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Topamax (Topiramate)

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Generic Topamax is a medication of high quality, which is taken in treatment of seizures in people with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and epilepsy. It can also be used to prevent migraine and infantile spasms. Generic Topamax is acting by reducing brain agitation.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Neurontin, Depakote, Lamictal, Tegretol


Also known as:  Topiramate.


Generic Topamax target is the treatment of seizures in people with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and epilepsy. It can also be used to prevent migraine and infantile spasms.

Generic Topamax is acting by reducing brain agitation. It is anticonvulsant.

Topamax is also known as Topiramate, Topaz.

Generic name of Generic Topamax is Topiramate.

Brand name of Generic Topamax is Topamax.


Take it orally at the same time every day, with or without food.

Generic Topamax can be taken twice a day (in the morning and in the evening).

Avoid low-carbohydrate and high-fat diet.

Elderly people should be very careful with Generic Topamax.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Topamax suddenly.


If you overdose Generic Topamax and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Generic Topamax overdosage: feeling drowsy, problems with a speech, blurred vision, double vision, fatigue, lack of coordination, lack of consciousness, lightheadedness, pain of stomach, dyspepsia, vomiting, extreme hunger, agitation, depression, dyspnoea, confusion, decreased appetite, weakness of muscle, pain of bone, convulsion, coma.


Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of reach of children in a container that small children cannot open.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Topamax are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Generic Topamax if you are allergic to Generic Topamax components.

Do not take Generic Topamax if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding.

Be careful if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement.

Be careful if you are taking ipratropium (such as Atrovent); motion sickness, irritable bowel disease, mental illness, urinary problems, Parkinson's disease, ulcers medicines; oral contraceptives; methazolamide; seizures medicines (carbamazepine (such as Tegretol), phenytoin (such as Phenytek, Dilantin); metformin (such as Glucophage); iron; salicylate pain relievers (such as choline salicylate (such as Arthropan), aspirin, choline magnesium trisalicylate (such as Trisalate), diflunisal (such as Dolobid), magnesium salicylate (such as Doan's); dichlorphenamide (such as Daranide); digoxin (such as Digitek, Lanoxin); zonisamide (such as Zonegran); tranquilizers; acetazolamide (such as Diamox); valproic acid (such as Depakote, Depakene); cholestyramine (such as Questran); sedatives; antidepressants; isoniazid (such as Nydrazid, INH); antihistamines, salsalate (such as Salgesic, Argesic, Disalcid), sleeping pills.

Be careful if you have lung, kidney or liver disease, diabetes, glaucoma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, nearsightedness, diarrhea, metabolic acidosis, kidney stones.

Avoid low-carbohydrate and high-fat diet.

Avoid being dehydrated.

Elderly people should be very careful with Generic Topamax.

Be careful with Generic Topamax if you are going to have a surgery (dental or other).

If you experience drowsiness and dizziness while taking Generic Topamax you should avoid any activities such as driving or operating machinery.

To prevent pregnancy, use an extra form of birth control because hormonal birth control pills may not work as well while you are using Generic Topamax.

Avoid alcohol while taking Generic Topamax.

It can be dangerous to stop Generic Topamax taking suddenly.

topamax maximum dosage

The δ-carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC TweCA from the marine diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii has recently been cloned, purified and its activity/inhibition with anions investigated. Here we report the first sulfonamide/sulfamate inhibition study of a δ-class CA. Among the 40 such compounds investigated so far, 3-bromosulfanilamide, acetazolamide, ethoxzolamide, dorzolamide and brinzolamide were the most effective TweCA inhibitors detected, with KIs of 49.6-118nM. Many simple aromatic sulfonamides as well as dichlorophenamide, benzolamide, topiramate, zonisamide, indisulam and valdecoxib were medium potency inhibitors, (KIs of 375-897nM). Saccharin and hydrochlorothiazide were ineffective inhibitors of the δ-class enzyme, with KIs of 4.27-9.20μM. The inhibition profile of the δ-CA is very different from that of α-, β- and γ-CAs from different organisms. Although no X-ray crystal structure of this enzyme is available, we hypothesize that as for other CA classes, the sulfonamides inhibit the enzymatic activity by binding to the Zn(II) ion from the δ-CA active site.

