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AMR testing data from gonorrhea cases were combined with demographic and risk behavior information collected through surveillance to describe trends and sequential changes to treatment guidelines.
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Sixteen patients out of the 19 given cefixime recovered vs. 14 out of the 17 given amoxycillin-clavulanate with no significant difference between both groups. Bacteria were more often susceptible to cefixime (100% of cases) than to amoxycillin-clavulanate (69%) (p < or = 0.0001). Safety was good and comparable in both groups.
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The in vitro activities of cefaclor, cefetamet, cefixime, cefotaxime and cefuroxime were determined against 150 isolates of Haemophilus influenzae. These included 50 ampicillin-susceptible, 50 beta-lactamase-producing and 50 intrinsically ampicillin-resistant isolates. A closer relationship was apparent between the intrinsic resistance to ampicillin and reduced susceptibility to cephalosporins. Both MIC and disc diffusion methods showed that the activities of cephalosporins were reduced against most, though not all, isolates with intrinsic resistance to ampicillin. All intrinsically ampicillin-resistant isolates should be considered resistant to all cephalosporins at the present time since the clinical significance of the reduction in susceptibility is uncertain. Amongst the five cephalosporins tested, cefaclor susceptibility may facilitate the detection of intrinsic ampicillin resistance since it predicts isolates with this type of resistance mechanism.
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We identified subjects who were prescribed any high-risk antibiotic, finding 3513 on a concomitant PPI and 6149 not taking a PPI. Of these subjects, 111 were diagnosed with CDI and met inclusion criteria. Baseline characteristics, CDI severity, length of hospitalization and antibiotic therapy prior to infection were similar in both groups. The incidence of CDI was significantly higher in patients prescribed a PPI (odds ratio: 2.2; 95% confidence interval: 1.52-3.23; P=0.0001). A strong association was found between concurrent PPI use with fluoroquinolones (P=0.005) and clindamycin (P=0.045).
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This verified treatment failure occurred in a patient infected with an MLST ST1901/NG-MAST ST1407 strain of N. gonorrhoeae. While this international strain commonly shows resistance or decreased susceptibility to multiple antimicrobials, including extended-spectrum cephalosporins, the strain reported here remained fully susceptible to the latter antimicrobials. Hence, two subtypes of azithromycin-resistant gonococcal MLST ST1901/NG-MAST ST1407 appear to have evolved and to be circulating in Japan. Azithromycin should not be recommended as a single antimicrobial for first-line empirical treatment of gonorrhoea.
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To evaluate the appropriateness of antibiotic prescriptions in children with acute pharyngotonsillitis.
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MICs of six oral cephalosporins (cefdinir, cefpodoxime, cefaclor, cefuroxime, cefixime and Ro 40-6890), four quinolones (ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, OPC-17116 and fleroxacin), desacetylcefotaxime, Ro 23-9424 (a fused combination of fleroxacin + desacetylcefotaxime) and RP 67829 (a benzonaphthyridine) were determined for 49 penicillin-susceptible (S), 38 penicillin-intermediate (I), and 83 penicillin-resistant (R) strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae. All MICs were determined by a standardized agar dilution method utilizing Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with sheep blood. MIC90s of OPC-17116 and RP 67829 were < or = mg/L, and were unaffected by penicillin-susceptibility. MICs of all beta-lactams increased with increasing penicillin-MICs, with cefdinir, cefpodoxime, cefuroxime and Ro 40-6890 being the most active compounds, followed by cefaclor and cefixime. MIC90s of ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin were 2 mg/L. MIC90s of Ro 23-9424 were lower than those of either parent compound (fleroxacin 8 mg/mL for all three groups; desacetylcefotaxime 0.5 mg/mL [S], 0.5 mg/mL [I], 4 mg/mL [R]; Ro 23-9424 0.125 mg/L [S], 0.25 mg/L [I], 0.5 mg/L [R]). The results indicated that several newly introduced and experimental antimicrobials have potential for the treatment of infections caused by resistant strains of S. pneumoniae.
