To assess tenofovir + lamivudine + efavirenz versus zidovudine + lamivudine + efavirenz in treatment-naive patients using a cost-effectiveness analysis.
We predicted that the dominant mechanism for the 70% reduction in the second-phase viraemia is not antiviral efficacy but the stage of the HIV viral life cycle at which raltegravir acts. Furthermore, we found that the kinetic constraints placed on the identity of the virus-producing cells of the second phase were most consistent with monocytes/macrophages.
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Given the fidelity of such comparisons, we conclude that this highly reproducible mouse model is likely to predict clinical antiviral efficacy in humans.
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The drug-drug interaction studies for HCV direct-acting antivirals and antiretrovirals are important in determining the appropriate drug combinations and dosages. The clinical implications of these interactions need further assessment in different categories of patients, including those with cirrhosis.
A 42-year-old man with long-standing HIV-infection (CDC C3) and multiple treatment failures was seen for follow-up 6 months after starting a new HAART (zidovudine, efavirenz, indinavir, ritonavir). The medical history is remarkable for a hypersensitivity reaction to abacavir, past smoking (10 pack years) and a family history of coronary heart disease of the patient's mother. Physical examination revealed discrete signs of lipoatrophy of the face, arms and legs, but no lipoaccumulation (hip-waist ratio 0.94; body mass index 22 kg/m2). Blood pressure measured 156/92 mmHg.
Slow crystallization from different solvents under controlled conditions was employed to prepare various crystalline forms. The TGA and DSC were used to study their thermal behavior and inter-conversion of these forms. The calorimetrically determined enthalpies of solution and solubility data are utilized to determine the transition temperatures.
A total of 1550 antiretroviral-naive patients starting a two-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor regimen plus either efavirenz (n = 1159) or lopinavir/ritonavir (n = 391) were included in the study. At baseline, patients starting lopinavir/ritonavir had higher HIV-1 RNA and lower CD4+ cell counts. There was no difference in the adjusted hazards of virological failure [efavirenz versus lopinavir/ritonavir hazard ratio (HR) = 0.93, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.77-1.12, P = 0.43], CD4 recovery (HR = 1.11, 95% CI: 0.95-1.30, P = 0.19) and clinical progression (HR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.39-1.31, P = 0.27). There was an increased risk of discontinuation for any reason or for toxicity for lopinavir/ritonavir (HR = 2.10, 95% CI: 1.40-3.15, P = 0.0003). CD4 recovery with both drugs was also similar in the lowest CD4 strata. A higher risk of early hypertriglyceridaemia was associated with lopinavir/ritonavir-based regimens.
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A significant proportion of patients had adverse effects of a lower grade severity after HAART. A significant proportion of those started on ART substitute therapy due to adverse effects and those on NVP-based regimens are more likely to do so when compared with those on non-NVP- based regimens.
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There are 3 groups of drugs available for the treatment of patients with HIV disease. These are the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors ('nucleoside analogues') [zidovudine, didanosine, zalcitabine, lamivudine and abacavir]; the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (nevirapine, delavirdine and efavirenz); and the protease inhibitors (saquinavir, ritonavir, indinavir, nelfinavir and amprenavir). The preferred initial regimen should reduce and maintain plasma HIV RNA below the level of detection. Presently, the regimen of choice consists of 2 nucleoside analogues plus a protease inhibitor with high in vivo efficacy. An alternative combination consists of 2 nucleoside analogues plus a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor. Drug interactions are one of the major problems associated with these multidrug regimens. Changes in plasma concentrations of the nucleoside analogues are unlikely to be of clinical relevance as drug effect is mainly dependent on the rate and extent of intracellular phosphorylation. Combinations of zidovudine plus stavudine, and probably zalcitabine plus lamivudine, should be avoided as competition for phosphorylating enzymes may occur. The antiviral efficacy of some nucleoside analogues, e.g. stavudine, may be compromised by prior treatment with other nucleosides (e.g. zidovudine). However, these data need to be clarified in further studies. It is unlikely that administration of other antiretrovirals will influence the activity of nucleoside analogues. Protease inhibitors are metabolised by hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4. Combination protease inhibitor therapy can result in drug interactions mediated by enzyme inhibition. Ritonavir is the most potent inhibitor, saquinavir the least. The protease inhibitors also interact with the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Nevirapine and efavirenz induce drug metabolising enzymes and may reduce plasma concentrations of protease inhibitors. A study in healthy volunteers showed that nelfinavir concentrations are increased by combination with efavirenz. Delavirdine inhibits drug metabolising enzymes and increases the plasma concentration of coadministered protease inhibitors. The nucleoside analogues would not be expected to interact with the protease inhibitors. Apart from the ability of didanosine to reduce the area under the concentration-time curve of delavirdine, there are no reports of clinically significant interactions of other antiretrovirals with the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Triple therapy is the current standard of care for patients with HIV disease. However, studies of quadruple therapy are already under way. Drug interactions are likely to remain one of the major considerations when selecting a therapeutic regimen for patients with HIV.
