, especially in immunosuppressed patients. Aerosolized ITZ delivered to the lung may provide a local treatment and prophylaxis against IA at the primary site of infection in the lungs. Variations of the percent fine particle fraction (FPF), the percent emitted dose, and the physical properties of the aerosol (e.g., crystallinity) can confound consistent delivery.
We describe 4 cases of paracoccidioidomycosis in previously healthy children from the north of our country. Diagnoses were made by biopsy or culture.
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This retrospective review included patients with CRS who underwent ESS between 2010 and 2013. QoL was measured by using the 22-item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22). Variables collected included baseline demographics, SNOT-22 scores before ESS and at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after ESS. Groups tested were CRS with nasal polyposis, CRS without nasal polyposis (CRSsNP), and patients with AFRS. A linear mixed- effects regression model was used to calculate the adjusted mean QoL differences.
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We report a case of cerebral phaeohyphomycosis in a 36-year-old male caused by the neurotropic fungus Ramichloridium obovoideum (Matushima) de Hoog 1977 (Ramichloridium mackenziei Campbell et Al-Hedaithy 1993). This man resided in the Middle East, where the fungus appears to be endemic and, possibly, geographically restricted, since all previous reports of brain abscesses due to this organism have been for patients indigenous to this area. As a servant of the Saudi Arabian royal family, he appeared in the United States seeking treatment for chronic weight loss, fatigue, decreased memory, and a more recent 2-week history of right-hand weakness which worsened to involve the entire right upper extremity. On the day prior to his admission, he had a focal motor seizure with rotation of the head and eyes to the right, followed by secondary generalization. A computerized tomogram showed a ring-enhancing hypodense lesion in the left parietal subcortical region with associated edema and mass effect. Diagnosis of a fungal etiology was made following a parietal craniotomy and excisional biopsy by observation of septate, dematiaceous hyphal elements 2 to 3 microm in width on hematoxylin-and-eosin-stained sections from within areas of inflammation and necrosis. Culture of the excised material grew out a dematiaceous mould which was subsequently identified as R. obovoideum. At two months postsurgery and with a regimen of 200 mg of itraconazole twice a day, the patient was doing well and returned to Saudi Arabia. His condition subsequently deteriorated, however, and following a 7-month course of itraconzole, he expired. We use this case to alert clinicians and personnel in clinical mycology laboratories of the pathogenicity of this organism and its potential occurrence in patients with central nervous system signs and symptoms who have resided in the Middle East and to review and/or compare R. obovoideum with other neurotropic, dematiaceous taxa and similar nonneurotropic, dematiaceous species.
Renal drug interactions can result from competitive inhibition between drugs that undergo extensive renal tubular secretion by transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of itraconazole, a known P-gp inhibitor, on the renal tubular secretion of cimetidine in healthy volunteers who received intravenous cimetidine alone and following 3 days of oral itraconazole (400 mg/day) administration. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was measured continuously during each study visit using iothalamate clearance. Iothalamate, cimetidine, and itraconazole concentrations in plasma and urine were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography/ultraviolet (HPLC/UV) methods. Renal tubular secretion (CL(sec)) of cimetidine was calculated as the difference between renal clearance (CL(r)) and GFR (CL(ioth)) on days 1 and 5. Cimetidine pharmacokinetic estimates were obtained for total clearance (CL(T)), volume of distribution (Vd), elimination rate constant (K(el)), area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-240 min)), and average plasma concentration (Cp(ave)) before and after itraconazole administration. Plasma itraconazole concentrations following oral dosing ranged from 0.41 to 0.92 microg/mL. The cimetidine AUC(0-240 min) increased by 25% (p < 0.01) following itraconazole administration. The GFR and Vd remained unchanged, but significant reductions in CL(T) (655 vs. 486 mL/min, p < 0.001) and CL(sec) (410 vs. 311 mL/min, p = 0.001) were observed. The increased systemic exposure of cimetidine during coadministration with itraconazole was likely due to inhibition of P-gp-mediated renal tubular secretion. Further evaluation of renal P-gp-modulating drugs such as itraconazole that may alter the renal excretion of coadministered drugs is warranted.
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Both acquired and congenital immunodeficiencies may be associated with increased susceptibility to invasive fungal infections (IFIs), depending on the type of immune deficit. IFIs frequently occur in patients with phagocytic and cellular immune defects, but are rarely observed in those with humoral or complement deficits. Among congenital immune disorders, chronic granulomatous disease and hyper-IgE syndrome are most frequently associated with IFIs; variable susceptibility to fungal pathogens is also seen in patients with severe combined immunodeficiency, X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, DiGeorge syndrome, common variable immunodeficiency, defects in the interferon-γ-interleukin-12 axis, and myeloperoxidase deficiency. Aspergillus, Candida, Cryptococcus, Histoplasma and other fungal genera are variably implicated in causing invasive infections in these patients. Prompt diagnosis of IFIs in this patient population requires a high degree of suspicion, together with a knowledge of their clinical presentation and the limitations of diagnostic modalities. Apart from administration of appropriate antifungal agents, successful management often requires the addition of surgical intervention. Adjunctive immunotherapy may be considered, although this has not been systematically studied. Prophylactic interferon-γ and itraconazole administration have been shown to reduce the risk of IFIs in patients with chronic granulomatous disease; however, the possibility of infections with azole-resistant organisms following long-term itraconazole prophylaxis should not be overlooked.
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Nonpredisposed Albino guinea pigs were infected intravenously with Rhizopus microsporus var. rhizopodiformis or with Rhizopus oryzae. Both strains were highly pathogenic. They killed all control animals between days 4 and 7 and between days 5 and 9 after infection, respectively. All animals presented invasion of almost all internal organs and skin eruptions developing into ulcers. Oral treatment with ketoconazole, itraconazole, fluconazole or saperconazole was inefficacious. Parenteral treatment with amphotericin B prolonged survival and was life-saving in 9 out of 12 guinea pigs infected with Rh. microsporus var. rhizopodiformis and in 5 out of 12 infected with Rh. oryzae. More active therapy is needed.