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The immature brain is intrinsically hyperexcitable, a feature that, despite being crucial for learning, synaptogenesis and neuronal plasticity, predisposes the neonate to seizures. Seizures represent the most common neurologic manifestation of impaired brain function in this age group. Importantly, although seizure-induced neuronal injury is minimal in the "healthy" neonatal brain, the "metabolically-compromised" brain appears more vulnerable. Even in the "healthy" brain, however, seizures result in impaired learning, enhanced susceptibility to further seizures, and increased risk of brain injury with seizures later in life, as a result of altered hippocampal circuitry. Given these findings, an aggressive approach to neonatal seizures appears warranted. However, our current conventional therapies (including phenobarbital, phenytoin, and benzodiazepines), even when used in combination, are often ineffective in controlling seizures. Lidocaine may yield better efficacy but requires more study. Recent animal data suggest that alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole proprionic acid (AMPA) antagonists such as topiramate may have a neuroprotective role. However, further work is needed to confirm the safety of excitatory amino acid antagonists in neonates because there remains a prevailing concern that such agents may impair normal neurodevelopmental processes.

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Double-blind controlled trials with adequate samples (n > 100) were identified through search of PubMed/MEDLINE and computerized abstracts from 2004-2006 meetings of the American Psychiatric Association, International Conference on Bipolar Disorder, and Collegium Internationale Neuro-Psychopharmacolium using key words mania, adjunct, and combination.

topamax medication uses

This pilot study supports the practice of using low-to-moderate dosages of AEDs in older adults.

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We conducted two population-based, retrospective cohort studies in Ontario, Canada, between 2003 and 2015 using administrative health care databases of older adults. The first study compared carbamazepine users to a propensity-score matched group of antiepileptic drug nonusers, whereas the second compared V-P-T users to a propensity-score matched group of antiepileptic nonusers. The primary outcome was hospitalization with hyponatremia within 30 days of an antiepileptic prescription.

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Although anecdotal, these observations suggest that topiramate may be an effective treatment for patients with BED and obesity who experience recurrent binge eating and weight gain after initially successful bariatric surgery.

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The final PK model was CL/F (L/h)=(1.16+1.36 × PHT+1.01 × CBZ+0.643 × OXC+0.476 × PB)×(CLcr/90)(0.310)×(DOSE/100)(0.0929) (1 in patients co-medicated with each drug, 0 in otherwise) and V/F (L)=109 × (WT/62). For a typical patient with CLcr of 90 mL/min and DOSE of 100mg, co-medication with PHT, CBZ, OXC, and PB increased the CL/F to 2.52 (1.16+1.36)L/h, 2.17 (1.16+1.01)L/h, 1.803 (1.16+0.643)L/h, and 1.636 (1.16+0.476)L/h, respectively, which was 117, 87, 55, and 41% higher, respectively, than in patients without co-medication.

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Dual differentiation therapy with arsenic trioxide and tretinoin (all-trans-retinoic acid; ATRA) for the management of low and intermediate risk acute promyelocytic leukemia has recently been recommended by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network. Some less common toxicities of the combination may have yet to be fully realized. Of ten patients we have treated thus far, five (50%) have developed pseudotumor cerebri. In one patient, temporary discontinuation of ATRA and initiation of acetazolamide controlled symptoms. In four patients, topiramate was substituted for acetazolamide to relieve symptoms and allow ATRA dose re-escalation. We conclude that providers should monitor for pseudotumor cerebri and consider topiramate if acetazolamide fails.

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We searched PubMed for all English-language articles published January 1966 to November 2010 using BD and MDD cross-referenced with metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. That search was augmented by a review of articles reporting outcomes of an intervention targeting components of metabolic syndrome in individuals with MDD or BD.

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Time to treatment failure (withdrawal of the randomised drug for reasons of unacceptable adverse events or inadequate seizure control or a combination of the two) and time to achieve a 12-month remission of seizures. Time from randomisation to first seizure, 24-month remission of seizures, incidence of clinically important adverse events, quality of life (QoL) outcomes and health economic outcomes were also considered.

topamax topiramate medication

A simple method can be applied to assess the relative cost effectiveness of two therapies in the absence of direct comparative data. Applying this method to compare topiramate and lamotrigine leads to a strong preference for topiramate. However, to be able to draw this conclusion, some heroic assumptions need to be made. As such the method as developed here only reflects a first approximation. It needs to be used with care and is not intended to replace good comparative research.

