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Usage of antiviral medication hypothetically reduces the likelihood of HG outbreaks. This is an observational study examining the effectiveness of oral antiviral medications in reducing outbreaks of HG because of Herpes Simplex type-1 virus (HSV).
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Administration of valacyclovir beginning at 36 weeks' gestation to women with a history of recurrent genital HSV reduced the number of women with subsequent clinical HSV recurrences.
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In addition to the atypical clinical presentation, the serological assays for HSV were negative using ELISA at the time of diagnosis of ARN and 1 year after. HSV2 infection was confirmed by using polymerase chain reaction of aqueous humor specimen and in situ hybridization of a retinal biopsy. Retrospective analysis with the Western blot technique detected low titers of anti-HSV antibodies, when the sera were concentrated 5-fold.
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Data are part of the Scandinavian Bell's palsy study. The facial function of 1920 patients with peripheral facial palsy was assessed 5397 times with both Sunnybrook and House-Brackmann (H-B) facial grading systems. Grading was done at initial visit, at days 11 to 17 of palsy onset, and at 1 month, 2 months, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months. Statistical evaluation was by Spearman correlation coefficient and box plot analysis.
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Nocturnal asthma (NA) is increasing in prevalence, affecting millions of people Genital herpes is a widespread sexually transmitted infection caused by the herpes simplex viruses (HSV). Suppressive valacyclovir therapy has been shown to significantly reduce HSV transmission. The benefits and costs of using valacyclovir to reduce transmission in couples discordant for genital herpes will be analyzed in order to better inform decision-making. By reducing transmission, the physical and psychological harms of living with symptomatic genital herpes will be prevented while saving on certain healthcare costs. However, the large number needed to treat and the low symptomatic rate among infected individuals may outweigh these benefits. The costs of trying to achieve a significant reduction in incidence include the psychological harms of identifying asymptomatic individuals through a large screening program and the economic costs of the antiviral agent and screening. When these issues are weighed, the high economic costs render a program to reduce incidence unfeasible. Nevertheless, it is clinically important to consider the consequences of transmission at an individual level. The specific circumstances that influence the decision to use suppressive therapy are identified.
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RTx recipients at risk of CMV were randomized to pre-emptive therapy with valganciclovir (n=36) for significant CMV viraemia (> or =2,000 copies/ml by quantitative PCR in whole blood samples) or 3-month prophylaxis with valacyclovir (n=34). Renal biopsies performed during 12 months post-RTx were analysed for the presence of CMV by real-time PCR and immunohistochemical staining.
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Orally administered ASP2151 reduced the epithelial keratitis score significantly more than that of the vehicle-treated group (p<0.01). It also lowered the HSV-DNA levels in the tears significantly more than that by valacyclovir (p<0.01). ASP2151 ointment resulted in the same reduction of the keratitis score as acyclovir ointment, and lowered the HSV DNA in tears more than acyclovir ointment. Topical instillation of ASP2151 improved the herpetic dendritic keratitis score significantly and reduced the titre of HSV DNA in the tears in a dose-responsive way.
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The aim of the current study was to investigate whether multiple oral dosing of valacyclovir could result in plasma concentrations exceeding the EC(50)-value of acyclovir against equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV1) during the majority of the treatment period. Additionally, we wanted to determine the concentration of acyclovir in nasal mucus and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Valacyclovir was administered to four horses and two ponies, three times daily, at a dosage of 40 mg/kg, for four consecutive days. Blood was collected prior to each administration and 1 h after dosing. Nasal mucus samples and CSF were collected once during treatment; 1 h after the last administration. This dosage regimen resulted in plasma concentrations that were higher than the EC(50)-value of 1.7 microg/mL, i.e. EC(50) of an isolate highly susceptible to acyclovir, for 80% of the treatment period; and higher than the EC(50)-value of 3.0 microg/mL, i.e. EC(50) of an isolate less susceptible to acyclovir, for 60% of the treatment period. Concentration in nasal mucus samples and CSF was 0.36-1.17 microg/mL and 0.11-0.23 microg/mL, respectively. This study illustrates that multiple dosing of valacyclovir may result in a therapeutic benefit as plasma concentrations could be maintained above the EC(50)-value of acyclovir against EHV1 for more than 50% of the treatment period. Acyclovir could be detected in both nasal mucus samples and CSF. However, these concentrations were lower than the EC(50).
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Eight consecutive patients with newly diagnosed ARN treated solely with oral antiviral medications.
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Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoma may arise secondary to angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL). The prognosis is poor despite chemotherapy and experimental therapies. We report on a 40-year-old woman with AITL without obvious immunodeficiency in which EBV-associated lymphoma developed. The occurrence and size of enlarged lymph nodes correlated strongly with the EBV load in serum (EBVL). Treatment with valacyclovir at the early stage resulted in a drastic more than 3 log10 decrease of EBVL and complete remission. However, valacyclovir had to be stopped after 6 months due to side effects, and the lymphoma reoccurred 3 months later associated with increasing EBVL. Eventually started cytotoxic chemo- and anti-CD20 therapy resulted only in partial remission. The lymphoma progressed and 33 months after it was diagnosed the patient died. This case report demonstrates the close association of EBVL and AITL and a beneficial effect of antiviral therapy at an initial stage of disease manifestation.