To describe first dose and steady state antiretroviral drug exposure in the female genital tract.
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To characterize the association of antiretroviral drug combinations on risk of cardiovascular events.
After substitution of EFV by ETR, patients did not express a significant preference for ETR. There was no measurable effect on neuropsychiatric symptoms and sleep. Cholesterol decreased.
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Sixty-seven per cent of patients had previously used efavirenz or nevirapine. At week 48, the most common treatment-related grade ≥ 2 adverse event (AE) was rash (13%); 12% experienced grade 3 AEs. Only two grade 4 AEs occurred (both thrombocytopaenia, not etravirine related). At week 48, 56% of patients (68% children; 48% adolescents) achieved a virological response (VL<50 copies/mL; intent-to-treat, noncompleter=failure). Factors predictive of response were adherence > 95%, male sex, low baseline etravirine weighted genotypic score and high etravirine trough concentration (C0h ). Seventy-six patients (75%) completed the trial; most discontinuations occurred because of protocol noncompliance or AEs (8% each). Sixty-five per cent of patients were > 95% adherent by questionnaire and 39% by pill count. Forty-one patients experienced virological failure (VF; time-to-loss-of-virological-response non-VF-censored algorithm) (29 nonresponders; 12 rebounders). Of 30 patients with VF with paired baseline/endpoint genotypes, 18 (60%) developed nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) mutations, most commonly Y181C. Mean etravirine area under the plasma concentration-time curve over 12 h (AUC0-12h ; 5216 ng h/mL) and C0h (346 ng/mL) were comparable to adult target values.
We aimed to evaluate treatment responses to atazanavir plus ritonavir (ATV/r) or efavirenz (EFV) in initial antiretroviral regimens among women and men, and determine if treatment outcomes differ by sex.
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Between November 2002 and October 2005, 853 subjects (98% male, median age 40 years, and median CD4 cell count at HAART initiation 186 cells/mul) met enrollment criteria. The incidence of events on-HAART was higher than pre-HAART for neutropenia and nausea/vomiting. Dizziness was common early after HAART initiation (not evaluated pre-HAART). Of those with neutropenia, 88% had no apparent clinical consequences. The incidence of anemia, hepatotoxicity, peripheral neuropathy, and rash was similar or higher pre-HAART than on-HAART. Mean hemoglobin rose during the time on-HAART and was higher at 24 and 48 weeks than at baseline (P < 0.001).
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Raltegravir is the first integrase inhibitor approved for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in pretreated adults with evidence of viral replication despite receiving antiretroviral therapy. Raltegravir is administered orally at a dose of 400 mg every 12 hours, with or without food. This drug is mainly eliminated through UGT1A1-mediated glucuronidation and is not an inhibitor or inducer of the main liver cytochrome P450 isoenzymes; consequently there is virtually no risk of pharmacological interactions with most commonly used drugs such as methadone, azole antifungal agents or drugs used to treat erectile dysfunction. Studies of interaction with other antiretroviral agents show that raltegravir can be used in combination with tenofovir, efavirenz, atazanavir, ritonavir or tipranavir/ritonavir without the need for dose adjustments. When combined with rifampicin, the dose of raltegravir should be increased to 800 mg/12 h. Proton pump inhibitors increase plasma levels of raltegravir (a 3-fold increase in exposure or AUC levels), and consequently their combined use should be avoided as far as posible. Raltegravir is well tolerated and does not require dose adjustments in patients with severe renal impairment or mild-to-moderate liver impairment. There are no studies in patients with severe liver impairment.