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There is a pressing need for consistent, evidence-based guidelines in the management of neonatal seizures by pediatric neurologists and neonatologists. Israeli pediatric neurologists and neonatologists completed a 20-item, self-administered questionnaire on choices of antiepileptic drugs, treatment of intractable neonatal seizures (unremitting seizures after 3 medications), treatment duration, and recommended workup. The responding 36/55 (65%) neurologists and 66/112 (59%) neonatologists made similar antiepileptic drug choices (phenobarbital as first line, phenytoin as second line, and benzodiazepines as third line). Antiepileptic treatment duration was similar for both groups, but varied considerably within them (range, 1-52 weeks). Neurologists tended to recommend longer treatment for seizures secondary to asphyxia or hemorrhage. Neurologists and neonatologists recommended different antiepileptic drugs for intractable neonatal seizures: valproic acid and topiramate by neurologists, vs lidocaine and benzodiazepines by neonatologists (P = 0.0023). Fewer neurologists recommended continuous electroencephalography monitoring after asphyxia than neonatologists (40% vs 70.5%, P = 0.013). These responses reflect both similarities and inconsistencies of the two groups in diagnosing and treating neonatal seizures. Our findings call for controlled clinical trials to establish protocols for (1) diagnosing neonatal seizures, (2) studying the efficacy and safety of new-generation antiepileptic drugs, and (3) determining optimal duration of drug administration.

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We performed a literature review to find signals for potential associations between newer AEDs (lamotrigine, topiramate, levetiracetam, gabapentin, oxcarbazepine, eslicarbazepine, felbamate, lacosamide, pregabalin, retigabine, rufinamide, stiripentol, tiagabine, vigabatrin, and zonisamide) and specific congenital anomalies.

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In our experience, TPM seems to be effective in about 90% of patients with NFLE. Few of them experienced transitory adverse events. TPM could be included in the options for patients with this form of epilepsy.

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A 26-year-old man with bipolar disorder developed hyperammonemia three weeks after initiating carbamazepine therapy.

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The clinical relevance of the inductive properties of carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital and primidone and the inhibitory properties of valproic acid and some antidepressants are well understood; correction factors are provided if appropriate DI studies have been completed. More PK studies are needed for: i) antiepileptics with potent inductive effects for all recently approved antidepressants; ii) high doses of mild CYP3A4 inducers, such as clobazam, eslicarbazepine, oxcarbazepine, rufinamide and topiramate for reboxetine and vilazodone; iii) valproate as a possible inhibitor, mild inducer or both a mild inducer and competitive inhibitor of some antidepressants; and iv) inhibitory effects of long-term fluoxetine use on clobazam, lacosamide, phenobarbital, primidone, carbamazepine, felbamate, tiagabine and zonisamide. Possible synergistic or additive beneficial PD DIs in generalized anxiety disorder, chronic pain, migraine prophylaxis, weight control and menopausal symptoms need study.

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To describe the dose-concentration relationship of a continuous intravenous infusion of valproic acid (VPA) in pediatric patients when a dosing protocol is used.

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The aim of the study was to obtain pharmacokinetic data for carbamazepine (CBZ) and its fractions not bound with proteins in bitherapy with lamotrigine (LTG), topiramate (TPM), vigabatrin (VGB) or valproic acid (VPA) in children and adolescents treated for epilepsy.

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The models described within this paper can be used to identify patients most likely to achieve 12-month remission and most likely to have treatment failure, aiding individual patient risk stratification and the design and analysis of future epilepsy trials.

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Important and difficult problem of neuroprotective therapy in childhood epilepsy require further experimental and clinical investigations.