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268 doctors, with 2414 patients, took part. 1510 patients completed the 12 months follow-up (62.6%). All the patients received pharmacological treatment for their pulmonary disease. The most common complementary investigations performed were: general blood analysis (1.5 per patient/year), chest x-ray (1.2) and ECG (0.9), followed by spirometry (0.5) and arterial gasometry (0.4). Mean number of exacerbations per year were 1.9; and admissions, 0.2. Overall cost, including tests, medical visits, hospital expenditure and pharmacological treatment, was 420,264,000 pesetas for the entire cohort. The direct annual cost per patient ran at 278,321 pesetas. The cost caused by patients treated with Cefixime on the first exacerbations was 77,365 pesetas less, which was mostly due to less hospital expense.
From June 1999 to June 2000, 480 environmental swabs were collected from two abattoirs in Northern Ireland. In addition, from July 1999 to July 2000, 420 samples originating from raw cow's milk were collected from two Northern Ireland dairies. All samples were examined for the presence of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC). O157 with the use of selective enrichment in tryptone soya broth (TSB) and double-strength MacConkey broth purple (MBP) followed by immunomagnetic separation and selective plating onto sorbitol MacConkey agar supplemented with cefixime tellurite. Non-O157 VTEC was detected by selective enrichment in TSB-MBP and plating on MacConkey agar. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay was also used to detect the presence of the VT1, VT2, and eae genes. Two (0.42%) of the 480 abattoir samples tested positive for VTEC; one isolate carried the VT2 gene only, and the other carried both the VT2 and the eae genes. Nine (2.14%) of the 420 dairy samples tested positive for VTEC; four carried the VT2 gene only, four carried both the VT2 and the eae genes, and one carried both the VT1 and the eae genes. These results indicate that the incidence of VTEC was low in the dairy and meat processing environment samples tested, and this finding may help to explain the low incidence of VTEC reported for the local human population.
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Cefixime is a new oral cephalosporin which shows dose dependent absorption and concentration dependent serum protein binding in dogs. To study the absolute bioavailability of this drug in dogs, intravenous infusions of 6.25 and 25 mg/kg (each given over 2 hours), approximating the rate of appearance of the drug also given after oral dosing (12.5 and 50 mg/kg) were administered on separate occasions. The mean respective pharmacokinetic parameters obtained after the two intravenous infusions (6.25 and 25 mg/kg) were: total body clearance 4.0 and 5.2 mL/min; volume of distribution 2.2 and 2.8 L; and terminal half-lives of 6.4 hrs. Serum concentrations and area under the serum concentration time curve (AUC) after the low intravenous and oral dose were similar. At the higher doses, serum concentrations and AUC values were significantly higher after the intravenous infusion than after the oral dose. The mean absolute bioavailability (F) values after the 12.5 and 50 mg/kg oral doses using serum AUC comparisons were 52 and 58%, respectively, when calculated against the 6.25 mg/kg intravenous dose and 73 and 38%, respectively, when calculated against the 25 mg/kg intravenous dose. Based on urinary recovery data, F was 49 or 43% for the 12.5 mg/kg oral dose and 34 or 30% for the 50 mg/kg oral dose, depending on the reference intravenous dose used. These results show that because of nonlinearities in the pharmacokinetics of cefixime in the dog, comparison of AUC values obtained after oral doses to AUC values derived following intravenous administration of the drug may result in inaccurate bioavailability estimates if the concentration ranges after the two routes of administration are substantially different. Since the clearance of the drug is concentration-dependent, the absolute bioavailability of the drug must, therefore, be estimated under conditions where serum concentrations obtained after oral and intravenous doses are similar. In summary, for a drug like cefixime which shows nonlinear pharmacokinetics in the dog, estimations of absolute bioavailability, can be more accurately made using urinary excretion data.