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The significant roles that cytochrome P450 (P450) and UDP-glucuronosyl transferase (UGT) enzymes play in drug discovery cannot be ignored, and these enzyme systems are commonly examined during drug optimization using liver microsomes or hepatocytes. At the same time, other drug-metabolizing enzymes have a role in the metabolism of drugs and can lead to challenges in drug optimization that could be mitigated if the contributions of these enzymes were better understood. We present examples (mostly from Genentech) of five different non-P450 and non-UGT enzymes that contribute to the metabolic clearance or bioactivation of drugs and drug candidates. Aldehyde oxidase mediates a unique amide hydrolysis of GDC-0834 (N-[3-[6-[4-[(2R)-1,4-dimethyl-3-oxopiperazin-2-yl]anilino]-4-methyl-5-oxopyrazin-2-yl]-2-methylphenyl]-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1-benzothiophene-2-carboxamide), leading to high clearance of the drug. Likewise, the rodent-specific ribose conjugation by ADP-ribosyltransferase leads to high clearance of an interleukin-2-inducible T-cell kinase inhibitor. Metabolic reactions by flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMO) are easily mistaken for P450-mediated metabolism such as oxidative defluorination of 4-fluoro-N-methylaniline by FMO. Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase is involved in the initial hydrolysis of glutathione metabolites, leading to formation of proximate toxins and nephrotoxicity, as is observed with cisplatin in the clinic, or renal toxicity, as is observed with efavirenz in rodents. Finally, cathepsin B is a lysosomal enzyme that is highly expressed in human tumors and has been targeted to release potent cytotoxins, as in the case of brentuximab vedotin. These examples of non-P450- and non-UGT-mediated metabolism show that a more complete understanding of drug metabolizing enzymes allows for better insight into the fate of drugs and improved design strategies of molecules in drug discovery.
For full HIV virological suppression, three fully active antiretroviral agents are required. New drug classes should be included to ensure that agents are fully active. The addition of enfuvirtide and efavirenz to the present patient's new antiretroviral regimen ensured that two fully active agents were in use in the setting of a moderate degree of nucleoside resistance and a high level of protease resistance, and where non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors were still fully active. Both viral load and CD4 count responded favourably to this regimen. The patient received support from physicians and clinic staff in the introduction and use of enfuvirtide. To reduce injection site reactions, a needle-free injection system (Biojector) proved effective.
This was a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multicenter, Phase I clinical study in fasting, healthy male volunteers. Subjects were randomly assigned in a ratio of 7:7:4:4 to receive lersivirine 500 mg BID, lersivirine 750 mg once daily, efavirenz 600 mg once daily, or placebo once daily for 28 days. Safety and tolerability were assessed throughout the study by continuous collection of adverse events (AEs), including adverse drug reactions, illnesses with onset during the study, exacerbation of previous illnesses, and clinically significant changes in physical examination findings. Vital sign measurements and ECGs were performed at screening; on day 1 (predose and 2, 3, and 4 hours postdose); on days 7, 14, 21, and 28 (predose); at discharge; and at follow-up. Safety laboratory tests (including hematology, chemistry, and urinalysis) were performed at screening; days 0, 7, 14, 21, and 27; and at follow-up.
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The median values of all assessed semen parameters were within a normal range, but in up to 19% of HIV-positive males, at least one parameter of semen quality was below the normal range. A significant association between treatment with efavirenz and the presence of dysmotility was detected in the multivariate analysis.