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topamax generic 2015-09-11

TPM can be effective at suppressing very intractable ES in a proportion of patients who do not respond to any other treatment. The efficacy of TPM may be predictable based on EEG changes observed early in the course of treatment. TPM is promising for the treatment of extremely intractable childhood epilepsy buy topamax online and it has largely tolerable adverse effects.

topamax 25mg medication 2015-11-14

Chronic migraine (CM) is a complex disorder requiring a multifaceted management approach encompassing lifestyle modification, trigger avoidance, behavioral therapy, pharmacotherapy, patient education and support, management of expectations, and close follow-up. The lack of pharmacotherapies approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) hinders CM prophylaxis and management. Topiramate, gabapentin, tizanidine, fluoxetine, amitriptyline, and onabotulinumtoxinA have been evaluated for prophylactic treatment of CM buy topamax online in randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled or active comparator-controlled trials. Additional well-designed, placebo-controlled studies are needed to assess the effectiveness of new and existing treatment options for CM. Understanding current clinical trial design and management guidelines is critical to designing future trials that overcome the challenge of consistent use of sensitive and clinically meaningful outcome measures. Topiramate is approved for episodic migraine management and has been studied for CM management. A growing body of evidence has shown it to be safe, effective, and well-tolerated in specific patient populations. However, intolerable adverse effects and inadequate efficacy associated with topiramate may lead to poor adherence. The efficacy, safety, and tolerability of onabotulinumtoxinA have been demonstrated in studies in various migraine patient populations, leading to recent FDA approval of onabotulinumtoxinA for the prophylactic treatment of CM in adults. These studies included patients with or without medication overuse, which may affect 30% to 80% of CM patients in the USA. In this program, we will analyze and discuss recent clinical trials investigating topiramate and onabotulinumtoxinA for CM.

topamax 50mg reviews 2016-07-19

The amount of weight loss appears to be related to some factors such as the duration buy topamax online of the treatment and a high baseline body mass index (BMI), while the role of daily dosage and gender of patients is controversial. The mechanism through which TPM may induce weight loss is still unclear.

topamax mg 2016-03-21

In three patients, two men aged 33 and 43 years receiving treatment for epilepsy, and one woman aged 31 years with mild mental retardation and psychotic episodes, psychotic symptoms emerged soon after the introduction of topiramate. These symptoms were associated with agitation/aggressive behaviour and significant weight loss. Psychotic symptomatology gradually disappeared after discontinuation of topiramate without the administration of an antipsychotic. Over the past years several novel anticonvulsants, including topiramate, have become available for the treatment buy topamax online of refractory partial seizures, with or without secondary generalisation. Some of them have been demonstrated to be effective in bipolar affective disorders as well. Treatment with topiramate can be associated with neuropsychiatric side-effects such as cognitive impairments, deficits in word finding, and incidental psychotic decompensation. Significant weight loss is often noted as well. Since psychiatric and cognitive side-effects may occur during treatment with topiramate, careful evaluation is mandatory especially in patients with a psychiatric history.

topamax high dose 2016-09-05

Neuropathic pain results from injury or dysfunction of the central or peripheral nervous system. The treatment of neuropathic pain is challenging, in part because of its multiple etiologies. The present study explores combinations of the analgesic tramadol and each of four anticonvulsants in the treatment of surgically induced (ligation of the L5 spinal nerve) allodynia in rats. Each of the five drugs studied exhibited a dose-dependent antiallodynic effect. When studied in combination, tramadol and each of two of the anticonvulsants (topiramate and RWJ-333369) interacted synergistically at all three ratios studied, whereas tramadol and each of the other two buy topamax online anticonvulsants (gabapentin and lamotrigine) exhibited a synergistic antiallodynic effect at only one of three ratios investigated. In addition, tramadol and topiramate were found to interact synergistically in a nociceptive pain model, the mouse hot-plate test. These studies suggest the benefit of using combinations of analgesics and anticonvulsants in the relief of neuropathic pain.

topamax user reviews 2017-07-12

There is a widespread epidemic of obesity in the United States, which has been associated with an increased buy topamax online risk of diabetes mellitus, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases. Although lifestyle modifications and long-term dietary vigilance remain cornerstones of weight reduction treatment, the continued availability of U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved pharmacotherapies has expanded the options available for the management of obesity. These agents include anorexiants, thermogenic drugs, and lipid-partitioning drugs. As knowledge regarding the possible causes of obesity increases, there are new drugs under investigation, which include beta3-adrenergic receptor agonists, modifiers of leptin, and cannabinoid receptor-1 antagonists (rimonabant). Also under investigation are antidiabetic agents (metformin, exenatide), anticonvulsant drugs (topiramate, zonisamide), antidepressants (bupropion, fluoxetine), and growth hormones. New targets for pharmacotherapy include uncoupling proteins, fatty acid synthase, neuropeptide Y, melanocortin, ghrelin, various regulatory gut peptides, and ciliary neurotropic factor. Pharmacologic agents are in clinical development that target these substances.

