A university-affiliated medical center in Taiwan.
Aqueous was obtained from 105 of 106 eligible eyes. Twenty-four eyes demonstrated positive results for CMV (22.8%). Eighteen eyes had Posner-Schlossman syndrome (PSS; 75%) at presentation, five eyesba had Fuchs heterochromic iridocyclitis (FHI; 20.8%), and one eye had a presumed herpetic anterior uveitis. Twelve of the 24 eyes were treated with ganciclovir. Of the 12 who completed treatment, all responded clinically, and their aqueous demonstrated negative results for CMV on repeat testing. However, nine had recurrences within eight months of stopping treatment and required further courses of ganciclovir. The 81 CMV-negative eyes included 30 with PSS, 11 with FHI, 27 with uveitic glaucomas of unknown cause, and 13 with presumed herpetic anterior uveitis.
zovirax oral buy
We evaluated genital ulcer disease (GUD) and HSV-2-associated GUD at quarterly visits or when spontaneously reported at monthly visits in 3381 HIV/HSV-2-coinfected individuals in a placebo-controlled trial of suppressive acyclovir therapy to prevent HIV transmission, 349 of whom initiated ART during the study. Incidence was calculated for months before and after ART initiation, and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were calculated.
zovirax generic brand
Although considerable attention has been directed in the field of gene therapy toward elucidating the mechanism by which a transduced cell could kill a bystander cell, little is known about how bystander cells may affect transduced cells. We hypothesized that bystander cells, particularly if they were capable of gap junctional communication, could protect cells transduced with the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) from ganciclovir (GCV)-induced cytotoxicity. To test this hypothesis, we used a rat hepatocyte cell line (WB) that can carry out efficient gap junctional communication, a WB clone transduced with HSV-TK (WB-TK), and a communication-incompetent subclone of WB cells (aB1). We cocultured WB-TK cells with either WB or aB1 cells, treated them with GCV, and then plated the cells into selective media that permitted us to quantify independently the surviving fraction of WB-TK cells or bystander cells. We found that WB bystander cells conferred up to a 1000-fold protection on WB-TK cells treated with GCV. aB1 cells conferred detectable, but significantly less, protection. These findings demonstrate that herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase-transduced cells can be significantly protected by bystander cells, particularly those that can carry out gap junctional communication. Whether this "Good Samaritan" effect improves the overall efficacy of gene therapy, by prolonging the survival of the source of toxic metabolites, or decreases effectiveness by increasing the survival of transduced cells will need to be determined in vivo.
To perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of strategies to prevent cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease.
zovirax 400 dosage
The number of responding practitioners was too small in this study to provide a representative sample. This study will be renewed with a larger sample of GOs in order to obtain reliable data. For general practitioners, there is a need for education concerning management of cutaneomucosal herpes which should be provided at the same time as the consensus conference guidelines are distributed.
zovirax 800mg tablet
The clinical course, the laboratory findings, the therapy, and the outcome regarding a 14-year-old girl are described.
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a common infectious complication after solid organ transplantation (SOT) and is associated with the increased risk of opportunistic infections and allograft rejection, as well as decreased patient survival. Ganciclovir has been the mainstay antiviral agent for prevention and treatment of CMV; however, its clinical use is hampered by the poor oral bioavailability and the need for intravenous access. Valganciclovir, an oral prodrug of ganciclovir, is up to 10 times more bioavailable than oral ganciclovir and has replaced ganciclovir as a first-line agent in the management of CMV in adult SOT patients.
zovirax 600 mg
Acyclovir prophylaxis has an impact on fever development, but not on the duration of fever or the need for antibiotics. It does not reduce the incidence of bacteremia, but the presentation of acute oral infections is changed.
zovirax and alcohol
We reviewed 720 RTx recipients between 2007 and 2009. We examined the serostatus of the donor and recipient before transplantation using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and diagnosed CMV infections in recipients by CMV DNA detection with a polymerase chain reaction.