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Cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6) is the main metabolizing pathway for efavirenz (EFV), the prescription of which is associated with neurologic side effects. The authors conducted a study on the prevalence of CYP2B6 polymorphism, profile of side effects, and pharmacokinetics of EFV in a group of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected southern Chinese. Patients with HIV were recruited at the Shenzhen City Third People's Hospital, China. The prevalence of CYP2B6 G516T and plasma EFV concentration were determined. Pharmacokinetics was assessed using blood samples of selected patients at time 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours after the last dose of EFV. Between October 2007 and June 2008, 79 Chinese patients with HIV were recruited. Sequencing of CYP2B6 at position 516 gave 42 GG, 34 GT, and 3 TT genotypes, with corresponding mean spot plasma EFV level of 3.4, 4.1, and 8.1 mg/L, respectively. The allelic frequency of 516 G>T was 0.25. Univariate analysis showed that plasma EFV level correlated with genotype (P = 0.02). Eighteen patients completed the pharmacokinetic study: TT genotype gave the longest half-life (t 1/2), highest plasma EFV concentration, and largest area under the curve. The volume of distribution per surface area (Vd ss), total clearance (Cltot), and elimination rate constant (ke) were the lowest. There was no association between the occurrence of side effects and the EFV concentration (chi2 test, P > 0.05). The EFV pharmacokinetics of TT genotype differed significantly from GG and GT genotypes. Accumulation of EFV may potentially occur over time, causing toxicity in TT and GT genotypes.
CYP3A inducers, rifampicin and efavirenz, can reduce telaprevir exposure to varying degrees based on their potency. The effect of ketoconazole as an inhibitor of telaprevir metabolism is more pronounced after a single dose of telaprevir than after repeated administration.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the metabolic abnormalities (dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance) associated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in AIDS patients, treated in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The patients were distributed in five different groups: Group 1, HIV-infected without antiretroviral therapy; Group 2, with Zidovudine, Lamivudine and Efavirenz or Nevirapine; Group 3, with Zidovudine, Lamivudine and Protease Inhibitor; Group 4, with Stavudine, Lamivudine and Efavirenz or Nevirapine; and Group 5, with Stavudine, Lamivudine and Protease Inhibitor. The lipid and glucose profile were determined and statistics comparison was made. The findings of this study showed significant statistics elevations of total cholesterol and triglycerides levels in patients of Groups 3, 4 and 5, when comparing to patients of Groups 1 and 2. Significant differences were not observed between the groups in the others parameters evaluated: Glucose, HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol. Comparing two drugs of same class (NNRTI) through the subgroups II-efavirenz and II-nevirapine, significant differences in the serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose favorable to the subgroup II-NVP were observed. These findings suggest that combinations including Protease Inhibitors and/or Stavudine could cause more adverse metabolic effects, and if possible, should be avoided in patients with others cardiovascular risk factors to prevent the precocious atherosclerosis in AIDS patients receiving HAART.
Body weight and tuberculosis treatment were not associated with low efavirenz concentrations or treatment failure, supporting the 600 mg daily-dose of efavirenz in HIV-tuberculosis co-infected patients. High efavirenz concentrations were related to a higher risk of central nervous system side effects and hepatotoxicity.
This study analyzed the differences between the virological and immunological responses in patients with HIV/AIDS subjected to different treatment protocols. The cases treated with HAART were divided into groups on the basis of treatment protocols. The groups were evaluated with respect to the differences by comparing the virological and immunological responses prior to treatment and at 12 and 24 weeks of therapy. Six different treatment protocols were applied in the treated patients. As the largest clusters, the lopinavir/ritonavir-based patient group (Group 1, n = 29) and efavirenz-based patient group (Group 2, n = 18) were compared. The mean CD4 and HIV-RNA values of Groups 1 and 2 were 184 and 243 h/μl and 422,266 and 317,684 copies/ml, respectively. At 24 weeks of treatment, the HIV-RNA levels were below detectable values in 86% and 78% of the patients in Groups 1 and 2, respectively (p > 0.001). The striking outcomes observed in this study demonstrated that the pretreatment HIV-RNA level, CD4 value, gender, age, and protease inhibitor- or non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based combined treatment protocols do not cause a significant difference and that patient compliance to treatment is the most important factor associated with treatment success.
Adverse effects to ART resulted in about a quarter of patients switching drugs during the early treatment period. II-based regimens were advantageous because they were less likely to induce switching within 18 months of treatment commencement. These findings indicated the importance of considering and monitoring the adverse effects of ART in order to improve adherence.