topamax 50mg medication 2017-03-01

The Lennox-Gastaut syndrome is an age-specific disorder, characterised by epileptic seizures, a characteristic electroencephalogram (EEG), psychomotor delay and personality disorders. It occurs more frequently in males and onset is usually before the age of eight with a peak between three and five years. Late cases occurring in adolescence and early adulthood have rarely been reported. Language is frequently affected with both slowness in ideation and expression in addition to difficulties of motor dysfunction. Severe behavioural disorders (for example hyperactivity, aggressiveness and autistic tendencies)and personality disorders are nearly always present. There is also a tendency for psychosis to develop with time. The long-term prognosis is poor; buy topamax online although the epilepsy often improves, complete seizure freedom is rare and conversely the mental and psychiatric disorders tend to worsen with time.

topamax 30 mg 2017-12-27

After TPM withdrawal, group performance appeared significantly improved in five of six tests administered. The scores of the control patients remained largely buy topamax online unchanged after drug reduction. After withdrawal, the scores of the TPM group did not differ significantly from the results of the control group whereas pronounced differences had been observed before. Individual improvement became apparent in the majority of patients. Cognitive performance was not correlated to current daily dosages/current blood serum levels of TPM.

topamax 75 mg 2016-12-09

21 patients were included (18 males, 4-14y, three symptomatic cases). At 3 months, sleep EEG was improved in 14 and normalized in four (TPM doses: 2-5.5 mg/kg/day). Among these 18 patients, 16 manifested cognitive or behavioural improvement. In a subgroup of seven patients with frequent seizures, five became seizure-free and one had over 75 buy topamax online % decrease in seizure frequency. At the one-year follow-up, 20 children were still on TPM and 10 exhibited persistent EEG improvement without any other AED being introduced, most of them with clinical benefits.

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This manuscript buy topamax online reviews large and well-designed trials of acupuncture for migraine prevention and also the effectiveness of acupuncture when tried against proven migraine preventative medications.

topamax good reviews 2015-09-09

There are cases with unknown etiology and symptomatic cases with a wide spectrum buy topamax online of etiologies. While children with LGS have a high frequency of generalized seizures, seizure activity tends to decrease somewhat in adulthood and the seizures may become more focal. The prognosis is usually poor. The adult patient with LGS is clearly affected by global encephalopathy and is typically characterized by bluntness, apathy, progressive cognitive failure and motoric deficits. Valproate has been the first-line treatment for many years, but newer antiepileptic drugs; such as lamotrigine, topiramate and rufinamide, have shown efficacy as add-on therapy. Overtreatment with antiepileptic drugs is common.

topamax 40 mg 2016-09-05

Migraineurs treated with topiramate often experience adverse effects, such as paresthesia, fatigue, memory difficulty, or taste perversion. To investigate correlations between side effects and drug efficacy, we analyzed for these in 133 migraineurs treated with topiramate (100 mg/day). A 4-week baseline screening phase preceded a 4-week titration period and a 20-week maintenance phase. A total of 118 patients were evaluated at 3 months and 89 patients at 6 months. Patients who developed paresthesia (n = 73) showed lower headache days than those who did not (n = 60) (P = 0.026 at 3 buy topamax online months, P = 0.002 at 6 months), and had a higher responder rate (3 months, 57.5% and 6 months, 65.8%) than those who did not develop paresthesia (3 months, 38.3% and 6 months, 41.7%). Moreover, retrospective analysis of patients that dropped out showed no survival bias between paresthesia and headache improvement. Other adverse effects were not found to correlate with drug efficacy. This study suggests that the development of paresthesia predicts a favorable response to topiramate in migraine prophylaxis.