The use of medication, at the time of induction therapy or at the earliest sign of viremia. Treatments were evaluated by patient and donor serologic groups and the induction regimen used.
zovirax 200mg capsule
The objective of this review was to evaluate the effectiveness of systemic acyclovir for primary herpetic gingivostomatitis.
zovirax drug class
There was an overall trend toward an improvement of visual acuity. Graft failure occurred in 13.1%, in all cases after termination of immunosuppression with MMF or CSA. In 4 of 11 cases, immune reactions caused graft failure. Patients with 3 to 4 quadrants of corneal vascularization showed significantly higher rates of graft rejection than patients with 1 to 2 quadrants vascularized or avascular corneas. Herpetic recurrence occurred in 31.8% and caused 18.2% of graft failure. In 7 of 23 cases, graft rejection was induced by herpetic recurrence.
zovirax tablets price
Studies have suggested that exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light may increase risk of herpes simplex virus (HSV) recurrence. Between 1993 and 1997, the Herpetic Eye Disease Study (HEDS) randomized 703 participants with ocular HSV to receipt of acyclovir or placebo for prevention of ocular HSV recurrence. Of these, 308 HEDS participants (48% female and 85% white; median age, 49 years) were included in a nested study of exposures thought to cause recurrence and were followed for up to 15 months. We matched weekly UV index values from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration to each participant's study center and used marginal structural Cox models to account for time-varying psychological stress and contact lens use and selection bias from dropout. There were 44 recurrences of ocular HSV, yielding an incidence of 4.3 events per 1,000 person-weeks. Weighted hazard ratios comparing persons with ≥8 hours of time outdoors to those with less exposure were 0.84 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.27, 2.63) and 3.10 (95% CI: 1.14, 8.48) for weeks with a UV index of <4 and ≥4, respectively (ratio of hazard ratios = 3.68, 95% CI: 0.43, 31.4). Though results were imprecise, when the UV index was higher (i.e., ≥4), spending 8 or more hours per week outdoors was associated with increased risk of ocular HSV recurrence.
zovirax tablets cost
These studies were undertaken to determine the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of suicide gene therapy using adenoviral-mediated herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (ADV/RSV-tk) and the prodrug ganciclovir (GCV) in an orthotopic murine bladder cancer model. We utilized a replication-defective adenoviral construct containing the beta-galactosidase gene as a control and the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene as the therapeutic vector under the transcription control of the Rous sarcoma virus long terminal repeat promoter. Intravesically created, orthotopic bladder tumors were established in syngeneic C3H/He female mice. India ink injection and beta-galactosidase studies were performed to determine if transurethral administration, direct tumor injection, or the combination was the most efficient route of virus administration. Optimal dosing of ADV/RSV-tk was determined by direct tumor injection with increasing viral doses and treatment with GCV. Treatment efficacy, long-term survival, and toxicity were determined in separate but similar controlled experiments. Growth curve studies demonstrated reliable tumor formation by 14 days. Direct transvesical tumor injection resulted in the best distribution and intratumor gene expression as measured by X-gal staining. Dose-ranging experiments demonstrated an optimal viral dose of 5 x 10(8) plaque-forming units and a greater than twofold reduction in tumor growth for the animals treated with ADV/RSV-tk compared to controls. Efficacy studies demonstrated a greater than threefold reduction in tumor growth. No clinical or gross pathologic toxicity was detected. Long-term survival results suggested a survival benefit for the treatment animals compared to controls. We conclude that ADV/RSV-tk in combination with GCV provides effective therapy for orthotopic murine bladder cancer by significantly inhibiting tumor growth with limited toxicity to the host. These data provide further support for testing this suicide gene therapy strategy in human Phase I trials.
zovirax topical cost
IL-2 is an important cytokine that is capable of inducing both proliferation and apoptosis of activated T cells. CD4 T cells are thought to be the major producers of IL-2, but CD8 T cells also produce copious amounts of this cytokine. However, our current understanding regarding the kinetics of IL-2 production by antigen-specific CD8 T cells, and the proportion of these cells that produce IL-2 in vivo, is extremely limited. We now demonstrate that virus-specific CD8 T cells initiate IL-2 production by 6 h post-infection and prior to cell division in vivo. Interestingly, peak levels of IL-2 production were achieved very early during the response and prior to the proliferative peak. We also show -- using transgenic mice expressing herpes simplex virus-1 thymidine kinase under the control of the IL-2 promoter -- that, unlike what has been reported for antigen-specific CD4 T cells, the majority of antigen-specific CD8 T cells produce IL-2 during primary as well as secondary immune responses in vivo.
