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The δ-carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 126.96.36.199) TweCA from the marine diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii has recently been cloned, purified and its activity/inhibition with anions investigated. Here we report the first sulfonamide/sulfamate inhibition study of a δ-class CA. Among the 40 such compounds investigated so far, 3-bromosulfanilamide, acetazolamide, ethoxzolamide, dorzolamide and brinzolamide were the most effective TweCA inhibitors detected, with KIs of 49.6-118nM. Many simple aromatic sulfonamides as well as dichlorophenamide, benzolamide, topiramate, zonisamide, indisulam and valdecoxib were medium potency inhibitors, (KIs of 375-897nM). Saccharin and hydrochlorothiazide were ineffective inhibitors of the δ-class enzyme, with KIs of 4.27-9.20μM. The inhibition profile of the δ-CA is very different from that of α-, β- and γ-CAs from different organisms. Although no X-ray crystal structure of this enzyme is available, we hypothesize that as for other CA classes, the sulfonamides inhibit the enzymatic activity by binding to the Zn(II) ion from the δ-CA active site.
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The immature brain is intrinsically hyperexcitable, a feature that, despite being crucial for learning, synaptogenesis and neuronal plasticity, predisposes the neonate to seizures. Seizures represent the most common neurologic manifestation of impaired brain function in this age group. Importantly, although seizure-induced neuronal injury is minimal in the "healthy" neonatal brain, the "metabolically-compromised" brain appears more vulnerable. Even in the "healthy" brain, however, seizures result in impaired learning, enhanced susceptibility to further seizures, and increased risk of brain injury with seizures later in life, as a result of altered hippocampal circuitry. Given these findings, an aggressive approach to neonatal seizures appears warranted. However, our current conventional therapies (including phenobarbital, phenytoin, and benzodiazepines), even when used in combination, are often ineffective in controlling seizures. Lidocaine may yield better efficacy but requires more study. Recent animal data suggest that alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole proprionic acid (AMPA) antagonists such as topiramate may have a neuroprotective role. However, further work is needed to confirm the safety of excitatory amino acid antagonists in neonates because there remains a prevailing concern that such agents may impair normal neurodevelopmental processes.
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Double-blind controlled trials with adequate samples (n > 100) were identified through search of PubMed/MEDLINE and computerized abstracts from 2004-2006 meetings of the American Psychiatric Association, International Conference on Bipolar Disorder, and Collegium Internationale Neuro-Psychopharmacolium using key words mania, adjunct, and combination.
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This pilot study supports the practice of using low-to-moderate dosages of AEDs in older adults.
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We conducted two population-based, retrospective cohort studies in Ontario, Canada, between 2003 and 2015 using administrative health care databases of older adults. The first study compared carbamazepine users to a propensity-score matched group of antiepileptic drug nonusers, whereas the second compared V-P-T users to a propensity-score matched group of antiepileptic nonusers. The primary outcome was hospitalization with hyponatremia within 30 days of an antiepileptic prescription.
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Although anecdotal, these observations suggest that topiramate may be an effective treatment for patients with BED and obesity who experience recurrent binge eating and weight gain after initially successful bariatric surgery.
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The final PK model was CL/F (L/h)=(1.16+1.36 × PHT+1.01 × CBZ+0.643 × OXC+0.476 × PB)×(CLcr/90)(0.310)×(DOSE/100)(0.0929) (1 in patients co-medicated with each drug, 0 in otherwise) and V/F (L)=109 × (WT/62). For a typical patient with CLcr of 90 mL/min and DOSE of 100mg, co-medication with PHT, CBZ, OXC, and PB increased the CL/F to 2.52 (1.16+1.36)L/h, 2.17 (1.16+1.01)L/h, 1.803 (1.16+0.643)L/h, and 1.636 (1.16+0.476)L/h, respectively, which was 117, 87, 55, and 41% higher, respectively, than in patients without co-medication.
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Dual differentiation therapy with arsenic trioxide and tretinoin (all-trans-retinoic acid; ATRA) for the management of low and intermediate risk acute promyelocytic leukemia has recently been recommended by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network. Some less common toxicities of the combination may have yet to be fully realized. Of ten patients we have treated thus far, five (50%) have developed pseudotumor cerebri. In one patient, temporary discontinuation of ATRA and initiation of acetazolamide controlled symptoms. In four patients, topiramate was substituted for acetazolamide to relieve symptoms and allow ATRA dose re-escalation. We conclude that providers should monitor for pseudotumor cerebri and consider topiramate if acetazolamide fails.