topamax generic topiramate 2017-09-14

Since 90s of the XX century, there are experimental data available pointing to the caffeine-induced impairment of the protective activity of a number of antiepileptic drugs in basic models of epilepsy in rodents. Acute caffeine, in doses far below its convulsive potential (almost 10-20 fold lower than the ED50 of the methylxanthine of 2.03 mmol/kg for the induction buy topamax online of seizures), produced a significant reduction in the anticonvulsant effects of carbamazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, and valproate against maximal electroshock-induced seizures in mice. This interaction was pharmacodynamic in nature since caffeine did not affect the plasma concentrations of these anti-epileptics. Interestingly, there was no tolerance to this hazardous effect of caffeine since its administration at the same dosages (0.12-0.24 mmollkg) also resulted in the impairment of the protection provided by antiepileptic drugs, this effect being even more pronounced in the case of phenobarbital and carbamazepine. In case of newer antiepileptics, both acute and chronic caffeine decreased the protective potential of gabapentin and topiramate but not that of lamotrigine and tiagabine.

topamax reviews migraine 2016-08-23

Recent studies have shown that exposure to hyperoxia in infant rats buy topamax online leads to extensive apoptotic degeneration in the cortex and white matter of the developing brain. Besides its antiepileptic effects, topiramate exerts neuroprotective effects in animal models of stroke, hypoxia ischemia, excitotoxic insults, and status epilepticus. In the present study, we investigated the effects of topiramate against hyperoxia-induced neurodegeneration in the developing brain. Eighteen Wistar rat pups were divided into three groups: control group, hyperoxia+phosphate buffered saline treated group and hyperoxia+topiramate treated group. Hyperoxia groups were exposed to 80% oxygen (n=12) in plexiglas chambers in which the oxygen concentration was monitored twice daily from birth until postnatal day five. The hyperoxia+topiramate group received an intraperitoneal injection of topiramate at a dose of 80 mg/kg/day. At postnatal day 5, all animals were killed. Neuronal cell death and apoptosis were evaluated. Histopathological examination showed that topiramate significantly diminished apoptosis in the CA1 region and dentate gyrus of hippocampus. Topiramate may offer a therapeutic potential for neuroprotection under conditions of hyperoxic brain injury.

topamax off brand 2017-12-22

Twenty-six percent of patients had a metabolic acidosis (serum bicarbonate <20 mmol/l). The mean serum bicarbonate of patients taking topiramate was significantly lower than those taking zonisamide (P=0.002). We found no association between serum bicarbonate and the dose of drug or the duration of treatment. Serum bicarbonate levels were associated with the CA type XII SNPs rs2306719 (P=0.006 by one-way analysis of variance) and rs4984241 (P=0.015), but this association Glucotrol Xl Dose was not strong enough to survive correction for multiple testing.

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Neuropathic cranial pain, i.e. pain due to central or peripheral nervous system damage localized in cranial area, is a clinical challenge for the neurologist. Despite major Vermox Online advances in knowledge of physiology and biochemistry of pain, relief for many patients suffering from neuropathic pain remains incomplete. Adjuvant analgesics play a key role in the management of neuropathic pain. The introduction in the therapeutical armamentarium of antiepileptic drugs and the results derived from clinical studies indicate that some of these compounds show promise in the treatment of neuropathic pain.

migraine medication topamax 2015-07-19

The past decade has seen an expansion of research and knowledge on pharmacotherapy for the treatment of alcohol dependence. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved medications naltrexone and acamprosate have shown mixed results in clinical trials. Oral naltrexone and naltrexone depot formulations have generally demonstrated efficacy at treating alcohol dependence, but their treatment effect size is small, and more research is needed to compare the effects of different doses on drinking outcome. Acamprosate has demonstrated efficacy for treating alcohol dependence in European trials, but with a small effect size. In U.S. trials, acamprosate has not proved to be efficacious. Research continues to explore which types of alcohol-dependent individual would benefit the most from treatment with naltrexone or acamprosate. The combination of the two medications demonstrated efficacy for treating alcohol dependence in one European study but not in a Lasix 30 Mg multi-site U.S. study. Another FDA-approved medication, disulfiram, is an aversive agent that does not diminish craving for alcohol. Disulfiram is most effective when given to those who are highly compliant or who are receiving their medication under supervision. Of the non-approved medications, topiramate is among the most promising, with a medium effect size in clinical trials. Another promising medication, baclofen, has shown efficacy in small trials. Serotonergic agents such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and the serotonin-3 receptor antagonist, ondansetron, appear to be efficacious only among certain genetic subtypes of alcoholic. As neuroscientific research progresses, other promising medications, as well as medication combinations, for treating alcohol dependence continue to be explored.