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Since 1979, Ikemoto et al. have been retrospectively surveying the sensitivity of major species of bacteria isolated from patients with urinary tract infections to various antibacterial agents and antibiotics. Their findings for the past year are reported below. A total of 825 clinical strains of bacteria was investigated. Of this total, Gram-positive bacteria accounted for 28.0% (231 strains) and Gram-negative bacteria for 72.0% (594 strains). Taxonomically, Escherichia coli accounted for 34.7% (286 strains), Enterococcus faecalis for 14.3% (118), Pseudomonas aeruginosa for 11.0% (91), Klebsiella pneumoniae for 7.8% (64), and coagulase-negative staphylococci for 7.3% (60). Sensitivity spectra of these major bacteria to various drugs were as follows. 1. E. faecalis was sensitive to parenteral imipenem (IPM) and ampicillin and oral vancomycin. It was also sensitive to ofloxacin (OFLX) and ciprofloxacin (CPFX), which are new quinolones. Some strains were only slightly sensitive to second and third generation cephems cefmenoxime (CMX) and cefuzonam (CZON) aminoglycosides amikacin (AMK) and arbekacin (HBK), and erythromycin which is a macrolide. 2. Staphylococcus aureus was sensitive to dicloxacillin (MDIPC) which is a penicillin drug, cefotiam (CTM) which is a cephem, IPM, minocycline (MINO), and HBK. A fairly large number of strains were only slightly sensitive to cefazolin (CEZ), OFLX and CPFX. 3. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were sensitive to MDIPC which is a penicillin derivative, cephems CTM and CZON, IPM, HBK, clindamycin (CLDM) and MINO. Some strains, however, were only slightly sensitive to a majority of these drugs. 4. E. coli was sensitive to CTM, CMX, latamoxef (LMOX), ceftazidime (CAZ), CZON, and flomoxef (FMOX), all of which are second or third generation cephems. It was also sensitive to IPM, a carbapenem, carumonam (CRMN), a monobactam, and new quinolones, OFLX and CPFX. 5. K. pneumoniae was sensitive to cephems, viz. CTM, CAZ, CZON, FMOX and cefixime, CRMN which is a monobactam, IPM, a carbapenem and new quinolones, OFLX and CPFX. Some strains were only slightly sensitive to CTM, cefmetazole cefoperazone (CPZ), and FMOX. 6. Citrobacter freundii was sensitive to CRMN which is a monobactam, and new quinolones, OFLX and CPFX. Many strains were only slightly sensitive to cephems, viz. CEZ, CTM, CPZ and CAZ. 7. Enterobacter cloacae was sensitive to gentamicin and AMK which are aminoglycosides, but showed a bimodal pattern of sensitivity to CPZ, CAZ and CZON, all of which are cephems, and to quinolones, OFLX and CPFX.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
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These findings suggest that cefpodoxime proxetil administered once daily is as effective and safe as cefixime given once daily in the treatment of acute suppurative otitis media in pediatric patients.
We assessed the validity of testing for antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical and mutant Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) isolates by disk diffusion in comparison to agar dilution, and Etest® (bioMerieux, France), respectively, for three third generation extended spectrum cephalosporins (ESC): ceftriaxone (CRO), cefixime (CFX), and cefpodoxime (CPD).