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We searched PubMed for all English-language articles published January 1966 to November 2010 using BD and MDD cross-referenced with metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. That search was augmented by a review of articles reporting outcomes of an intervention targeting components of metabolic syndrome in individuals with MDD or BD.
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Time to treatment failure (withdrawal of the randomised drug for reasons of unacceptable adverse events or inadequate seizure control or a combination of the two) and time to achieve a 12-month remission of seizures. Time from randomisation to first seizure, 24-month remission of seizures, incidence of clinically important adverse events, quality of life (QoL) outcomes and health economic outcomes were also considered.
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A simple method can be applied to assess the relative cost effectiveness of two therapies in the absence of direct comparative data. Applying this method to compare topiramate and lamotrigine leads to a strong preference for topiramate. However, to be able to draw this conclusion, some heroic assumptions need to be made. As such the method as developed here only reflects a first approximation. It needs to be used with care and is not intended to replace good comparative research.
There is a pressing need for consistent, evidence-based guidelines in the management of neonatal seizures by pediatric neurologists and neonatologists. Israeli pediatric neurologists and neonatologists completed a 20-item, self-administered questionnaire on choices of antiepileptic drugs, treatment of intractable neonatal seizures (unremitting seizures after 3 medications), treatment duration, and recommended workup. The responding 36/55 (65%) neurologists and 66/112 (59%) neonatologists made similar antiepileptic drug choices (phenobarbital as first line, phenytoin as second line, and benzodiazepines as third line). Antiepileptic treatment duration was similar for both groups, but varied considerably within them (range, 1-52 weeks). Neurologists tended to recommend longer treatment for seizures secondary to asphyxia or hemorrhage. Neurologists and neonatologists recommended different antiepileptic drugs for intractable neonatal seizures: valproic acid and topiramate by neurologists, vs lidocaine and benzodiazepines by neonatologists (P = 0.0023). Fewer neurologists recommended continuous electroencephalography monitoring after asphyxia than neonatologists (40% vs 70.5%, P = 0.013). These responses reflect both similarities and inconsistencies of the two groups in diagnosing and treating neonatal seizures. Our findings call for controlled clinical trials to establish protocols for (1) diagnosing neonatal seizures, (2) studying the efficacy and safety of new-generation antiepileptic drugs, and (3) determining optimal duration of drug administration.
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We performed a literature review to find signals for potential associations between newer AEDs (lamotrigine, topiramate, levetiracetam, gabapentin, oxcarbazepine, eslicarbazepine, felbamate, lacosamide, pregabalin, retigabine, rufinamide, stiripentol, tiagabine, vigabatrin, and zonisamide) and specific congenital anomalies.
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In our experience, TPM seems to be effective in about 90% of patients with NFLE. Few of them experienced transitory adverse events. TPM could be included in the options for patients with this form of epilepsy.
A 26-year-old man with bipolar disorder developed hyperammonemia three weeks after initiating carbamazepine therapy.
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The clinical relevance of the inductive properties of carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital and primidone and the inhibitory properties of valproic acid and some antidepressants are well understood; correction factors are provided if appropriate DI studies have been completed. More PK studies are needed for: i) antiepileptics with potent inductive effects for all recently approved antidepressants; ii) high doses of mild CYP3A4 inducers, such as clobazam, eslicarbazepine, oxcarbazepine, rufinamide and topiramate for reboxetine and vilazodone; iii) valproate as a possible inhibitor, mild inducer or both a mild inducer and competitive inhibitor of some antidepressants; and iv) inhibitory effects of long-term fluoxetine use on clobazam, lacosamide, phenobarbital, primidone, carbamazepine, felbamate, tiagabine and zonisamide. Possible synergistic or additive beneficial PD DIs in generalized anxiety disorder, chronic pain, migraine prophylaxis, weight control and menopausal symptoms need study.
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To describe the dose-concentration relationship of a continuous intravenous infusion of valproic acid (VPA) in pediatric patients when a dosing protocol is used.
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The aim of the study was to obtain pharmacokinetic data for carbamazepine (CBZ) and its fractions not bound with proteins in bitherapy with lamotrigine (LTG), topiramate (TPM), vigabatrin (VGB) or valproic acid (VPA) in children and adolescents treated for epilepsy.
The models described within this paper can be used to identify patients most likely to achieve 12-month remission and most likely to have treatment failure, aiding individual patient risk stratification and the design and analysis of future epilepsy trials.
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Important and difficult problem of neuroprotective therapy in childhood epilepsy require further experimental and clinical investigations.