topamax 25 mg 2016-06-17

These results provide additional support for an antagonistic effect of TPM on some types of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-proprionic acid (AMPA) and/or kainate receptors, and specifically suggest that TPM interacts with a Ca2+-permeable non-NMDA receptor that is Generic Cialis Usa developmentally regulated. This observation may provide insight into the molecular biology underlying the pathophysiology of seizure disorders and antiepileptic drug resistance.

topamax xr dosage 2015-05-27

To assess pregnancy outcomes on women exposed to monotherapy with antiepileptic Cordarone Tab Uses agents.

topamax medication 2015-08-25

Since antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are prescribed to treat various non-epilepsy-related disorders in addition to the fact that patients with epilepsy may develop concurrent disorders that will need treatment, the propensity for AEDs to interact with non-AEDs is considerable and indeed can present a difficult clinical problem. The present review details the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions that have been reported to occur with the new AEDs (eslicarbazepine acetate, felbamate, gabapentin, lacosamide, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, perampanel, pregabalin, retigabine (ezogabine), rufinamide, stiripentol, tiagabine, topiramate, vigabatrin and zonisamide) and drugs used to treat non-epilepsy disorders. Interaction study details are described, as necessary, so as to allow the reader to take a view as to the possible clinical significance of particular interactions. Pharmacokinetic interactions relate to hepatic enzyme induction or inhibition and involved a variety of drugs including psychoactive drugs, cardioactive drugs, oral contraceptives, antituberculous agents, analgesics and antineoplastic drugs. A total of 68 pharmacokinetic interactions have been described, with lamotrigine (n = 22), topiramate (n = 18) and oxcarbazepine (n Generic Combivir Launch  = 7) being associated with most, whilst lacosamide, pregabalin, stiripentol and vigabatrin are associated with none. Overall, only three pharmacodynamic interactions have been described and occur with oxcarbazepine, perampanel and pregabalin.

topamax diet pill 2016-01-30

• Topiramate increases the rewarding properties of cocaine in CPP • Topiramate alters dopaminergic signaling in the mesolimbic circuit • Topiramate delays the extinction of cocaine-induced CPP • TH and DAT gene expression in the VTA decreases with topiramate and/or with cocaine • Results show that it should limit the use Imitrex Mg of topiramate in cocaine-dependent subjects.

topamax pill 2015-01-10

To evaluate whether topiramate use is Alcohol And Neurontin associated with clinical benefit in IBD patients.

topamax dosing 2015-10-31

Recent studies have shown that topiramate, a structurally novel anticonvulsant, exerts antinociceptive activity in animal models of neuropathic, acute somatic, and visceral pain. This study was aimed to examine: (i) the effects of systemically and locally peripherally administered topiramate in the rat inflammatory pain model and (ii) the potential role and site(s) of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), opioid, and adrenergic receptors in topiramate's antihyperalgesia. Rats received intraplantar ( injections of the pro-inflammatory compound carrageenan. A paw pressure test was used to determine: (i) the effect of systemic and local peripheral topiramate on carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia and (ii) the effects of systemic and local peripheral bicuculline (selective GABAA receptor antagonist), naloxone (nonselective opioid receptor antagonist), and yohimbine (selective α2-adrenergic receptor antagonist) on topiramate-induced antihyperalgesia. Systemic topiramate (40-160 mg/kg; p.o.) produced a significant dose-dependent reduction in the paw inflammatory hyperalgesia induced by carrageenan. The antihyperalgesic effect of systemic topiramate was significantly decreased by systemic bicuculline (0.5-1 mg/ Cefixime 400mg Capsule kg; i.p.), naloxone (2-5 mg/kg; i.p.), and yohimbine (1-3 mg/kg; i.p.). Local peripheral topiramate (0.03-0.34 mg/paw; also produced significant dose-dependent antihyperalgesia, which was significantly depressed by local peripheral yohimbine (0.05-0.2 mg/paw; but not by local peripheral bicuculline (0.15 mg/paw; or naloxone (0.1 mg/paw; The results suggest that topiramate produces systemic and local peripheral antihyperalgesia in an inflammatory pain model, which is, at least partially, mediated by central GABAA and opioid receptors and by peripheral and most probably central α2-adrenergic receptors. These findings contribute to better understanding of topiramate's action in pain states involving inflammation.