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A newly developed cephalosporin, cefixime (CFIX), was evaluated clinically in 35 pediatric patients. A pharmacokinetic study was also performed with 11 patients. CFIX was administered as granules. The pharmacokinetic study was conducted in 11 patients, each of 6 patients was given CFIX at a dose of 3 mg/kg and each of the remaining patients was given CFIX at 6 mg/kg. Serum concentrations of CFIX were measured at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 hours after dosing. Urinary concentrations of CFIX were measured for periods of 0-6 and 6-12 hours after dosing. CFIX was assayed by the disk method using E. coli ATCC 39188 as the test organism. The clinical evaluation was conducted in 35 children including 5 patients of acute tonsillitis, 10 of acute lacunar tonsillitis, 1 of purulent lymphadenitis, 1 of scarlet fever, 8 of acute bronchitis, 5 of pneumonia, 3 of urinary tract infections and 1 of paratyphoid B. One additional patient was included only in the evaluation of safety since he was suffering from Mycoplasma pneumonia. the patients were from 4 months to 8 years 2 months old and 11 of them were inpatients. Daily doses were from 6.0 to 13.5 mg/kg. After CFIX administration in doses of 3 mg/kg and 6 mg/kg, peak serum concentrations were 1.75 and 3.36 micrograms/ml, half-lives were 2.65 and 2.86 hours and urinary excretions rates up to 12 hours after dosing were 16.1 and 12.4%, respectively. Serum concentrations were dose dependent and the half-life was fairly long compared with other known oral cephalosporins. Clinical efficacies of CFIX in 34 patients were "excellent" in 25 children, "good" in 8 and "poor" in 1 with effectiveness rate of 97.1%. Twenty-two strains of causative organisms, including 6 strains of S. aureus, 3 of S. pyogenes, 2 of S. pneumoniae, 3 of E. coli, 5 of H. influenzae, 2 of H. parainfluenzae and 1 of S. paratyphi B, were isolated. After treatment all strains except 2 strains of S. aureus (one was unknown and the other was decreased), 1 strain of S. pneumoniae (unknown) and 1 strain of H. influenzae (unknown) were successfully eradicated but S. paratyphi B was proved again in feces 9 days after treatment. No adverse reaction was observed. Among 18 children who went through laboratory test, however, an elevation of eosinophile and elevations of GOT and GPT were observed in 2 children and 1 child, respectively.
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A total of 320 isolates were tested. Between 1990 and 2006 all tested samples were susceptible to both cephalosporins. Subsequently, the prevalence of elevated MICs for cefixime increased to 10.4% (2007/2008), 11.5% (2009/2010), and 11.4% (2011/2012); and for ceftriaxone to 2.4% (2007/2008), 4.7% (2009/2010), and 0% (2011/2012), respectively. The prevalence of resistance to ciprofloxacin (72.7%) and penicillin (22.7%) was high in 2011/2012.
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An open, prospective, and randomised trial of women with acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis was performed. Group A were given a daily intravenous dose of 1 g ceftriaxone; group B: ceftriaxone 1 g intravenous single dose followed by oral cefixime. When urine culture was received, both groups completed a 10 day treatment based in sensitivity studies. Only women with positive initial urine culture were included. After three days of treatment, clinical and bacteriological efficacy was assessed. Clinical response was classified as "cured" if acute symptoms (fever, urinary syndrome and flank pain) were settled. Bacteriological response was classified as: eradication, or no eradication.
Transport of 23 beta-lactam antibiotics was characterized by measuring their ability to inhibit the uptake of glycylsarcosine into Caco-2 cells, their uptake into the cells and their total flux across the cell monolayers.
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To determine the occurrence of Escherichia coli O157: H7 in hides and faeces of slaughtered ruminants in Nigeria.
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The delivery of effective antimicrobial therapy is essential for public health control of gonorrhoea, in the absence of a suitable vaccine. The antimicrobial agent chosen should have high efficacy and quality, lack toxicity and give >95% success when given empirically. Guidelines, which are informed by surveillance data, are used to aid clinicians in their choice of appropriate agent. Historically, gonorrhoea treatment has been delivered as a single, directly observed dose but this has resulted in failure of successive antimicrobial agents which have been replaced by a new antimicrobial to which resistance has been rare or non-existing. Following the drift towards decreased susceptibility and treatment failure to the extended spectrum cephalosporins, and the lack of 'new' alternative antimicrobials, the threat of difficult to treat or untreatable gonorrhoea has emerged. The challenge of maintaining gonorrhoea as a treatable infection has resulted in national, regional and global response or action plans. This review discusses different approaches to the future treatment of gonorrhoea including; use of ceftriaxone, the injectable cephalosporin at increased dosage; dual antimicrobial therapy; use of drugs developed for other infections and use of older agents, directed by rapid point of care tests, to susceptible infections. Finally, it is considered whether the time is right to readdress the possibility of developing an effective gonococcal vaccine, given the major advances in our understanding of natural infection, molecular pathogenesis and the revolution in molecular biology techniques.