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This study reports a retrospective, interventional case series of nine consecutive patients with ten eyes with newly diagnosed ARN treated with oral valacyclovir as the sole antiviral agent. Eight patients received oral valacyclovir 2 g tid (Valtrex, GlaxoSmithKline) and one patient with impaired renal function received oral 1 g tid. The main outcome measures were response to treatment, time to initial response to treatment, time to complete resolution of retinitis, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at final follow-up, retinal detachment and development of recurrent or second eye disease.
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Cumulative incidence rates of herpesvirus infections using the Kaplan-Meier method and risk factors for herpesvirus infections during the first year of DM using Cox proportional hazards models.
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It has previously been shown that the prodrug Glu(acyclovir)-Sar has a high affinity for PEPT1 in Caco-2 cells. However, affinity does not necessarily lead to translocation by the transporter which is necessary for achieving an increased oral bioavailability. Therefore i.v. and p.o. doses of Glu(acyclovir)-Sar, acyclovir and valacyclovir were given to rats and the collected blood samples were analysed via LC-MS-MS. Furthermore, Caco-2 cell monolayers were exposed apically to Glu(acyclovir)-Sar, acyclovir, and valacyclovir and the concentration of drug and prodrugs in the cell extracts were determined and taken as a measure for intracellular accumulation. In addition, bi-directional transport studies of Glu(acyclovir)-Sar across Caco-2 cell monolayers and in vitro metabolism studies of Glu(acyclovir)-Sar in various media of rat origin were performed. For these purposes HPLC-UV analysis was applied. Oral administration of Glu(acyclovir)-Sar to rats resulted in low bioavailabilities of acyclovir (<2%) and intact prodrug (<5%). Studies performed on Caco-2 cell monolayers showed that in contrast to valacyclovir Glu(acyclovir)-Sar did not result in a detectable amount of acyclovir or Glu(acyclovir)-Sar in the cell extracts. Bi-directional flux across Caco-2 cell monolayers apical to basolateral (FluxA-->B) and basolateral to apical (FluxB-->A) was measured and the FluxB-->A/FluxA-->B ratios of approximately 0.8 indicate that apical efflux mechanisms may not explain this lack of intracellular accumulation. These data indicate that Glu(acyclovir)-Sar may not be translocated by PEPT1.
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Oral herpes simplex virus, or HSV, infections recur after trauma and stress. The prevalence of these infections after dental procedures is not known. Also, it is unclear whether antiviral agents are effective in preventing dental procedure-induced HSV recurrences. This study determined the efficacy and safety of oral valacyclovir in suppressing dentally related cold sore outbreak and HSV shedding.
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This review will discuss vaccination strategies and the current status of antivirals against VZV. A live attenuated vaccine, Varivax, is available for pediatric varicella while Zostavax was developed to boost VZV-specific cell-mediated immunity in adults older than 60 years and, via this mechanism, to decrease the burden of herpes zoster and pain associated with post-herpetic neuralgia. Despite the availability of a vaccine, there is a need for new antiviral agents. Current drugs approved for the treatment of VZV infections include nucleoside analogs that target the viral DNA polymerase and depend on the viral thymidine kinase. Novel anti-VZV drugs have recently been evaluated in clinical trials, including the bicyclic nucleoside analog FV-100, the helicase-primase inhibitor ASP2151 and valomaciclovir (prodrug of the acyclic guanosine derivative H2G).
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ACV and VCV electrotransport experiments were conducted using excised porcine skin in vitro.
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A 58-year old lady under active follow-up with the respiratory services at our institution for bronchiectasis secondary to hypogammaglobulinaemia presented with hoarseness and haemoptysis. She was also receiving rituximab maintenance therapy for follicular lymphoma. Bronchoscopy demonstrated vesicular lesions on her vocal cords and trachea, confirmed as herpes simplex virus (HSV) on cytological analysis of brushings. She responded well to intravenous valacyclovir. Rituximab is increasingly utilised in the treatment of haematological and auto-immune disorders. This case highlights the potential of this drug to potentiate susceptibility to infection in an already immunocompromised individual.
The objective was to obtain preliminary pharmacokinetic data for acyclovir from gravid women receiving herpes simplex virus suppressive therapy with the acyclovir prodrug valacyclovir.
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The IC50 for HSV-1 W was determined to be 2.9 microg/ml. The administration of both 100 mg/kg/day (group II) and 150 mg/kg/day (group III) of valacyclovir significantly reduced the number of eyes from which latent HSV-1 was recovered compared with the control group. There was no difference between the control group and group I (50 mg/kg/day valacyclovir). However, all three valacyclovir dosages significantly reduced the total number of HSV-1 shedding days compared with the control group, and 100% HSV-1 TG latency was demonstrated for all four groups.
To determine efficacy of using oral antiviral medication to reduce herpes gladiatorum (HG) at summer high-school wrestling camps.
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A 51-year-old man with multiple sclerosis developed acute retinal necrosis during treatment with natalizumab. The patient was successfully managed with natalizumab discontinuation, oral valacyclovir, and prophylactic laser retinal photocoagulation. A few months after natalizumab interruption and 1 month after valacyclovir completion, the patient presented with an episode of presumed noninfectious anterior and intermediate uveitis, which responded well to oral steroid mini-pulse therapy.