topamax medicine 2016-05-17

Uptake of radiolabeled carnitine by human placental brush-border membrane vesicles was measured in the absence and presence of tiagabine (TGB Tofranil Tablet ), vigabatrin (VGB), gabapentin (GBP), lamotrigine (LTG), topiramate (TPM), valproic acid (VPA), and phenytoin (PHT). The mechanism of the inhibitory action of TGB was determined.

topamax 20 mg 2017-08-13

Topiramate was rapidly absorbed, with a median time to maximal concentration of 1 h and an oral bioavailability of ~100%. Baseline COWA score increased by an average of 12% after the third administration on drug-free sessions. An exponential model described the decline of COWA scores, which decreased by 14.5% for each 1 mg l(-1) increase in TPM concentration. The COWA scores were described equally well by both continuous normal and Poisson distributions.

topamax buy online 2017-04-03

During the double-blind phase of the study, monthly migraine frequency and intensity were significantly decreased in both the cinnarizine and topiramate groups when compared to the baseline. However, at the end of the study, the cinnarizine group exhibits a significant decrease from the baseline in the mean monthly migraine intensity when compared to the topiramate group (4.7 vs. 3, respectively; 95% CI = -0.8 to -3.2).

topamax drug classification 2016-01-28

To determine topiramate's effects on acute physiological and subjective responses to intravenous (IV) nicotine in overnight abstinent smokers.

topamax generic name 2017-09-21

Lifestyle interventions remain the treatment of choice in pediatric obesity, but concomitant pharmacotherapy may be beneficial in some patients. Orlistat should be considered as second-line therapy for pediatric obesity. Evidence suggests that other diabetes and antiepileptic medications may also provide weight-loss benefits, but safety should be further evaluated.

topamax 15 mg 2016-06-18

Ion channels are targets of various antiepileptic drugs. In cerebral presynaptic nerve endings Na(+) and Ca(2+) channels are particularly abundant, as they control neurotransmitter release, including the release of glutamate (Glu), the most concentrated excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter in the brain. Several pre-synaptic channels are implicated in the mechanism of action of the pro-convulsive agent, 4-aminopyridine (4-AP). In the present study the effects of levetiracetam and other established and newer (vinpocetine) anti-epileptic drugs, as well as of the anti-depressant, sertraline on the increase in Ca(2+) induced by 4-AP in hippocampal isolated nerve endings were investigated. Also the effects of some of the anti-seizure drugs on the selective increase in Ca(2+) induced by high K(+), or on the selective increase in Na(+) induced by veratridine were tested. Sertraline and vinpocetine effectively inhibited the rise in Ca(2+) induced by 4-AP, which was dependent on the out-in Na(+) gradient and tetrodotoxin sensitive. Carbamazepine, phenytoin, lamotrigine and oxcarbazepine inhibited the rise in Ca(2+) induced by 4-AP too, but at higher concentrations than sertraline and vinpocetine, whereas levetiracetam, valproic acid and topiramate did not. The three latter antiepileptic drugs also failed in modifying other responses mediated by the activation of brain presynaptic Na(+) or Ca(2+) channels, including Glu release. This indicates that levetiracetam, valproic acid and topiramate mechanisms of action are unrelated with a decrease in presynaptic Na(+) or Ca(2+) channels permeability. It is concluded that depolarized cerebral isolated nerve endings represent a useful tool to unmask potential antiepileptic drugs targeting presynaptic Na(+) and/or Ca(2+) channels in the brain; such as vinpocetine or the anti-depressant sertraline, which high effectiveness to control seizures in the animal in vivo has been demonstrated.