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With bacterial resistances having increased, patients with diabetes who are at higher risk of urinary tract infection (UTI) need to be studied. The study aim was to compare bacterial resistances to ofloxacin, cefixim, co-trimoxazole, nitrofurantoin and fosfomycin in UTI between patients with and without diabetes.
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Cefixime is a safe, effective, and cheaper oral option for the treatment of multidrug-resistant enteric fever. Further studies are needed, however, to validate this observation.
Of the 20 non-susceptible isolates, 8 produced TEM β-lactamase (gBLPAR), 7 had mutations in the transpeptidase domain of the ftsI gene related to decreased susceptibility to β-lactams (gBLNAR) and 5 had both resistance mechanisms (gBLPACR). No resistance mechanisms were identified in the susceptible control group (gBLNAS). gBLNAR isolates had MIC90 values 4- to 16-fold higher than gBLNAS isolates for ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefuroxime, cefotaxime and cefixime, and the most common PBP3 mutation was Asn526Ser. The additional Ser385Thr substitution (III-like group) may confer decreased susceptibility to cefotaxime, cefixime and aztreonam, as in Haemophilus influenzae. In two β-lactamase-positive isolates without PBP3 mutations, the inhibitor-resistant TEM (IRT) β-lactamases TEM-34 and the novel TEM-182 were detected and carried by a TnA transposon of the Tn2 type; both isolates had an amoxicillin/clavulanic acid MIC of ≥8 mg/L. The TnA transposons of two β-lactamase-positive isolates (TEM-1 and TEM-182) were inserted between the tfc20 and tfc21 genes, typically associated with integrative and conjugative elements in Haemophilus spp.; the TEM-34 IRT β-lactamase was harboured in a ∼5.5 kb plasmid.
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We used a cost-effectiveness decision- analysis model to compare the two methods: the standard, ceftriaxone 125 mg given by IM injection; and an alternative, cefixime 400 mg given orally. The effect of the costs associated with the risk of accidental needlestick during IM administration was also evaluated. Key baseline assumptions (with ranges, when tested) were from the literature or costs to our hospital. These included ceftriaxone, $8.60 per dose; cefixime, $4.67 per dose; ceftriaxone efficacy, 98% (range, 94.9% to 100%); cefixime efficacy, 97% (94.1% to 100%); and a 15% probability of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) related to failed treatment. We included costs for PID necessitating hospitalization, disseminated gonococcal infection, infertility, and ectopic pregnancy. Assumptions related to accidental needlestick included the rate of needlesticks with the disposable syringe, 6.9 per 100,000 injections (range, 0 to 69); cost of accidental needlestick to hospital; risk of HIV seroconversion after needlestick exposure to HIV-infected blood, .36% (range, 0% to .86%); rate of HIV infection in 15- to 19-year-olds attending sexually transmitted diseases clinics, .4% (range, 0 to 5); and lifetime treatment costs for a person with HIV.
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Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae has emerged for essentially all antimicrobials following their introduction into clinical practice. During the latest decade, susceptibility to the last remaining options for antimicrobial monotherapy, the extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC), has markedly decreased internationally and treatment failures with these ESCs have been verified. In response to this developing situation, WHO and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) have published global and region-specific response plans, respectively. One main component of these action/response plans is to enhance the surveillance of AMR and treatment failures. This paper describes the perspectives from the diverse WHO European Region (53 countries), including the independent countries of the former Soviet Union, regarding gonococcal AMR surveillance networks. The WHO European Region has a high prevalence of resistance to all previously recommended antimicrobials, and most of the first strictly verified treatment failures with cefixime and ceftriaxone were also reported from Europe. In the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA), the European gonococcal antimicrobial surveillance programme (Euro-GASP) funded by the ECDC is running. In 2011, the Euro-GASP included 21/31 (68%) EU/EEA countries, and the programme is further strengthened annually. However, in the non-EU/EEA countries, internationally reported and quality assured gonococcal AMR data are lacking in 87% of the countries and, worryingly, appropriate support for establishment of a GASP is still lacking. Accordingly, national and international support, including political and financial commitment, for gonococcal AMR surveillance in the non-EU/EEA countries of the WHO European Region is essential.