Mouse liver cancer MM45T. Li (H-2d) cells were transfected with retroviral vector containing IL-12 gene or HSV/TK gene insert. Gene-modified liver cancer cells, MM45T. Li/IL-12 and MM45T. Li/TK, with stable expression of IL-12 and TK were obtained. Balb/c mice were inoculated subcutaneously with 2 x 10(5) MM45T. Li Cells. When the tumor reached a size of 0.5-1.0 cm, a mixture of MM45T. Li/TK cells and 60Co-irradiated MM45T. Li/IL-12 cell were injected intratumoraly. Ganciclovir (GCV) was injected i.p. (40 mg.kg-1.d-1) for 10 days. Intratumoral injection of 60Co-irradiated MM45T. Li/IL-12 cells was repeated twice in one week apart. Mice with distant tumors were treated according to the same protocol. CTL activity of spleen cells was measured by 51Cr-release assay and phenotype of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes by immunohistochemical staining.
zovirax drug classification
Further research is warranted to better understand the role of confocal microscopy in endotheliitis therapeutic management, endothelial cell count and morphology, and keratic precipitate characterization. To date, prophylactic oral antivirals and/or topical corticosteroids may play a role in immune suppression of the herpes virus, although prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trials have not focused specifically on endotheliitis cases.
zovirax ointment dosage
None of the CMV tested strains was resistant to GCV or FOS; however, six patients who had relapses of chorioretinitis while on maintenance therapy and isolation during the condition had mean ID50 of strains (n=8) of 1,95 M for GCV (standard deviation [SD] of 0.71) and 115.2 for FOS (SD, 34.7). These patients responded well when drugs were used at induction doses.
zovirax pills review
Aciclovir (CAS 59277-89-3) is frequently used in herpes simplex virus diseases, but administration to lactating women occurs only rarely. Therefore, information about the pharmacokinetics of aciclovir in human breast milk is limited. The concentration in breast milk is 2 to 3 fold increased compared to plasma. The reason for this increase is unknown until now. An active transport mechanism has been assumed. The aim of this study was to prove whether the higher concentration of aciclovir in human breast milk is due to only a passive transfer. Two chambers separated by a semipermeable membrane were used. The first chamber contained plasma with aciclovir, the second chamber breast milk without aciclovir. The increase in aciclovir concentration in the second chamber was determined. The concentration of aciclovir in breast milk exceeded that of plasma after 2 h and reached a higher concentration. Thus, the higher aciclovir concentration in human breast milk is due to passive diffusion. No active transport mechanism is needed.
zovirax 500 mg
Herpes simplex thymidine kinase/ganciclovir (HSVtk/GCV) gene therapy has been used for the treatment of a variety of cancers. Its efficacy is enhanced by the bystander effect that helps overcome the delivery problems commonly observed in current gene therapy. Connexins encode proteins that produce gap junctions, which enable intercellular communication and the bystander effect. We previously demonstrated that decreased Cx 26 expression and loss of gap junctional intercellular communication were associated with human bladder cancer. To investigate the efficacy of the bystander effect in HSVtk/GCV gene therapy, the Cx 26 gene was introduced into UM-UC-3 and UM-UC-14 bladder cancer cell lines by an adenovirus poly-L-lysine conjugate using a multigenic expression plasmid that expressed both the HSVtk and Cx 26 genes. We found significantly increased cytotoxicity in HSVtk/GCV gene therapy after introduction of the HSVtk and Cx 26 genes together compared with the cytotoxicity seen after introduction of the HSVtk gene and LacZ genes in vitro and in vivo. Cytotoxicity correlated with Cx 26 expression and the induction of functional gap junctions. This study indicates that combination gene therapy with co-expression of the HSVtk and Cx 26 genes potentiates HSVtk/GCV gene therapy through the bystander effect.