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The new oral cephalosporins cefpodoxime, cefixime, cefdinir, cefetamet and ceftibuten demonstrate enhanced activity against Enterobacteriaceae susceptible to the established compounds as well (e.g. cefuroxime, cefaclor, cefadroxil). In addition, cefpodoxime, cefixime, cefdinir, cefetamet and ceftibuten include in their spectrum species hitherto resistant to oral cephalosporins (Proteus vulgaris, Providencia spp., Yersinia enterocolitica). Besides, the majority of these compounds demonstrate relevant activity (MIC50 equal to or below 2 mg/l) against Enterobacter spp., Citrobacter freundii, Serratia spp. and Morganella morganii. Ceftibuten is the most potent oral cephalosporin against most of the Enterobacteriaceae. Non-fermentative bacilli (Acinetobacter spp., Pseudomonas spp.) remain completely resistant to oral cephalosporins (except some Acinetobacter species against cefdinir and Pseudomonas cepacia against ceftibuten). Antistaphylococcal activity for oral cephalosporins is highest for cefdinir followed by BAY 3522, cefprozil, cefuroxime and cefpodoxime. Loracarbef, cefaclor and cefadroxil are about equally active, while the other compounds are only weakly active (cefixime) or inactive (cefetamet, ceftibuten). Enterococci are insensitive to new generation oral cephalosporins as they have been to established compounds. The most active oral cephalosporins against hemolytic streptococci are cefdinir and cefprozil. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus milleri and Streptococcus mitior are most susceptible to cefpodoxime, cefdinir, cefuroxime and BAY 3522. Penicillin resistant pneumococci have to be regarded as resistant to all oral cephalosporins. Fastidious pathogens like Haemophilus spp., Moraxella catarrhalis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are more susceptible to cefpodoxime, cefixime, cefdinir, cefetamet and ceftibuten than to the other oral cephalosporins. The activity of oral cephalosporins is only weak against Listeria spp., Helicobacter pylori and anaerobic pathogens (except BAY 3522). Bordetella pertussis remains resistant to all absorbable cephalosporins. Progress in antibacterial activity of oral cephalosporins was mainly achieved by cefpodoxime, cefixime, cefdinir, cefetamet and ceftibuten against Enterobacteriaceae and the fastidious pathogens and against staphylococci and the nonenterococcal streptococci by cefdinir, BAY 3522, cefprozil and cefpodoxime.
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To assess the quality of medicines and prevalence of SFFC medicines among selected products, a cross-sectional survey was carried out in Cambodia. Cefixime, omeprazole, co-trimoxazole, clarithromycin, and sildenafil were selected as candidate medicines. These medicines were purchased from private community drug outlets in the capital, Phnom Penh, and Svay Rieng and Kandal provinces through a stratified random sampling scheme in July 2010.
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The enrichment, isolation and detection procedures used in this study provide a rapid routine-based molecular method for the detection and differentiation of E. coli O26, O111 and O157 from minced meat.
Adult patients with chronic periodontitis (n = 90) underwent non-surgical periodontal treatment (zero-day) and then randomly divided into three groups. The group I served as a control, the group II was additionally treated with the combination of amoxicillin and metronidazole (for 7 days), while the group III was treated with cefixime (also for 7 days). To assess the condition of periodontium before and seven days after the therapy, four clinical parameters were used: gingival index (GI), bleeding on probing (BOP), probing depth (PD) and clinical attachment level (CAL).
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The most frequently identified pathogens in our patients were ESBL-producing E coli and E faecalis. Fosfomycin tromethamine and nitrofurantoin showed a good antimicrobial activity against UTI pathogens. They may represent good options for the empiric treatment of patients with UTI.